CJ 324 Excelsior Arrigo Postulated Three Key Propositions Of Postmodernism Essay Law Assignment Help

CJ 324 Excelsior Arrigo Postulated Three Key Propositions Of Postmodernism Essay Law Assignment Help. CJ 324 Excelsior Arrigo Postulated Three Key Propositions Of Postmodernism Essay Law Assignment Help.


You must answer four out of five of the short essay questions below. You must complete and submit your examination by the end of Module 8.

(1) Arrigo postulated three key propositions of postmodernism. Explain them in full, using at least 250 words.

(2) Daly and Chesney-Lind considered five insights to be distinctive
features of feminist theory? List and describe these features, using
at least 250 words.

(3) Laub and Sampson identify five aspects to the process of
desistance during adulthood. Identify and briefly explain these five
aspects, using at least 250 words.

(4) Explain in full the concept of the “war on drugs.” Based upon
what you have learned, do you think it was successful? Your answer must
be at least 250 words in length.

(5) Based upon the various biosocial risk and protective factors you
have studied thus far, define “risk factor” and “protective factor.”
Then identify and explain 3 risk factors and 3 protective factors. Your
answer must be at least 250 words in length.

Compose your work in a .doc or .docx file type using a word processor (such as Microsoft Word, etc.)
and save it frequently to your computer. For those assignments that are
not written essays and require uploading images or PowerPoint slides,
please follow uploading guidelines provided by your instructor.


  • Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T., & Ball. R. A. (2018). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (7th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications
    • Chapter 16: The Development of Criminals: Life-Course Theories

Module Notes: Life-Course Theories

This module discusses integrated (Links to an external site.) and life course theories (Links to an external site.);
those that focus on the peaks and valleys of criminality and combine
theoretical components. It is here that the understanding of how theory,
but more importantly, the integration of theories, that evolved over
many different social contexts now significantly contributes to both
best practice criminal justice policies and early intervention,
prevention and treatment programs.

many criminologists focused on delinquent adolescents when studying and
explaining crime causation. The most apparent reason for this was that
during these adolescent years, early life course stages correlated with
high rates of illegal behavior. Although this phenomenon was apparent,
however, no truly systematic methodology had been practiced to advance
the many theories regarding adolescents’ antisocial and criminal
behavior. Consequently, it was the work of the integrated and
life-course or developmental theorists that revealed a significant
revelation: What occurs during early childhood is both correlative and
predictive of criminal behavior during the adolescent years and criminal
careers continuing beyond the adolescence stage.

While most adolescent offenders desist, or stop delinquent behavior
before reaching adulthood, the million dollar question is: Which kids
persist and become adult or career offenders? Self-report studies have
found a continuity of antisocial behavior, especially when the
antisocial behavior begins in early childhood (Fagan & Wexler,
2006). Integrated theories, those that combine major tenets from two or
more theories, attempt to provide a more comprehensive and empirically
valid explanation for criminality. It’s important, however, that the
combined theories be internally consistent. Longitudinal studies, or
those that follow a cohort over time, reveal many important factors that
influence criminality or desistance at the various life stages.

It is probably safe to conclude that the most salient criminological
theories at work today are those that combine methodologies and
orientations, exploit empirically valid and reliable knowledge, ask new
questions, and take a broad view of crime and criminality. We have
learned a significant amount about the influences of society on
individuals and no longer believe (that is, most of us no longer
believe) that individuals are creators of their own lives. Instead, we
now know that, while people are born with certain mental and physical
strengths and weaknesses, they are still born into a family or group at a
particular point in historical time with certain opportunities and
deprivations. All of which combine to create a biography of that
individual. We understand that the impact of certain deprivations
affects us differently depending upon our developmental stage in life
(Fagan & Wexler, 2006). We also now know that opportunity and
disadvantage are not equally distributed across all social sectors. In
other words, crime is not the result of chance alone. Many factors need
to co-occur to result in crime, which subsequently creates a victim.

Finally, the role that research and best practice theories play in
evincing profound policy implications and applications in preventing
crime cannot be overemphasized. For example, the importance of early
intervention programs; parental education programs teaching the
importance of correcting early childhood behavior as part of their
child’s life-course cognitive development.


    DELINQUENTS. Criminology, 25: 643–670.
    doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00814.x
  • Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T., & Ball. R. A. (2015). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (6th edition). Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications

CJ 324 Excelsior Arrigo Postulated Three Key Propositions Of Postmodernism Essay Law Assignment Help[supanova_question]

Absolute Safety Training Paramedic Program Working on Practice Test Mathematics Assignment Help

I’m working on a statistics question and need support to help me understand better.

  1. Find the Standard deviation of the data summarized in the given frequency table (15 pts.)

Time Frequency

40-49 8

50-59 44

60-69 23

70-79 6

80-89 107

90-99 11

10-109 1

2Assume that women’s weights are normally distributed with a mean of 143 lb and a standard deviation of 29 lb. If 16 women are randomly selected, find the probability that they have a mean weight between 150 lb and 155 lb

3 Based on Genetic Institute using the Microsort Method of gender selection among 726 babies born, 668 of these babies were girls and the others were boys. Use these results with a 0.05 significance level to test the claim that among babies born to couples using the Microsort Method, the proportion of girls is greater than the value of 0.5 that is expected with no treatment.(

  1. 4 Use the scatter plot and the linear correlation coefficient to determine whether there is a correlation between the two parameters. Use 0.05 significance level. (15 pts.)


1 3

0 1

5 15

2 6

3 8


NCC Foreign Policy Agenda of Richard Nixon & Henry Kissinger Essay Writing Assignment Help

I’m working on a history report and need a sample draft to help me learn.


  1. Select a topic that is pertinent to the course in which you are enrolled. Feel free to clear the topic with me.

  1. Remember to make the topic as narrow and specific as possible. For example, a paper on just the Roman Empire or the Vietnam War or the United States Congress or the United Nations would be far too general. It is important to focus upon a single particular aspect. Your chosen topic can be a specific event, individual (person) or historical-political-social movement.

  1. The research paper should be from five and a half to seven pages in length in double spaced and twelve point font format.

  1. A minimum of three different research sources must be utilized. Of these three, only one may be a reliable web site. The other two must be from either a book (the textbook will count), an article from an academic journal or newspaper, or from any other acceptable primary or secondary source. If more than three research sources are used, then all those beyond the minimum three may be from reliable web sites.

  1. Any style of source citation (APA, Chicago, MLA) is acceptable.

  1. It is important to ask a question or to present an argument or to highlight the significance (why is your chosen topic so critical to the study of the course in which you are enrolled) in your research paper. This must always be included in the introduction to the paper.

  1. Following the introduction comes the core of the research paper in which you identify, detail and analyze the key points of your chosen topic. (This is essentially the “meat” of the research paper).

  1. Your conclusion is basically the analytical summation of the research paper. The conclusion should defend how and/or why your chosen topic has contributed so critically to the study of the course in which you are enrolled, and how/why it will continue to be a major contributor in the future.



UArizona Race Class and Perceptions of Discrimination by Police Literature Review Humanities Assignment Help

Based on your areas of interest and expertise, you will prepare one of two types of papers:

If your choice is to write a policy brief, the policy issue must be on a topic that is current and relevant to applied sociology.

If your choice is to write a case study, the case being addressed must pertain to a current organization or program, preferably one you have experience working in or with. A case study is an analysis of a current challenge the organization or program is facing.

Following is an outline for the Capstone paper and guiding questions for each section of the paper:

  1. Title Page
    1. Follow the APA Manual format for the title
    2. The title of your paper is the first heading the reader sees at the top of the page that begins the paper (not introduction or background)
  2. Background: Case Study (700 words)
    1. Provide a background of the organization or program.
    2. Provide a brief description (one to two paragraphs) of the organization or program that provides information about its vision, mission, and services. Identify other stakeholders involved with the organization as it concerns the topic of the paper. What data supports why this topic is important? What solutions have been attempted, if any? Why were the outcomes of those solutions?
      OR Policy Brief
    3. Identify the policy topic being explored; the topic history; importance of the topic locally, regionally, nationally, or globally; and who is or will be most impacted by the policy. Present the facts that support the problem exists and is worthy of a policy response. What data supports why this topic is important? What solutions have been attempted, if any? Why were the outcomes of those solutions?
  3. Statement of Challenge/Opportunity (700 Words)
    1. Case study: Identify the organization’s challenge being addressed, the activity being implemented, or the assets being strengthened. Explain the current situation and describe what issues the Capstone will be addressing. Identify a need for action or review the key arguments for why it needs to be addressed
    2. Policy Brief: Provide a description of the problem and the key arguments for why it needs to be addressed. Include a brief history of the problem and issue area. Only relevant history should be included. This could include legislative history, a history of policy actions, etc.
  4. Literature Review (2450 to 3500 words)
    1. What does the previous research say about the topic you are addressing?
    2. What are commonalities, interlocking findings and logic, or unanswered questions in the previous research that has been conducted on your topic?
    3. What assumptions, if any, have been made?
    4. This section can include data, testimony of experts in the field, reports and case studies, etc.
    5. Quotes are used sparingly – one or two direct quotes for the entire paper! You are to synthesize ideas and paraphrase.
  5. Analysis: (1750 words)
    1. What are the common threads, differences, and criticisms of the literature?
    2. How does the literature apply to, support, or conflict with the organizational issue or policy issue?
    3. Include tables, charts, or graphs if applicable.
    4. Include key actors, stakeholders, and constituents, and identify their position on the issue.
  6. Recommendation (1750 words)
    1. Present the recommended options, and identify and discuss the benefits and criticisms of the chosen options. What is the anticipated change or improvement that would result based on your research and analysis? Who needs to be involved, and in what way, for change to successfully happen?
    2. For the public policy paper, present the policy solution, including the authorizing mechanism (legislation, regulation, or executive action, etc.), how the policy will work, and what entity will implement it.
  7. Conclusion (350 to 700 words)
    1. Are the findings or recommendations briefly discussed in terms of the literature from the literature review?
    2. Are your insights clearly stated?
    3. Are implications for practice discussed?
    4. Are there suggestions for future research?
  8. References
    1. Include a list of references for all your citations using APA formatting.
  9. Appendix
    1. Include survey results or other information that is too detailed to be included in the report.
    2. Appendices are ordered as they appear in the narrative of the paper and are ordered by letter. For example, the first appendix is Appendix A; the second is Appendix B, etc. In the narrative, remember to point the reader to the Appendix by including text that reads something like: “(see Appendix A)” or “Appendix A provides a copy of the survey instrument used to collect data.”


TUTD Importance of Being Scientifically Informed & Community Members Discussion Science Assignment Help

It is important to think about your obligation as a citizen in today’s society. You need to understand the science behind issues that impact you and other people on this earth every day. Answer the following questions:

  1. How can being a more scientifically informed member of society benefit you and your community?
  2. Include the title of the TED Talk that you chose to watch in this module as well as one point made by the speaker to support your response.
  3. Why do you think there is value in understanding and studying the natural sciences when considering not only the impact of science on the global community, but to each of us individually?

TED Talk video https://www.ted.com/talks/jonathan_foley_the_other…

title of TED talk Chosen :The Other Inconvenient truth



CJS 231 University of Phoenix Week 2 Biological Criminal Behavior Presentation Law Assignment Help

PART 1: Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words:

  • Why are theoretical perspectives on crime relevant in policing?
  • Do these theories matter in the day-to-day job of a police officer? Explain your answer and provide examples.

PART 2: There are offenders whose criminality is based on biological factors. This may or may not be known to the offender prior to a deadly incident like the examples in this assignment. Biological anomalies are not common, but in many cases, the results are catastrophic. The cases outlined for this assignment are some of the most notorious. This assignment will help you develop a better understanding of mental illness and physiology as factors when measuring criminality.

Choose a criminal offender from the list below, or one of your choosing, whose criminal behavior was connected to a biological abnormality (physical, psychological, or chemical):

  • Andrea Yates and the documented evidence of psychiatric issues, including postpartum depression and psychosis, prior to murdering her five children.
  • Jeffrey Dahmer and the documented evidence of psychiatric issues prior to murdering 17 men.
  • John Wayne Gacy and the documented evidence of psychiatric issues prior to murdering 33 young men and boys.
  • Charles Whitman murdered 16 people, including his wife and mother. An autopsy suggested Whitman had a brain tumor pressing on his amygdala, a region of the brain crucial for emotion and behavioral control.

Create an 8- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation with speaker notes in which you:

  • Summarize the case.
  • Discuss the genetic or physiological evidence that supports the notion that biology played a key role in explaining the offender’s criminality.
  • Research the behaviors that constitute psychopathy and discuss in detail the specific behaviors demonstrated by the offender that align (or not) with behaviors indicative of a psychopathic individual.
  • Identify if the positivist perspective applies to your chosen example. Explain your answer.
  • Identify if the punishment rendered in your chosen example best supports the classical or neoclassical perspective of crime. Explain your answer.

Include at least 2 academic references and cite your sources according to APA guidelines.

CJS 231 University of Phoenix Week 2 Biological Criminal Behavior Presentation Law Assignment Help[supanova_question]

EEL 4935 USF The Primary Difference Between a Virus and A Worm Questions Engineering Assignment Help

This homework is for Information Security Concept Class, so make sure you are familiar with the concepts before you bid to the question. And please avoid any kind of plagiarism because the professor is strict in this class.

you can find the details of this assignment in the file (assignment 2) attached below, and then solve all questions in the file (Assignment 2) providing clear answers, and answering all requirements.

if you want more information about the materials for this class, I can provide an overview files of the modules.


Rasmussen College A Synopsis on The Bipolar Disorder Mental Problem Discussion Humanities Assignment Help

Bi-Polar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a mental problem that involves long-term interventions for treatment. Treatment of bipolar disorder problem involves different pharmaceutical companies’ steps to come up with the best medication that will assist in healing the individuals completely. According to Healy and his colleague, treatment of bipolar disorder involves Depakote, which has relative benefits when used to treat the manic stage of the disease as approved by the Food and Drug Administration (Healy and Le Noury, 2021). He continued to argue that the drug, when administered by qualified physicists, acts best for mood stabilization.

On the other hand, Frances argued that using mood stabilizers and antipsychotic drugs seems to have a wide acceptance to help patients with bipolar disorder. He viewed otherwise that the medicines work little on assisting patients to and later, the rate of bipolar disorders doubled among people (NPR Cookie Consent and Choices 2021). The main idea is that there is the fear of over-diagnosis and overtreatment of the condition. Miss-diagnosis leads to the wrong prescription of mood-stabilizing medications and a high cost of care. Frances further argued that putting the DSM diagnosis might worsen the conditions leading to over-diagnosis and overtreatment states. Healy argued that consequences associated with over-diagnosis and overtreatment of the disorder, such as the Illness, stay even though treatment might eradicate symptoms; therefore, the drugs are not effective (Healy and Le Noury, 2021). Another consequence is the doubling of the mortality rate among patients with the disorder.

Studies indicated that un-medicated patients do not have higher chances of committing suicide than medicated bipolar patients. Over-diagnosis has some negative impacts, such as improper psychoeducation and treatment, which leads to poor drug prescription due to exposure to medical risks. Bipolar condition is either over-diagnosed associated with false-positive outcomes and under-diagnosed, which is brings false negatives findings. Healy and colleagues were right in their discovery because they emphasized the hypomania disorder was found to be a bi-polar disorder, which was introduced as a new disorder to DSM-III in the round 1980s. They talked of various steps companies use in marketing medications for the condition, including literature and website materials to expound the knowledge of medicines on the disorder to multiple people. They came up with various drugs and patient guides to better tackle their conditions (Healy and Le Noury, 2021). The hypomanic states’ patients have borderline personality disorder with anger and irritable characters, making the disorder linked with the psychiatric syndrome.

The fact that hypomania, when used by DSM-IV criteria, does not bring social and functional impairment because of over-diagnosis, which failed to identify abstinent period for the patient with substance abuse disorder. The use of DSM-IV criteria brings a reasonable scientific boundary between normal distress and bipolar disorder because the DSM-IV concept helps to bring awareness to clinicians and researchers on the importance of caring about mood changes and general anxiety and stress. Both illicit drugs and prescribed psychiatric drugs can result in the creation of a hypomanic condition. The condition is addressed in the DSM-IV criteria but with challenges of over-diagnosis and under-diagnosis to persist (Aadil et al., 2017). Healy and his colleague claimed that those diagnosed with bipolar II would have sorted for other diagnoses over the past decades, indicating that early diagnosis may have assisted in early prevention after the medical condition of the patients proved the disorder’s existence. They claimed that early diagnosis from other diagnoses might have helped detect other disorders, which might primarily escalate to bipolar II conditions.


Aadil, M., Munir, A., Arshad, H., Tariq, F., Anwar, M. J., Amjad, N., & Akhlaq, A. (2017). Consanguinity Associated with Increased Prevalence and Severity of Bipolar Disorder in Pakistan: A Case Report Highlighting the Genetic Link. Cureus, 9(7).

NPR Cookie Consent and Choices. (2021). Retrieved 23 February 2021, from https://www.npr.org/2010/12/29/132407384/whats-a-mental-disorder-even-experts-cant-agree

PsychiatryLectures. (2014 March 26th). Manic-Depressive Illness- controversies. https://youtu.be/Qs8UKAf3ado

(2021). Retrieved 23 February 2021, from https://openexcellence.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/DHealy2007PediatricBipolarDisorderJRS419.pdf


Rachel Blattstein

Feb 25, 2021 at 9:06 AM

After reviewing and analyzing the material I have concluded that Bipolar disorder can be overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed in different situations. Due to the different disorders having so many overlapping symptoms, it can make it easy to misdiagnose patients (McIntyre et al, 2019, p. 3). Pharmaceutical companies, advertisements, and lack of research on the DSM can impact patients to be overdiagnosed. Authors Healy and Noury (2007), discuss the impact of patients being over-diagnosed. It has been noted that 30-40% is the undiagnosed rate. Psychiatrist Ghaemi analyses the reasons behind people getting undiagnosed due to clinicians being caught up with the disorder labels.

Psychiatrist Ghaemi discussed a study that was completed to analyze major depressive disorder and bipolar symptoms. The study found that about half of people with depressive symptoms also have manic symptoms. But their manic symptoms did not last that long, only 203 days at a time. Due to these patients not having longer time periods with manic symptoms they would go undiagnosed from having bipolar due to the DSM criteria (DSM-5, 2013). This can cause conflict and issues with mistreatment and issues with medication management. Ghaemi discussed how the DSM task force recommended hypo mania be lowered to 2 days for diagnoses, but the DSM leadership denied this (Ghaemi, 2014). This has serious implications for misdiagnoses.

The DSM stated that hypomania must “not be severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning”. This can be concerning for clinicians that the DSM has a strict definition of hypomania because hypomania may present differently in different individuals. Hypomania can be tough to diagnose because it can be disguised as “happy”. Hypomania is when a person doesn’t feel the need to sleep, energized, and can be a happy state for someone. But when it goes undiagnosed it can be untreated leading to a depressive state and could lead to suicidal ideation without the proper support and treatment. When diagnosing clients, it is important for the clinician to not overlook hypomania, and the DSM should be more general in its definition. I don’t see the DSM-criteria as setting a reasonable scientific boundary between “normal” distress and bipolar II disorder because the criteria are very strict and overlap with other disorders making it challenging to pinpoint what a client is experiencing. Everyone’s definition of normal and baseline is different, so it is essential for the clinician to know the client’s “normal” rather than grouping them into categories. Ghaemi stated that people will be diagnosed with a physical condition at least once in their lifetime, but why are we hesitant to diagnose people with mental health disorders. Everyone will go through chapters in their lives where they may need to seek mental health treatment and that should be normalized, like getting treated for a physical health condition (Ghaemi, 2014).

The DSM criteria state in the hypomania criteria “The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication or other treatment).” This does address the concern that hypomania could be due to prescribed and unprescribed drugs but the DSM criteria do not go in-depth about how clinicians can differentiate between hypomania caused by drugs or hypomania caused by bipolar disorder or other mental health disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Researchers have been claiming patients being diagnosed with bipolar today, would have been diagnosed with other disorders in the past. Researchers are claiming the rise in advertisements and marketing is causing people to be diagnosed with bipolar more frequently (Healy & Noury, 2007).

In conclusion, I believe that in some situations people are being overdiagnosed with bipolar disorder and in other situations, people are being undiagnosed. I believe this because each clinician interprets and experiences the DSM differently, has different life experiences, and interprets the media differently. To solve the issues underdiagnosed and over-diagnosed, we need to be well educated on the topics and educate our clients, coworkers, and society.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual or mental disorders (5th edition).

Ghaemi, N. ( 2014, March 25 ). Manic depressive illness controversies. Youtube.


Healy, D., & Noury, J. (2007). Pediatric bipolar disorder: an object of study in the creation of an

illness. International journal of risk and safety in medicine, 209-222.

Mcintrye, R., Zimmerman, M., Goldberg, J., & First, M. (2019). Differential diagnosis of major depressive disorder versus bipolar disorder: current status and best clinical practices. Psychiatrist,80 (3), 15-24.


Abby Boston

Feb 25, 2021 at 1:29 PM

Bipolar disorder (BD) embodies the current understanding of the typical manic-depressive disorder or affective psychosis from earlier centuries (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Correctly diagnosing patients with BD has been problematic at times as several of its symptoms are shared by other conditions. This can lead to both views that BD could be both underdiagnosed and overdiagnosed. After reviewing all of the materials in this module, I generally believe BD is mostly overdiagnosed. This leads us back to the reliability of the DSM and the overwhelming concerns of proper diagnosing.

A contributing factor of possibly being misdiagnosed is a significant number of substances of abuse, prescribed medications, and numerous medical conditions that can be connected with manic-like symptoms (APA, 2013). In a study by Stewart and El-Mallakh (2007), the data represents that BD may be overdiagnosed in patients with substance abuse or dependency. Within the study, only forty-two point nine percent of the subjects were diagnosed with BD after being diagnosed previously. Leaving almost fifty-seven percent misdiagnosed. This study precisely validates that therapists may regularly misdiagnose individuals with substance abuse problems as having BD (Stewart & El-Mallakh, 2007). It is vital to recognize the high comorbidity rates among BD and substance use disorders which promote additional complications while diagnosing and distinguishing when substances may be inducing the patient’s current presenting symptoms.

Spiegel (2010) suggests the addition of BD to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) created alarming consequences. Once the updated version of BD was added to the DSM, the creators of the DSM made it easier to become diagnosed with BD, which lead to tremendous opportunities for drug companies (Spiegel, 2010). Drug companies took advantage of the new diagnosis of BD and how to treat it with mood stabilizers and antipsychotic drugs (Spiegel, 2010). In the mid-1990s, the drug company, Abbott, started marketing the mood-stabilizer Depakote. Before this development, mood stabilization did not exist (Lane, 2009). This created a fivefold increase in the development and use of antipsychotic drugs to treat BD in adults, teens, and children (Lane, 2009). As we have seen with other diagnoses, when the drug companies start advertising and marketing their products, there is a direct impact on how clients are labeled with the associated diagnosis. Spiegel (2010) reports that the diagnosis rates of BD have doubled since the development of these pharmaceutical treatments.

According to the DSM-5, hypomanic episodes do not create impairment (APA, 2013). The impairment usually is produced from the major depressive episodes or an endless array of erratic mood changes and unstable, unpredictable interpersonal or occupational functioning (APA, 2013). These episodes only have to last for four days, which creates the question of how a clinician can decipher between major depressive disorder and bipolar II disorder. I believe it is essential to realize clients may have an increased mood or energy for four days, which is entirely normal, ultimately affecting a diagnosis for a client and their appropriate treatment outcomes. I do not believe the DSM-5 sets a reasonable scientific boundary between normal distress and bipolar II disorder. The DSM-5 does not provide clarity concerning what is normal and not when evaluating a hypomanic state. Lacasse (2014) discusses the DSM-5 as vague and offers no clarity concerning the boundaries between what is normal and what is mentally disordered. The DSM-5 does define the criteria for various mental disorders, but it never identifies what strictly mental disorder is. This allows for interpretation from the clinician, hence why the DSM relatability continues to be an issue. If bipolar II disorder is not diagnosed correctly, it could cause drastic consequences as roughly one-third of individuals with bipolar II disorder report a long history of suicide attempts (APA, 2013).

Accurate identification of these disorders is essential to enhance treatment outcomes (Stewart & El-Mallakh, 2007). As discussed in this week’s module, if clinicians are incorporating a bio bio bio assessment instead of a biopsychosocial assessment, there will be an opportunity to misdiagnose individuals (Lacasse, 2021). Integrating a complete biopsychosocial assessment will allow for additional information to be obtained, like a possible traumatic event or substance abuse, or dependency. If we are solely focused on the DSM checklist, we will miss crucial factors that could be impacting the patient and how their symptoms are presenting.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Author.

Lacasse, J. (2021, February). Module 3 wrap-up with diagnostic exercises and more [Video]. Canvas. https://canvas.fsu.edu/courses/149317/pages/module-3-wrap-up-with-diagnostic-exercises-and-more?module_item_id=2847300

Lacasse, J. R. (2014). After DSM-5: A critical mental health research agenda for the 21stcentury. Research of Social Work Practice, 24(1), 5-10. http://doi:10.1177/1049731513510048

Lane, C. (2009, April 16). Bipolar disorder and its biomythology: An interview with David Healy. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/side-effects/200904/bipolar-disorder-and-its-biomythology-interview-david-healy

Spiegel, A. (2010, December 29). What’s a mental disorder? Even experts can’t agree. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2010/12/29/132407384/whats-a-mental-disorder-even-experts-cant-agree

Stewart C., & El-Mallakh, R. S. (2007). Is bipolar disorder overdiagnosed among patients with substance abuse? Bipolar Disorders, 9, 646-648. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00465.x



Angelina Abbate

Feb 25, 2021 at 8:06 PM

Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is one that can be difficult to diagnose and can often be misdiagnosed (Stewart & El-Mallakh, 2007). Though Ghaemi argues it is underdiagnosed (2014), others suggest that bipolar disorder is overdiagnosed. In general, I do not believe there is a correct answer, as in certain populations it can be overdiagnosed, but in another population, it can be underdiagnosed. For example, Stewart and El-Mallakh’s study found that in substance abuse clients, bipolar disorder is often overdiagnosed (2007). Symptoms of other disorders can easily mimic those of bipolar disorder, leading to overdiagnosing of bipolar when it could potentially be depression, anxiety, or even schizophrenia. I think that both overdiagnosing and underdiagnosing can have consequences, both being equally detrimental, but I believe overdiagnosing is the bigger problem if I had to choose.

Many symptoms overlap that are mistaken to be hypomania or mania, especially when a client has comorbidity of both major depression and bipolar disorder with other disorders. An example of an issue with hypomania is that a hypomanic episode could be mistaken for substance intoxication, which can cause a diagnosis of bipolar that may not be necessary (McIntyre et al., 2019). The definition of hypomania can be interpreted in a multitude of ways and is included in more diagnoses than just bipolar. For example, major depressive disorder (MDD) could consist of hypomanic symptoms that just don’t rise to hypomania’s full criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). But one can mistake the requirements to have been met and diagnose a patient with bipolar when in reality, it should have been MDD.

Hypomania’s requirements in the DSM-5 include a minimum of four days experiencing an abnormal and persistent elevated mood, in addition to meeting at least three other symptoms like a decreased need for sleep, grandiosity, distractibility, or racing thoughts (APA, 2013). This criterion can easily be mistaken for other diagnoses, and a clinician working fast who is unable to determine the exact duration and number of symptoms can easily diagnose wrong (McIntyre et al., 2019). The DSM-5 also states that the episode cannot be “severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning,” which makes it challenging to find the boundary between normal behavior and an actual mental disorder. If this episode does not meet the severe enough levels, how are we considering it to be a bipolar disorder? The criteria to meet for hypomania needs to be more defined as to ensure misdiagnoses can be minimized.

The DSM-5 does include that medications and substances can cause hypomanic-like symptoms, and it is part of the six-step diagnosing process. Step two is meant to rule out that substances may be causing the symptoms before moving on and diagnosing. This step needs to be more thoroughly examined and researched before just quickly moving ahead onto a diagnosis. For example, in Stewart and El-Mallakh’s study (2007), only 42.9% of patients who were previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder actually met the diagnostic criteria. This shows that their substance usage was overlooked when initially being diagnosed.

Healey talks about how the term bipolar that we use today has minimal relation to what was used historically. Before, this disorder, related to manic depression, would mean someone required hospitalization. But now, if you are experiencing certain elevated symptoms for a week, you are considered bipolar (Lane, 2009). I agree with him that this term is used more lightly now, whereas it would’ve been labeled anxiety or depression before. This change in how we use bipolar is a big reason we are often misdiagnosing bipolar disorder.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).

Ghaemi, N. (2014). Manic depressive illness controversies. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=Qs8UKAf3ado

Lane, C. (2009). Bipolar disorder and its biomythology: An interview with David Healy. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/side-effects/200904/bipolar-disorder-and-its-biomythology-interview-david-healy

McIntyre, R., Zimmerman, M., Goldberg, J. F., First, M. B. (2019). Differential diagnosis of major depressive disorder versus bipolar disorder: Current status and best clinical practices. J Clin Psychiatry, 80(3). doi:10.4088/JCP.ot18043ah2

Stewart C. & El-Mallakh, R. S. (2007). Is bipolar disorder overdiagnosed among patients with substance abuse? Bipolar Disorders, 9(6), 646-648. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00465.x


Traci Bass

Feb 25, 2021 at 9:02 PM

There is much controversy surrounding the DSM-5 as a whole, and specifically the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar Disorder. The terminology “Bipolar Disorder” was added to the DSM-III in 1980 and replaced the term “Manic Depressive Disorder.” The criteria continued to evolve to the present-day diagnostic criteria set forth in the DSM-5, which is defined as a course of depressive episodes mixed with hypomania and/or mania (APA, 2013). According to the DSM-5, Bipolar Disorder hypomanic episodes are diagnosable if they extend for four days or more, while manic episodes are diagnosable if they last one week or more. Manic episodes are disruptive to what may be considered normal life, while hypomanic episodes are not disruptive.

According to Stewart and El-Mallakh (2007), Bipolar Disorder is hard to fully diagnose after a single one-hour session. They state that approximately 70% of patients are incorrectly diagnosed, most as having major depression upon first diagnosis. It actually took several years for the correct diagnosis to be given to many of these patients. With so many overlapping symptoms, misdiagnosis is bound to happen (McIntyre, Zimmerman, Goldberg, and First, 2019).

It is my opinion that Bipolar Disorder can be under-diagnosed and over-diagnosed given the situation. I believe that under-diagnosis is more problematic than over-diagnosis. The fact that medication is given too often to stabilize mood is not as terrifying to me as giving a person with Bipolar Disorder an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) that may exacerbate the problems that they are already experiencing. I personally have been prescribed an anti-seizure medication that doubles as an off-label mood stabilizer (lamotrigine). This was after 21 years of being diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and taking medications that helped with the depressive episodes, but not with the hypomania that was becoming more of a problem. Admittedly, I now regret being prescribed the mood stabilizer, because I realized that the hypomanic episodes is where all of the “magic” happened. Over-diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder would be problematic if there were more unwelcome side effects from mood stabilizers like there are with SSRIs.

Comorbidities are one of the many reasons that over-diagnosis happens. It is not uncommon to have a patient present with the classic symptoms of Bipolar Disorder, only to find out later that the patient should have been diagnosed with Substance Use Disorder. It is very difficult to properly diagnose a patient within the first one-hour meeting. Reliance upon therapists with whom the patient visits weekly or otherwise on a regular basis should not be taken lightly.

In summary, it is my opinion that it is much more desirable to over-diagnose Bipolar Disorder than it is to under-diagnose the disorder. The reasons for this is that it seems less likely for the patient to suffer unwanted side effects such as suicidality from unnecessary SSRIs. Though not infallible, the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 should be followed carefully in order to not allow this to happen on a regular basis.


Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. (2013). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

McIntyre, Zimmerman, Goldberg, First (2019) Differential diagnosis of major depressive disorder versus bipolar disorder: current status and best clinical practices. J Clin Psychiatry. 80(3):ot18043ah2

Stewart, C., & El-Mallakh, R. S. (2007). Is bipolar disorder overdiagnosed among patients with substance abuse? Bipolar Disorders, 9(6), 646-648. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00465.x


Brittany Best

Feb 25, 2021 at 10:50 PM

Over diagnosis or Under diagnosis

This module has expanded my perspective on bipolar disorder. I have realized that the criteria for bipolar disorder is not cut and dry, many factors contribute to inaccurate or misdiagnosis such as overlapping symptoms of conditions and comorbidity. What I have gleaned from this module is that the more I learn, the less I know. Over diagnosis and under diagnosis are both valid problems for bipolar disorder. Pharmaceutical advertisements and disease mongering are partially to blame for the overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder (Healy & Le Noury, 2007). The popularization of mood questionnaires and mood journals have contributed to the trend of neural typical people seeking medication or professional help for issues that do not rise to the level of clinical significance (2007). Another factor in over diagnosis is substance abuse. Because intoxication mimics many bipolar symptoms, clients who suffer from alcoholism or substance abuse are often misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder (Stewart & El-Mallakh, 2007). This is due to artificial highs and lows brought on by drug binges and/or withdraw symptoms. Although there is a clause in the DSM-5 that mentions that hypomanic or manic episodes should not be attributable to the psychological effects of substance abuse, many clients may not admit to using substances or they may have a comorbidity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

A reason for under diagnosis is because many clients who are suffering from bipolar disorder seek help when they are in a depressive episode (McIntyre, Zimmerman, Goldberg, & First, 2019). This causes clients to receive an inaccurate diagnosis of major depressive disorder. On the flip side, clients who are experiencing manic or hypomanic episodes may be misdiagnosed as having ADHD, borderline personality disorder or another condition with overlapping symptoms (2019). These instances of misdiagnosis can be extremely dangerous especially if inaccurate medications are prescribed. Certain medications, such as those used to treat ADHD, “may exacerbate psychotic, manic or hyper manic symptoms in a person with bipolar disorder” (2019). Another risk of under diagnosing or misdiagnosing bipolar disorder is death (Ghaemi, 2013).

Normal distress V.S Bipolar II

I think that the line between a hypomanic episode and “normal functioning” is quite fuzzy. Especially since hypomanic episodes are “not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.” The addition of bipolar II in the DSM-5 might lead to an overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder because the confines of the diagnostic criteria are easily met. After re-reading the criteria for bipolar II, it does not seem markedly strange that a client that has experienced a major depressive episode may have 4 consecutive days of an elevated mood and a burst of goal directed energy that does not necessarily effect social or occupational functioning. I am sure that if I tracked my moods with a journal, I could find a pattern that would qualify me to be diagnosed with bipolar II. I do not think that the DSM-5 sets a reasonable boundary between normal destress and a “psychiatric syndrome.” After completing this module, I have found that the conditions in the DSM-5 are clusters of symptoms that help clinicians categorize, define and understand human traits. I am not surprised when hearing about Healy’s claim that clients who are diagnosed as bipolar would have received a different diagnosis in the past. Society is constantly changing, and many factors including pharmaceutical companies and advertisement have a heavy influence on cultural norms.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.

Ghaemi, N. (2013, March 20). Manic-Depressive Illness- controversies. Lecture presented at Stockholm Psychiatry Lecture in Karolinska Institutet, Boston. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=Qs8UKAf3ado

Healy, D., & Le Noury, J. (2007). Pediatric bipolar disorder: An object of study in the creation of an illness. International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 201-229.

McIntyre, R., Zimmerman, M., Goldberg, J., & First, M. (2019). Differential diagnosis of major depressive disorder versus bipolar disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 80(3). doi:10.4088/jcp.ot18043ah2

Stewart, C., & El-Mallakh, R. S. (2007). Is bipolar disorder overdiagnosed among patients with substance abuse? Bipolar Disorders, 9(6), 646-648. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00465.x


Karen Alvarez

Feb 25, 2021 at 11:11 PM

Bipolar Disorder

When it comes to whether or not a bipolar disorder is being underdiagnosed or overdiagnosed, how can you say who’s right and who’s wrong when there are people on both sides of the spectrum trying to prove they are right? Bipolar disorder is a complex condition, and patients can present with an entire range of psychiatric symptoms (Smith & Ghaemi, 2010). Phelps (2014) reported that over half of patients who had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder did not meet official standards for that diagnosis. David Healy said that with the increased use of the internet and drug company materials, patients self-diagnosed themselves with bipolar disorder without any validity from the therapist (Lane, 2009). If patients are diagnosed then given medication to assist with a disorder that they don’t even have, it can be detrimental. The DSM has too many diagnoses written broadly, meaning that ultimately a vast number of new people will be categorized as mentally ill (Spiegel, 2010).

On the other hand, Stewart & El-Mallakh (2007) stated that bipolar illness might be underdiagnosed in substance abuse patients. When the diagnosis comes from different therapists from different education or understanding of bipolar, one could expect different diagnoses. Bipolar disorder is challenging to diagnose, and many of its symptoms are shared by other conditions (Stewart & El-Mallakh, 2007). So how can anyone come to a conclusion between overdiagnosing and underdiagnosing bipolar clients? Ghaemi (2014) reported that the DSM sets therapists up for failure due to it not being scientific. He said that 91% of the DSM is not scientific (Ghaemi, 2014).

Diagnosing clients appropriately is vital. When looking at the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) under a bipolar diagnosis, hypomania lasts at least four consecutive days and presents most of the day, nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The clients must have a minimum of three of the following symptoms: inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, more talkative, flight of ideas or racing thoughts, distractibility, taking on too much at work, having lowered inhibitions, and engaging in risky behaviors (Pietrangelo, 2018). The issue is how a client can be diagnosed after only four consecutive days of listed symptoms, especially when the therapist has to go on only the client’s information. A client cannot get 3 hours of sleep, be easily distracted, engage in risky behavior, and not affect them socially or professionally.

As far as the bipolar criteria discussing the effects of a client’s use of illicit drugs or prescribed psychiatric drugs on hypomania, it is very minimal. The DSM-5 does mention that the symptoms cannot be attributed to drug abuse, medication, or other treatments (APA, 2013). APA (2013) also makes a note about clients who take antidepressants but as a side note. Stewart & El-Mallakh (2007) stated that manic, hypomanic, or subsyndromal hypomanic episodes occurred in clients during active abuse or withdrawal of a substance. This seems like another reason to question the accuracy of the diagnoses.

Healy’s claim that clients diagnosed with bipolar now would have been diagnosed with other disorders in the past is just another solidification that the world of diagnosing is ever-changing. Healy also discusses how people would have been hospitalized for the classic manic-depressive disorder (Lane, 2009). He discusses how people with the same symptoms are being treated medically differently as time goes on. This again is more proof that the diagnosis and treatment are based on who is making the diagnosis. I do not think that they would change the criteria in the DSM-5 for any disorder, but maybe they would tighten up the criteria so that it is more scientific/proven by theory.


Bipolar and Related Disorders. (2013). In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed., pp. 123-154). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

Ghaemi, N. (PsychiatryLectures). (2014, March 24). Manic-Depressive Illness- controversies (Video). https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=Qs8UKAf3ado

Lane, C. (2009, April 16). Bipolar disorder and its biomythology: An interview with David Healy. Retrieved February 24, 2021, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/side-effects/200904/bipolar-disorder-and-its-biomythology-interview-david-healy

Phelps, J. (2014, September 15). Is bipolar Disorder Overdiagnosed? Retrieved February 24, 2021, from https://psycheducation.org/blog/is-bipolar-disorder-overdiagnosed/

Pietrangelo, A. (2018, September 17). What You Should Know About Mania vs. Hypomania. Retrieved February 24, 2021, from https://www.healthline.com/health/mania-vs-hypomania

Smith, D., & Ghaemi, N. (2010, February 22). Is underdiagnosis the main pitfall when diagnosing bipolar disorder? Yes. Retrieved February 24, 2021, from https://www.bmj.com/content/340/bmj.c854

S. Nassir Ghaemi, M.D., M.P.H., Bipolar Disorder Expert. (n.d.).Families for Depression Awareness. Retrieved February 24, 2021, fromhttps://www.familyaware.org/s-nassir-ghaemi-m-d-m-p-h-bipolar-disorder-expert#:~:text=Onaverage,ittakes20yearsoruntil,pictureofaeuphoricpersonasbeingmanic.

Spiegel, A. (2010, December 29). What’s a mental disorder? Even experts can’t agree. Retrieved February 24, 2021, from https://www.npr.org/2010/12/29/132407384/whats-a-mental-disorder-even-experts-cant-agree

Stewart, C., & El-Mallakh, R. S. (2007). Is bipolar disorder overdiagnosed among patients with substance abuse? Bipolar Disorders, 9(6), 646-648.

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At UC, it is a priority that students are provided with strong educational programs and courses that allow them to be servant-leaders in their disciplines and communities, linking research with practice and knowledge with ethical decision-making. This assignment is a written assignment where students will demonstrate how this course research has connected and put into practice within their own career.

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