30 THE QUESTION OF IDENTITY AND BELONGING IN GHADA KARMI’S IN SERACH. 30 THE QUESTION OF IDENTITY AND BELONGING IN GHADA KARMI’S IN SERACH.
THE QUESTION OF IDENTITY AND BELONGING IN GHADA KARMI’S IN SERACH OF FATIMA
Background of the study 4
Statement of purpose 7
Significance of the study. 9
Review of literature 11
Definition of Key Terms 12
Methodology and materials 13
Anticipated findings 14
Thesis outline 15
Chapter one: the forms of exile experienced by Palestine and their contribution and impact on the loss of identity and belonging. 16
Chapter two: the exile and national identity of Palestinians living in the Diaspora 23
The question of identity under the umbrella of the diasporic subject has become the most important entity of the modern age with which created new social, political, and economic aspects from the result of the diasporic space. This diasporic space created a new way for those who experienced lost identity and a sense of belonging. This research explores the identity crisis of diasporas and their sense of belonging by living in the host country in Gharda Karmi’s literary work, In Search of Fatima. The research paper argues Ghada Karmi, a marginalized writer, depicted one of the best pictures of the lost identity and sense of belonging in the diasporic field. This is intended to be achieved by detailing in-depth all the facets and possible instances in Karmi’s literary work that contain and bring out a clear indication of identity and belonging. By following Brah’s concept of native superiorized diasporic space: a diversion of the interpretation of the natives. However, this thesis is not limited to Brah’s concept but will equally entail the interpretations of other different writers.
Keywords: Diaspora, diasporic space, identity, belonging, native, exile, exiled.
Background of the study
Different writers and literature professionals such as AZIM (2016) spent quality time conducting different sorts of research on Gharda Karmi’s literary work on various themes and topics to understand the society and those present in the society then. However, it is important to understand that every writer and researcher looking into the literary work of Gharda had their own opinion and understanding on different topics such as understanding the national identity construction in exile, the various forms of exiles, among other literary works by different authors. For instance, two authors wrote and produced exile literary pieces, Edward Said and Rema Hammami. According to these two authors, there are different kinds of the Palestinian experience, which cannot all be assembled into one. Edward remarked that one would have to write parallel histories of the communities in Lebanon, the Occupied Territories, and so many more, which forms the central problem. It is almost impossible to imagine a single narrative. Edward further denoted in the literary piece that Palestine has always played a unique role in the imagination and in the political will of the West, which is where by common agreement, modern Zionism also originated. The author reckoned this while talking about the monotheistic faiths in Palestine, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. According to Edward, Palestine was the prize of the Crusades and a place whose very name and the persistent historical naming and renaming of the place have been an issue of doctrinal importance AZIM (2016). To call the place “Palestine” instead of ‘Israel” or “Zion” is an issue that that could cause consequential political interpretation. According to the two authors, since the inception of the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the fundamental laws of the Israeli state have institutionalized discrimination and racism against non-Jewish inhabitants, with over thirty laws that explicitly privilege Jews over non-Jews in the geographical location.
Again, the initial mentioned author, Edward Said, in his different writings about Palestine comes into view. In his articles, the author depicts Palestine as a genre in one way in which a primary Western readership has access to a nuanced portrait of the historical and contemporary socio-political landscape of the nation and its Diaspora and its Diasporic space. The author explains how the nation was initially inhabited by diversified social communities, including Christianity, Muslims, Jews, and a great combination of the three. In his literary works and other encounters, such as reviews of the same proceeds, Edward explains how these three monotheistic communities are disrupted and turned against each other after war erupted in 1947. It is important to note that between the years 1516 and 1831, Palestine was under Ottoman rule, and under the British governance between 1841 and 1917, a time in history that was marked by conflicts in the nation, after the British came to an agreement that the nation was to be divided int two countries; Jewish and Arab states. This, however, was rejected by the Palestinian Arabs yet accepted by the Jewish Agency (Salam & Abualadas 2020). This misunderstanding arose a conflict than any other, which led to the exile of nearly 400,000 Palestinians from the nation to the Diaspora, which marked a new journey of attaining new identities while losing their identity simultaneously, with the consequent whole new life in the Diaspora. In one way or another, Edward Said’s literature writings are an essential part of this thesis, as they form and bring forth both a political understanding and other primary reflections of how the Palestinians lost their identity and belonging and how being in the Diasporic space has molded them in terms of the personality (under all facets) as well as identity (under all aspects). Other researchers and commentators on such literary works, particularly those touching on the identity and belonging of Palestinians in the Diaspora and the Diasporic space, are an essential aspect of my thesis, as they form a reflection and a mirror of a broader perspective of understanding, based on Gharda Karmi’s book, In Search of Fatima.
Statement of purpose
In this research thesis project, an analysis of the identity and belonging of the exiled Palestinians in the Diaspora and the Diasporic space will be given to dig into details on identity and to belong in Gharda Karmi’s In Search of Fatima. This thesis will focus on Gharda Karmi’s article and Edward Said’s different literary works.
This paper argues that Gharda Karmi’s book In Search of Fatima depicts one of the best pictures and understanding and experiences of the lost identity and sense of belonging in the diasporic field.
Significance of the study.
Why the research is worth studying
The topic of lost character and having place merit is considered as it helps everybody locally distinguish between the two classes. Take, for example, the COVID-19 pandemic that has ruined our psychological well-being. A critical element in our discomfort is feeling the loss of our families and those we are related with awfully. We long for our companions, family, and partner (Pal 2021). We are designed for an association, and with the requirement for social removing and the truth of being away from the work environment and all the other things for such an extensive stretch, we are battling. This is about our requirement for having a place, yet having a place is more than we momentarily think Kamal & Bland (2009). Getting it crafted by writing can help add to our passionate prosperity, and it can clear the way toward a seriously satisfying life. To feel a feeling of having a place, you should feel solidarity and a good judgment of character with everyone around you and your local area. These examples are portrayed in Edwards and Ghardas’ writing works, and comprehending their genuine encounters is fundamental for building our networks somehow.
Contribution of this research to the existing knowledge in the field
Apart from telling us what we already know about the negative experiences and impacts while in exile, although it is by reading in books, this paper will provide the readers with how positive results could equally be achieved while in exiles such as nation-building, which is closely associated with identity and belonging. This paper seeks to explain and give instances of Gharda’s experiences and Edward’s perception in the Diaspora and how they overcame the challenges to create new identities and have the sense of belonging as natives.
How different it is from the previous studies conducted on the issue.
Inquest to provide readers with a tentative analysis of the literary works associated with Palestine, the Diaspora, and the entire occurrences, many researchers provide shallow information, giving all instances and examples based on a single author, forgetting that focusing primarily on a single author might of be sufficient since this author gave their personal experience of what happened to them. Thus, this research thesis intends to be diverse and embed some of Edward Said’s thoughts on the same. Doing so will create a better and broader understanding of lost identity and belonging for Palestinians in the Diaspora. This, I believe, will make this research different from other studies conducted before on the topic.
Review of literature
The central part of writing in this postulation project is Brahs idea of local superiorized diasporic space. Avtar Brah portrays the Diaspora space as a calculated class possessed not just by the individuals who have moved and their descendants but also by the people who are developed and addressed as natives. At the end of the day, as per Brah, the diaspora space, rather than that of diaspora, incorporates the ensnarement of family histories of scattering with those staying put. For the most part, Avtar Brah gave various thoughts on contemporary social orders dealing with the obstinate issue of movement nervousness. This makes the thought of the commitment among religion and movement, nationality, sex, character, mainstream areas, media, and public life, which all turn around the domain of lost personality and having a place by the dislodged Palestinians like Gharda Karmi.
Furthermore, this paper will zero in on how precisely being uprooted in their nation and presently getting by as locals impacted people such a Karmi. In addition, this proposal will look to see how Karmi endured and moved through the difficulties in a journey to recover her lost character and have a place in the general public. Gharda Karmis’s book, In Search of Fatima, frames the foundation of this proposal, albeit some outside peer-looked into articles will likewise be utilized as references to help a few thoughts and speculations on the theme.
Definition of Key Terms
Diaspora- by definition, a diaspora is a dispersed populace whose beginning lies in a different geographic district. This dispersed populace generally comprises an enormous gathering of individuals with a comparative legacy or country who have since moved out to places from one side of the planet to the other.
The analyst, Avtar Brah, portrays a diasporic space as a calculated class that is possessed not just by the individuals who have relocated and their relatives but also similarly by the people who are built and addressed as native (Pal 2021). Comprehend those diasporic personalities are formed in various spaces, which are interconnected and now and again unmistakable and contending. Each unique space is connected to a common feeling of having a place and personality and removing memory.
Identity- by definition, character is the characteristics, convictions, character, looks, and articulations that make an individual or gathering.
Belonging- belongingness is the human psychological condition of an acknowledged individual from a specific gathering or society.
Native- This term alludes to a singular brought into the world in a predefined place or connected with a spot by birth, whether or not thusly occupant there.
Exile- this term alludes to the state of being banished from one’s local country, ordinarily for political or corrective reasons or occasions of war.
Methodology and materials
The literature research methodology used in this research thesis is a non-contact method. This literature technique involves an indirect involvement with the object or subject under investigation. In this case, the research outcomes and findings are arrived at after reading Gharda Karmi’s book, In Search of Fatima, without directly communicating or meeting up with the author. An analysis of the work brings us to a conclusion and findings regarding the loss of identity and a sense of belonging of the Palestinian natives living in the diaspora and diasporic space. The research materials pertaining to this thesis are empirical knowledge and understanding of the loss of identity and belonging of the native Palestinians, who are represented in Gharda Karmi’s personal experiences.
As difficult as the situations might have been, ranging from the war outbreak in 1917 after the proposal of dividing the country into two to the displaced Palestine inhibitors finding themselves in the diaspora, it is expected that they find it easy to adapt to the new environments, cultures, different new methods and systems of administration, economic life, among others. However, this expectation might not be possible amongst all individuals, since logically, we adapt to different cultures and environments, and it is equally important to comprehend that letting go of one’s culture and living could be difficult, since some of us cannot let go of what they believe in. Looking into the individual experiences of other literary writers such as Edward Saaid and others on the same topic may disconfirm the aforementioned anticipated findings.
The question of identity loss and belonging with reference to Gharda Karmi’s literature work, In Search of Fatima, encompasses many ideas and occurrences, which all contribute to the human feeling of identity and belonging. This thesis, therefore, is categorized into chapters as follows. Chapter one will address the forms of exile experienced by the Palestinian natives and the role in the loss of identity and belonging. Chapter two will address the exile and national identity of Palestinians living in the diaspora. A conclusion is provided at the end of the discussion, which generally, is a summary of the discussed points. Beneath is the reference page with all the external materials used to back up the content in this thesis.
Chapter one: the forms of exile experienced by Palestine and their contribution and impact on the loss of identity and belonging.
According to the writing analysts and history, it is accepted that following the production of the province of Israel in 1949, just about 760,000 Palestinians were banished, from which 350,000 from this populace were banished after the country involved the Gaza strip in 1968, just as the West Bank. After these occasions, it is assessed that in excess of 6,000,000 of the banished Palestinians live in Diaspora, alongside their kindred Palestinians who live in the Occupied Territories, just as Israel. The connection between these people and the country, state, and topographical spot is perplexing.
In her novel, Karmi explains the mental separation of Israel and the effect of residing far away, banished for good on personality development, where she, at last, depicts her exile as a super durable condition, one from which there is recuperation or return. This occurrence and mental condition and circumstance bring about a split character that causes her extraordinary misery. Her experience of living far away, banished in shame, makes her feel like she has no place, neither in Palestine nor in England (Salam & Abualadas 2020). She feels genuinely uprooted, disjoined in both brain and body, ridden between two nations, and incapable of having a place in all things considered. This occasion raises the significance of seeing how living in banishment can stunt the advancement of both individual and public character and can repress both individual and public having a place. I further contend that she builds her insight of enduring as symbolic of the enduring of the Palestinian country and that she deliberately portrays a rendition of Palestinian nationhood and the public having a place as a counter to Israeli public stories.
In her book, Ghada Karmi describes how being in exile affects her personality and disrupts her identity in her home country, Palestine. Karmi’s history depicts that she was born in Jerusalem where she grew up with her family, and her nanny Fatima. after the eruption of war between Palestine and the British who were in the move to colonize the country, Karmi and her family are forced to leave the country, at least to be safe from the ongoing war. The author later grows up in Syria, and spends quality time in England, where she later visits her homeland with the intention to fight for it as a politician, hoping to reclaim what she feels belongs to her.
Karmis’ encounters of exile and the going with sensations of irritation and misfortune, just as disengagement and sentimentality, cause her to feel distanced from her distinguished country of Palestine and her other different spots of home. These sentiments are not entirely antagonistic, nonetheless. Karmi draws in with them, and they impel her to endeavor to have a place with both England and Palestine, challenge Israeli power structures, and guard the Palestinian country. This section inspects how her situation as a Palestinian exile illuminates her individual, public, and sexual orientation personality. Karmi sees Palestine as a her source of motivation despite her agony, because it is her home, where she belongs, and where she hopes to get back to someday. As a result, I contend that she employs her understanding of affliction, exile, and misfortune as a logical method to address the Palestinian country’s endurance and purposefully make an account to resist Israeli adaption.
Karmis’s development of the Palestinian country is generally a romanticized one. It is the spot of her youth, her canine Rex, and her cherished caretaker Fatima for her purposes. Karma at least was raised in a good family and environment, a social position that many Palestinians could not afford. (Salam & Abualadas 2020). Moreover, her comprehension of sex character and sex relations is greatly informed by having experienced childhood in England. Because of these parts of her childhood, all through her journal, she uncovers that it is on occasion hard for her to settle on something worth agreeing on with different Palestinians.
Karmi grows up and examines her life as a Palestinian English lady living far away from home, banished for good, and struggles with her perceptions of home. Karmi comes to perceive her exile as permanent, one from which she will never return, after attempting to return home and realizing that this is ludicrous. This recognition places her in a transitional state, unable to differentiate herself as either English or Palestinian, and so an outsider. This distinguishing proof isn’t inherently dangerous. The problem is that the terminology Karmi uses to describe her exile suggests that her situation is more terrible than that of Palestinians living in Israel and Palestine as well. The most explicit evidence of this linguistic distinction appears near the end of Karmis’ book. After at last dealing with the agonizing acknowledgment that she can never go home. The home, I would recommend that exists most emphatically in her creative mind, rather than only as a piece of soil, a house with a patio and a veranda, a country of other people who share the equivalent ethno-social starting points, or a state with perceived boundaries. Karmi winds up back in her lodging in Jerusalem, considering her insight of homecoming just as she has seen all the more by and significant in Israel and the West Bank. She portrays what she hears as the unmistakable sound of other individuals and another presence, perceptible, suffering, and persistent. Still there, not gone, not dead.
There are numerous ways of perusing Karmis to remove herself from these others (the Palestinians now living in Jerusalem). One way is with consideration regarding Karmis’s failure to complete the form of life as a Palestinian. She feels alienated from the Palestinian spot and its kin. Nonetheless, one more way of perusing this second is with the agreement that she stays appended to the possibility of a true Palestinian that doesn’t fit with those she has experienced during her visit to Israel and Palestine.
Karmi experiences a sentimental yearning for her homeland, as well as a yearning for the Palestine she once knew, and belonged. She pines for a pure Palestinian, a virtue that can only exist in her imagination. The experience brought on by the desire to return to one’s starting point is the essence of sentimentality. Fincham (2012) expounds upon this definition by contending that sentimentality, indeed, may rely precisely upon the gone idea of the past for its passionate effect and allure. The actual pastness of the past, its detachment, probably represents an enormous piece of sentimentalities power. Fincham (2012) proceeds to say this is seldom the past as experienced, obviously; it is the past as envisioned, as admired through memory and want. In this sense, sentimentality is less about the past than about the present.
Pal (2021) portrayal of wistfulness assists with revealing insight into Karmi’s way of dealing with her past. Karmi looks for a history that she has created as fantastic, complete, stable, cognizant, safe, and extraordinarily unlike the present, feeling disillusioned with her current and feeling that she doesn’t have a place there (England). For Karmi, wistfulness is an agonizing encounter. It includes the injuring acknowledgment that some valuable part of one’s past is irredeemably lost. To be sure, toward the finish of her journal Karmi comprehends her past as permanent. Karmi finally locates her old home, and comes to an understanding that the place no longer belongs to her or her family, which she could consider as dead as her dog Rex. Karmi uses death as a symbolic element to represent detachment from everything and everyone she once loved.
While Karmis’ admission that she will never return is tragic, her portrayal of her encounters unintentionally creates a progressive system of experiencing. Her ordeal is far more heinous than that of Palestinians living in the colonized regions of Palestine. I contend that this chain of importance doesn’t hold up, in any case, and snapshots of her diary itself confound her attestation that the exile of those right now living in the area is in any capacity brief. Karmi and her colleagues enlist the help of a Palestinian who used to live in a nearby neighborhood on the second day of their search for her youth house in Jerusalem. Karmi portrays him as a depressed elderly man who hasn’t visited this neighborhood since his eviction in 1949. He had, however, lived for such a long time on the other side of Jerusalem, barely a mile away, that he had never returned. His homecoming was dreadful: he was perplexed and couldn’t remember where his previous residence was located. He took a surprised stroll through the streets, his eyes welling up with tears, contacting the boundaries of the properties we passed and pausing at regular intervals to gaze silently into the distance (445). This second study reveals that the experience of expulsion and return for Palestinians living near their ancestral homes may be just as disjointed, unsettling, and horrifying as it is for Diaspora residents. This man is unfamiliar with his previous environment. The location is as far away from him as if he lived on the other side of the planet, rather than just on the other side of his home country.
Exile is a prerequisite for Karmi, and it is as much a part of her identity as her gender or ethnicity. Exile is also a very personal experience for Karmi, as she has no ties to Palestinians in any part of the world, which includes her family. Her feeling of home is loaded, and her sense of having a place is uncertain. Karmi stays connected to her sensations of being an outcast because she never encountered any conclusion after leaving Palestine. The takeoff was mistaking for Karmi, and she couldn’t wholly handle its importance. Her flight was rushed and rushed, and there was a feeling that she and her family would return before long. Karmi additionally feels that theirs was a constrained flight. She and her family didn’t decide to leave Jerusalem, and she thinks that she doesn’t have the determination to return at any point.
Karmis’s development of character is loaded with nervousness. Her experience of her reality concurs with the hypothesis that Franz Fanon explains. Fanon utilizes the psychoanalytic hypothesis to clarify sensations of deficiency and reliance on colonized subjects’ insight into the colonizer’s world. He examines the separated self-perception kind of schizophrenia of the person who dismisses her social beginnings and accepts the host culture. According to the mainstream culture, the colonial subject is forced to wear a white veil in order to be seen as a true individual, according to Fanon. In order to cope with her feelings of inadequacy, the assimilate will try to imitate the assimilator’s social code. Karmis’ voice inflections of the colonial person who relates to the victor throughout her connection with studies (Blachnicka-Ciacek (2018). One way of perusing Karmis’s dismissal of her folks is that she wishes to develop a character that will empower her to feel like having a place in England. An accidental and conceivably unsafe result of Karmis’s depiction of her folks is that it uncovers disguised bigotry that reemerges at different focuses and that she ostensibly has not surrendered before the finish of her diary. In her craving to relate to the English’s prevailing culture, she has likewise come to see her folks as substandard. For Fanon, her choice to wed John might address a craving to ascend into society white and enlightened and dismiss her family as savage (151). As per Fischer (2019) verbalization, now in Karmis’s life, she will likely turn into the Other (that is, an English individual) because the other alone can give [her her] worth. Karmis’s relationship with and inevitable union with John is an endeavor to harden an English character in numerous ways. She relates that during her encounter with John’s family, she had gone gaga for her mother by marriage, her child, the house, the meal sheep, and the Englishness of all that she had seen that day (339). Karmis’s explanation of Englishness passes on a particular and nonexistent comprehension of English social personality. Considering her influence, Karmi begins to adopt to their culture and feels that to gain an identity among the whites in England entails behaving like them, and doing everything they do, such as what John’s family was doing.
Chapter two: the exile and national identity of Palestinians living in the Diaspora
The conditions of scattering in such countless nations kept the Palestinians from becoming socially homogeneous individuals. Although there is nothing of the sort as completely homogeneous individuals, heterogeneity is especially relevant to the Palestinian cause. The Diaspora, collectively of Palestinians who have wound up in nations everywhere, is not a socially homogeneous individual. Nor are Palestinians who keep on living in the locale. Admittance to citizenship is lopsided. A portion of the occupants of the Occupied Territories has home licenses, while others (regularly those residing in outcast camps) have no documentation at all. Personal satisfaction differs immensely among Palestinians living in Israel, the Occupied Territories, outcast camps in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and exile camps in other Arab states.
Karmis’s article indicates that Palestinians need to battle to keep up with their characters at various levels. Usually, this happens contrastingly as every individual has their diverse involvement with their new topographical area (Blachnicka-Ciacek 2018). The essential classes of personality battles among the Palestinians are sorted into two. First and foremost, as Palestinian as to the authentic experience with Zionism and the abrupt loss of a country; in addition to the existential daily life setting, which results from a reaction to the tensions created in Palestine. In that capacity, the creator, Karmi, experiences the test of building her character both as an outcast from Palestine and as an outsider in her new home residence. Karmi adds that being in a liminal position, with the numerous failed attempts of regaining her identity in Palestine makes her feel like she has no place in the world. What cements this is that she lives far away from home, in exile particularly.
Karmi comprehends the country as, in the expressions of Fischer (2019) the meaning of social markers as allotted signs of normal originary having, where race (or nationality) may be one of those markers relegated importance or strength in selecting individuals (120). Karmi feels that having originated from Palestine instead of the Arabs would play a role of cementing a place and a sense of identity and belonging in the Palestinian country. Karmi feels connected to a Palestinian country as a substance to which to have a place Fischer (2019) offers knowledge as far as understanding Karmis’s connection to the country. He contends that the conclusion of the age of patriotism, so since a long time ago forecasted, isn’t somewhat insight. Undoubtedly, country ness is the most all-around genuine worth in the political existence within recent memory. The idea of the country conveys solid political cash, which assists with clarifying why Karmi is so put resources into it.
On her return excursion to Israel and the West Bank, Karmis’s decision to address Palestinian exploitation and enduring dangers diminished Palestinians to a frail group lacking organization. She likewise hazards re-recording the generalization of Palestinians as discouraged displaced people. Nonetheless, I contend that her decision to view Palestinian hopelessness closer is a purposeful explanatory technique to the forefront of the persecution and disparities to which Palestinians are subject. When Karmi finally visits Palestine, she is unhappy with what she encounters next. She says that she sees no difference between the Palestines who are the colonized, and the Israelis who are the colonizers, as both groups are feeble, compliant, and frail. She adds that Palestine is no longer made up of any dynamic group, and when she visits her extended family in Tulkarm, she denotes that they are controlled by the military, something that saddens her contrary to her expectation. Because of this, Karmi discovers a treacherous connection of power among the colonizers and the colonized, and goes further to try and find out the mental effects of living under military control. She adds to this by denoting that the colonized Palestinians live in dread, under the control of the Israeli colonizers.
In her encounter with an Israeli couple on a similar excursion, Karmi forefronts disparity among Palestinians and Israelis rather than the chance of valuably pushing ahead through alliances and partnerships. The couple that she associates with lack the capacity to deal with conservative Israelis opposes every single, strict gathering and people, censures the tactical control of Gaza and the West Bank, and has a few Palestinian companions (442). The couple confronts Karmi on what she thinks of the new Israel, and Karmi comes to them clean that there are two different groups of people, who are against each other- each group claiming to be better than the other. The couple, further disagrees with her on the basis that there are remnants such as them who join their home nation, fostering the development of fortitude and participation, attempting to comprehend, attempting to fabricate spans. Karmi doesn’t acknowledge the couple for giving genuine conceivable outcomes to pushing ahead. She proposes that these are tokenistic reactions; all things considered, it is more straightforward to be liberal when you are the one in power.
Karmis’s decision to address Palestinians and Israelis as having hopeless objectives in her diary appears to be weird given that in her genuine, she contends that the most helpful way forward is compromise and conjunction (Sayigh 2012). Maybe in her diary, she leaves herself more space to communicate individual sensations of hatred at her misfortune, though she tries to be more even-minded in her verifiable. She impartially proposes a potential arrangement: political equity among Palestinians and Israelis, majority rule portrayal (one individual one vote), and a mainstream state rather than a strict or an ethnic-based state.
Karmis’s relationship of John with his property and his nation uncovers a specific comprehension of nationhood and the public having a place. Karmi lets John know that the region around his home is delightful to some degree since it is his. At the point when John remedies her, she perseveres, saying, you can venture into your nursery and your fields and realize that it’s yours, your property, your nation […] there’s no place I can do that. No place on the planet (337). Karmi connects character and land that passes on and develops a quite sure thought of the English public having a place. For her purposes, to be English is to feel an association with and responsibility for the land. This second uncovers a distinction between how Karmi expresses her character and how she encounters it. Throughout her journal, she expresses that her English and Palestinian personalities are isolated, yet this second recommends that her experience of landlessness especially molds her perspective. Her perspective regarding English nature is brought into the world of her Palestinian expertise, suggesting that these characters are more imbricated than she presents them. To a degree, Karmi resents what she considers to be John’s unqualified having a place in England. Her life doesn’t have the progression that his does. She resides somewhere other than where she was conceived and didn’t feel a conviction that she will be there for eternity.
Karmis depicts a personality emergency that she encounters following a showdown with a portion of her English partners after the beginning of the Six-Day War Reviews Varma’s (2011) explanation of the schizophrenic colonized subject. Karmi portrays an encounter of torment and torment; she can’t build a crossbreed character that is in any capacity freeing or liberating. To be sure, exclusionary stories of believable characters, for example, those to which Karmi is by all accounts connected, block all encounters or developments of half and a half or pluralistic personalities.
Part of the conceivably hopeless nature of Karmis’s personality results from her experience as a Palestinian lady living in the Diaspora who should haggle between two different arrangements of sexual orientation assumptions. As observed in the article, Karmi is so desperate to find a home for herself, and because of this, she relocates back to the Arabians for some time. She picks Jordan as the nearest to Palestine due to the enormous Palestinian populace there. However, she thinks that it is hard to coordinate into Jordanian culture, in a massive part in light of the comprehension of sex jobs that she has come to create while living in England. Karmi recommends that it is notably better to be a lady in Europe than in the Middle East. Indeed, even while drawing in with the subtleties of sex jobs in the Arab world, part of the explanation she feels that she can’t have a place is a result of sex jobs and assumptions. These occasions are an uncover and reflection goodness the amount it expenses to lose one’s personality, and the battles and costs one needs to bring about looking for something similar.
Considering that Karmis’s experience reverberates with that of numerous other Diaspora Palestinians, on her return, she both portrays her sensations of frustration and trouble and addresses an overall torment that the Palestinian country encounters in its failure to return home. Fischer (2019) argues that in acknowledging that having a place is incomprehensible, the premise of character isn’t just lost but never existed. The fantasy about returning addresses a quest for a way of life as much as a spot (113). It is advantageous to note Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, (2016) utilization of the action word dream, which recommends that this get back is only that; a dream that can never be fulfilled. Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, (2016) starts the prologue to her book by wrestling with understandings of home. As per Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, (2016), the expression recommends that house is so novel, superb, and indispensable (where individuals know me, where I can be) that no other spot at any point resides it. As indicated by Fiddian-Qasmiyeh (2016), the home gives security and personality, where one is agreeable and needs no jobs, strength, warmth, solace, and unwinding, which means winning (20).
Furthermore, Fiddian-Qasmiyeh (2016) articulate home as Karmi has built it for herself. Throughout Karmi’s book, we see her anticipation of searching for her home in Jerusalem where she grew up, but we find out that she is also in search of something else, which I would consider fighting for her nation. Undoubtedly, we can understand that Gharda’s book closely relates to her nanny, Fatima, who she parted ways with while she was nine years, only that she had no idea she could never see her again (Hui 2020). I would propose, thusly, that Karmis’s account project is to frontal area her sensations of exile, injury, misfortune, and liminality as a way of portraying the tale of the Palestinian countries’ experience of dislodging dispossession, occupation, and abuse. To peruse Karmis journal as a story of individual misfortune loans compassion to her craving to get back and her extreme sensations of sentimentality. Her romanticization uncovers the strength of her connection to Palestine and is a way of working through her sensations of misfortune. This methodology likewise makes Palestine tasteful to perusers and urges a thoughtful reaction to the situation of the Palestinian Diaspora.
Karmi remains to put resources into accurate English and Palestinian characters that dangers bypassing the variety inside each character and sets unimaginable principles of an individual having a place. That she is always unable to possess these characters leaves Karmi encountering consistent sensations of misfortune and separation. Toward the finish of her diary, she doesn’t approach a reasonable Palestine (Gabiam 2018). Besides, she tends to introduce her encounters of pining to go home and misfortune as more extraordinary than that accomplished by contemporary Palestinians. In alternate ways, be that as it may, her romanticized Palestinian country is a robust explanatory methodology. The explanation Karmi looks for so frantically to help, protect, and return to Palestine is because, as her home, it conveys gigantic significance for her. She inspires sympathy from perusers who can identify with the craving for an enthusiastic, social, and political position.
AZIM, D. S. A. (2016). CHAPTER EIGHT NOSTALGIA IN GHADA KARMI’S INSEARCH OF FATIMA AND LUCETTE LAGNADO’S THE MAN IN THE WHITE SHARKSKIN SUIT. Consciousness, Theatre, Literature and the Arts 2015, 86.
Blachnicka-Ciacek, D. (2018). Palestine as ‘a state of mind’: second-generation Polish and British Palestinians’ search for home and belonging. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(11), 1915-1931.
Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E. (2016). On the Threshold of Statelessness: Palestinian narratives of loss and erasure. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(2), 301-321.
Fincham, K. (2012). Nationalist narratives, boundaries and social inclusion/exclusion in Palestinian camps in South Lebanon. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 42(2), 303-324.
Fischer, N. (2019). Remembering/Imagining Palestine from Afar: The (Lost) Homeland in Contemporary Palestinian Diaspora Literature. In Spiritual Homelands (pp. 31-56). De Gruyter.
Gabiam, N. (2018). Mapping Palestinian Identity in the Diaspora: Affective Attachments and Political Spaces. South Atlantic Quarterly, 117(1), 65-90.
Hui, L. H. D. (2020). Critical geopolitics of Palestinian diasporas’ autobiographical practice. Area, 52(4), 758-765.
Kamal, H., & Bland, S. (2009). ” In Search of Fatima: A Palestinian Story” by Ghada Karmi/” B as in Beirut” and” Wild Mulberries” by Iman Humaydan Younes.
Pal, P. (2021). Nostalgia, identity, and homeland: Reading the narratives of the diaspora in Susan Abulhawa’s fiction. Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 57(1), 47-59.
Salam, W., & Abualadas, O. (2020). Cultural Authenticity Versus Hyphenated Identities: Transnational Modes of Belonging and Citizenship in The Inheritance of Exile: Stories from South Philly. CEA Critic, 82(1), 52-68.
Sayigh, R. (2012). Palestinian refugee identity/ies: Generation, region, class. Palestinian refugees: Different generations, but one identity, 13-28.
Varma, E. M. (2011). Writing Palestine: Personal and National Identity Construction in Exile.
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Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)
Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs).
In a virtual world (VW) of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), collaboration and communication are provided through the Internet between MMORPG-ready devices such as the Microsoft Xbox, and Sony PlayStation, and by using the Web browser. Gamers around the world can play against other gamers without seeing their opponent face-to-face. The Internet and MMORPG devices have become a social phenomenon. For example, a mobile game, called “Game of War” enables players to play against each other anywhere around the world. Other diversions include Second Life which isn’t really a game at all, but rather just that, another life people can live online through their online persona. Before you begin this assignment, engage in an online game or experience such as Game of War, Second Life, or Words with Friends, which has a phone app you can download free or play from your computer on the internet or even as a Facebook app. Any game where you are playing against a live person over the web. If you have difficulty finding an online multiplayer game, reach out to your instructor for guidance. Write a paper with screen shots from your experience in which you complete the items below. Be sure to include what your choice was in the introduction paragraph. Describe cognitive social phenomena that occur specifically to the context of the MMORPG that wouldn’t happen in a face-to-face checkers game. Compare and contrast the MMORPG user interaction environment to the face-to-face environment where a board game like Scrabble is being played. Next, identify whether or not the environment has an impact on the player’s ability to play Words With Friends in an online environment. Outline and describe the user interface requirements that a game designer needs to include in order to engage players in a MMORPG environment. Use at least (3) quality resources in this assignment. NOTE:Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements: This course requires use of new Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different from other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details. Typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required page length. Include a reference page. Citations and references must follow SWS format. The reference page is not included in the required page length. NOTE: Although there is not a specific page length, you should fully explore and answer the questions asked. Typically you’ll have two or three paragraphs with your main point supported by a few sentences of fact for each. The goal is to convince the reader that you have done your assigned reading and the additional research being asked. 100% original work is required. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Compare and contrast the various cognitive models. Construct evaluation techniques to the user experience and system usability in the design process. Describe the differences in developing user interfaces for different application environments. List the general principles used in the heuristic evaluation of a user interface design. Use technology and information resources to research issues in human-computer interaction. Write clearly and concisely about human-computer interaction topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.
Victims of violence: the forgotten and ignored debt payers?
30 THE QUESTION OF IDENTITY AND BELONGING IN GHADA KARMI’S IN SERACH Writing Essay Help Victims of violence: the forgotten and ignored debt payers?.
This task is to write an argumentative essay on the Canadian law system, and the victims of violence and how they pay mental and physical debt for the violence they suffered. REQUIREMENTS LISTED BELOW o The thesis should be clear, concise, and well-organized statement. o The essay must be analytical, scholarly, with a fully developed thesis. o Summaries of existing information and vague opinions on the topic are not acceptable. o Organize your material into thematic paragraphs. o In your introductory paragraph, you should introduce your thesis and the major topics which you will be discussing in your essay.’ o Avoid the personal pronoun “I” in this formal essay. o The essay must be supported by substantial, relevant research, existing legislation, current facts, statistics, and quotations. o The essay must include an appendix with illustrations, graphs, charts, and/or tables. o The completed research paper must be between approximately 1500-2000 words. It will be typed in a double space format. In typed form (with 12 font), your paper will be about 8 -10 pages in length.
INTRO TO THIRD WORLD IMAGES IN FILMS
INTRO TO THIRD WORLD IMAGES IN FILMS.
The paper should contain a clear thesis (underline it) that is on par with the course content. Choose one film screened in class (MANDABI (The money order) – Film Senegal 1968) and critically discuss how the images of the “Third World” country and people are depicted. Use a minimum of 3 examples from the film to support your thesis. Please consider Social and Historical context when approaching your paper. You may even compare and contrast films (for example Western Remakes of films made by and about people from “Third World” countries) Please include your personal reflection to the film.
READ: Chapters 1 & 2 (B & D) Critical Thinking Exercise: What do you feel are the problems associated with using a medical/biological model to understand the etiology of most psychological problems? What model do you believe is more relevant? Why? Submit a one page response via the -Discussion Question: What model of psychopathology (or personality in general) do you feel would help you in understanding and dealing with your own emotional difficulties if you were to develop them? Why?