College of San Mateo Brutality and Oppression in the Nickel Boys Analytical Review Writing Assignment Help

College of San Mateo Brutality and Oppression in the Nickel Boys Analytical Review Writing Assignment Help. College of San Mateo Brutality and Oppression in the Nickel Boys Analytical Review Writing Assignment Help.


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  • Discuss Whitehead’s use of metaphor, simile, imagery, and other literary devices as a means to send particular thematic messages within the narrative of The Nickel Boys. Discuss Whitehead’s treatment of truth, lies, and hypocrisy within the text of The Nickel Boys.
  • What is Whitehead’s message regarding the actions people must take in order to combat systematic racism built into the fabric of the United States? How is the topic of political activism treated within The Nickel Boys and how does its treatment relate to the novel’s depicted messages?
  • Analyze the interplay between the resolution of The Nickel Boys and one of the novel’s main messages. How does Whitehead make connections between these elements and how does their juxtaposition help them get across one main message of the novel?
  • What message does Whitehead send within the pages of The Nickel Boys concerning the link between oppression and brutality?

Alternatively, you may also choose your own prompt as long as A) It pertains to literary technique and B) You have it approved by me.

Go through the novel and take note of how the author uses narrative, character, setting, symbolism, other elements, to convey ideas. As you write your analysis, employ as many of the literary terms introduced in class. Be sure to include the following techniques, terms, elements, and/or tools.

Some of those the literary terms that you will need to be familiar with to analyze these texts:

Screen Shot 2020-12-01 at 3.12.35 AM.png

Construct a thesis that indicates a) your focus, and b) the relation of that focus to the book as a whole. For example, a thesis for “A Good Man is Hard to Find” might be: Characterization and irony help convey O’Connor’s theme that perhaps men should first be good men themselves rather than judging others. For “The Storm,” a thesis might be: “The symbolic meanings of the storm are clear, but what is less clear is to whom those meanings should be applied and thus the characterization and irony in the story correlates directly to the title of the work.” Though not as obvious as the first thesis, the second thesis would focus on narrative/POV and characterization.

Also note that there is some latitude in assigning meaning to a short story. What I see as the major theme may be different than what you see. The important criterion to keep in mind is: Can you prove it? Therefore, you need a thesis because you are arguing for your interpretation of the story. The thesis should not be so obvious that your reader will say “so what?” Don’t settle for trite generalizations. Instead, make a statement which indicates thought and depth, and which requires support and proof. Your goal should be to illuminate for the readers some point that they might not have noticed upon first reading the story.

Find evidence in the text to support your thesis, and organize the rest of your essay around these quotations and examples. Do not rely on generalizations about or paraphrases of the story to convince your reader, but provide specific evidence and discuss the importance of that evidence for your thesis. Please note: you should not insert huge chunks of quotes in your paper and count that against your minimum page length. Roughly 80% of the paper should be your own words and thoughts.

Don’t just end your essay, conclude it. Sum up, reinforce your argument so that the readers see that your evidence does support your thesis. (WITHOUT INTRODUCING ANY NEW IDEAS)

FORMAT AND CONVENTIONS:

1) The titles of books are italicized in academic essays.

2) Follow direct quotations with the author’s name (not the title) and page numbers from your text, in parentheses. Close the quotation marks before the citation; put the end punctuation after it. For example: “Thus she passed from generation to generation—dear, inescapable, impervious, tranquil, perverse” (Faulkner 31).

3) Always write about literature in the present tense.

4) Your essay should be analytical, thus you should not waste too much of your time with plot summary.

5) Your paper should be typed, double–spaced, 12 point font. In the upper left-hand corner of your first page, include: Your last name and page number

6) Your essay should have a creative title. Not just ‘Essay 2’ or ‘Short Story Analysis.’ Use a creative and informative title or else have the decency to make it funny like “Essay 2: The Fellowship of the Essay”

It is important to write succinctly. DO NOT JUST RE-TELL THE STORY. DO NOT risk plagiarism – if you use information from a textbook, then you must cite that information correctly – the Norton Anthology discusses how to write a paper, including how to document outside sources; Do not write a plot outline—this assignment is to analyze: what is the author “saying” to the reader. What literary techniques and conventions does he or she use to say it? What is the “point” of the story? Does it show us anything worthwhile about people or about life? Keep your discussion focused on analyzing how the literature works within the story.

College of San Mateo Brutality and Oppression in the Nickel Boys Analytical Review Writing Assignment Help[supanova_question]

FIN 4372 Rasmussen College Practical Investment Strategies Worksheet Business Finance Assignment Help

ABC
Capital Management is one of the most prestigious asset management
companies in the country. It has been managing the wealth of America for
over 100 years. It utilizes various forms of fundamental, technical,
and quantitative analyses in the design and implementation of its
several investment strategies and portfolios. Today, ABC Capital is a
global investment management firm that continues to focus on rigorous
research and the development of innovative, practical investment
strategies. Because of this, ABC Capital is able to achieve the goals of
its clients: individuals, pension funds, endowment funds, banks,
insurance companies, foundations, and sovereign wealth funds.

You
work as a junior portfolio manager with ABC Capital. As part of the
normal portfolio review process, the company provides a list of 20
possible investments. You must select at least 6, but not more than 12,
investments to create a fully asset-allocated portfolio that will have
the characteristics of an 11% expected return, a beta of 0.5 or less,
and a correlation of less than 60% to the stock market. Assume broad
market returns are 8% annually and use the current 1-year treasury
yield. You will create the portfolio and present it to the company.

  • In the Word document provided below, explain the following:
    • Your portfolio.
    • Rationale for the investment selection including the weighting of each investment.
    • Whether it is better to use active or passive investment management.
  • Support your findings by showing your calculations in the spreadsheet provided below. Include:
    • Calculations for achieving required characteristics (expected return, beta, and correlation).
    • Calculations for the risk adjusted rate of return (Sharpe Ratio and Treynor Ratio).

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Goniometry Rotation of The Shoulder & the Sit and Reach Test Discussion Science Assignment Help

1. What is goniometry and what is the purpose of this type of testing?

2. If you observed a large difference in lateral rotation of the shoulder between left and right sides in your client, what kind of stretching recommendations would you give?

3. What is the purpose of the sit and reach test? What modifications would you use for someone who could not sit at the box?

4. What is the purpose of the lumbar stability test?

5. If your client had trouble holding the trunk flexion position, but the glute/ham bench was no problem for him or her, what would you suggest he or she do for core stretching?

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SOC 120 UMN The Important Functions of Family in Modern Society Paper Writing Assignment Help

I’m working on a social science project and need a sample draft to help me study.

This is a formal academic research paper, requiring 12-point font, double-line spacing, with American Psychological Association, APA, citations and references. Produce a research paper, with correct references of approximately 5-10 pages:

  • Find a topic, and research some additional information about it.
  • Remember to cite/reference these sources in your paper.
  • Determine what you want to discuss about this topic
    • how you want to present it (informative, discussion, persuasive etc.)
    • how you want to structure it
  • Introduce at least one sociological theory covered in this course and discuss in relationship to the topic you have chosen.
  • Find an organization or a group (local, national or international) which is attempting to address the topic you have chosen. Explain
    • how they are bringing awareness to the topic, or,
    • how they are attempting to resolve any issues which might arise from it.
  • End with a discussion of your thoughts about the topic or issues it raises.

My topic: The Important Functions of Family in Modern Society

Topic: Social problems can directly be related families within our society. Families play a crucial role in stabilizing our society and have many functional attributions to the society we live in. I will discuss the evolution of families over the years, and the functions, conflicts, and certain theories that families adhere and establish to better understand their impact on society.


From the conflict theoretical perspective

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CSCM 1030 WU The Impacts of Texting & Driving on Road Safety Research Paper Humanities Assignment Help

Students will write a research paper of between 1250 and 1750 words (suggested length of paper, excluding title page and bibliography is 5-7 pages) using APA style. Papers should refer to a minimum of four sources of which at least two are scholarly sources and at least two are print sources (Articles from ProQuestDirect and other databases are considered to be print sources). Encourage students to use varying types of sources (periodicals, books, reference works, and on-line sources). This assignment is done in conjunction with speech 4.

(Please make sure to use simple English ).

I need also rough draft . And I need you to write the Monroe’s Motivated Sequence in file and send it to me.and need you to do the same with the PREP.

So in the end I need you to send me:

1_ research paper

2-rough draft

3_ Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

4_ PREP.

if you need any thing else tell me please

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SOC 120 University of California Global Justice Movements Discussion Humanities Assignment Help

Due Dec 17, by 4pm

Things to know: Major Criteria

  1. Include 5 websites (from work cited)
  2. 6-8 paged double spaced or 3-4 single spaced
  3. Contextualize website with lecture, document, and readings
  4. “Mind at work” More than a summary, Wants a POV that connects website to class

Instructions:

The final graded assignment out of class will be to explore the websites for various Global Justice Movement organizations. You should explore at least five global justice movement websites from the list below:

50 Years is Enough! Campaign, http://www.50years.org/

The Dawn, http://www.thedawn-news.org/

Rebelión, https://www.rebelion.org/ (this site for Spanish readers)

Left on the Move, https://portaldelaizquierda.com/en/

Mintpress News, https://www.mintpressnews.com/

The Global Exchange, http://www.globalexchange.org/

Socialist Alternative, https://www.socialistalternative.org/

The Maquila Solidarity Network, http://www.maquilasolidarity.org/

International Forum on Globalization, http://www.ifg.org/,

Focus on the Global South: http://www.focusweb.org/

MADRE: http://www.madre.org/

Center for Research on Globalization: http://globalresearch.ca/

Transnational Institute: http://www.tni.org/

Third World Network, https://www.twn.my/index.htm

Institute for Policy Studies: http://www.ips-dc.org/

Rainforest Action Network: http://www.ran.org/

Action for Solidarity, Equality, Environment and Development (A SEED), http://www.aseed.net/

Global Research: http://www.globalresearch.ca/about

Food First (Institute for Food and Development Policy), http://www.foodfirst.org/

Friends of the Earth International, http://www.foei.org/

World War 4 Report, http://ww4report.com/dailyreport or http://countervortex.org/about

Human Rights Campaign (LGBTQ rights worldwide): http://www.hrc.org/

Fightback!News, http://www.fightbacknews.org/

Information Clearning House, http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/

Toward Freedom: http://www.towardfreedom.com/home/

Global Women’s Strike: http://www.globalwomenstrike.net

Los Despojados (most entries are in English): http://losdespojados.tumblr.com/

http://avispa.org/

CorpWatch, http://www.corpwatch.org/

Truthout, https://truthout.org/

Left on the Move, https://portaldelaizquierda.com/en/

Organizing Upgrade, https://organizingupgrade.com/

Pambazuka News, https://www.pambazuka.org/

Toward Freedom, https://towardfreedom.org/

ROAR, https://roarmag.org/about/

For this assignment you will need to spend a number of hours on the web exploring these websites, reading some of the articles and commentaries, and gaining an understanding of some of the popular literature and features on the web that have to do with the theme of globalization and resistance. Then you will write up a report, between 6-8 pages approximately, on your experience and your analysis of the exercise. This report will be due in final exam week, date to be announced. It should be a wide-ranging analytical discussion. You should draw on course readings, lectures, and other materials to analyze the content of these web sites, relating that content to the course and what you have learned. Demonstrate your analytical prowess and ability to apply what you have learned in the course.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Emails Regarding Final Paper:

12/8

The final assignment is due on December 17 by 4 pm at the latest. The instructions are on the syllabus. The idea is that you discuss how the websites that you explored may be linked to the varied themes and readings covered in the course. To put this another way, one of my goals in the course is for you to have developed insight into making sense of what is going on in the world. How did the course content help you to understand the content of the websites that you visited?

I wish everyone a happy holiday season and New Year – as best as possible in the midst of the pandemic. Stay safe!

Your professor

_______________________________________

12/14

Hi everyone,

A few people have asked for more detail about how final papers will be graded. Oscar and I will be using the following criteria to grade:

-Student completed the assignment – 10 points

-Student fulfilled the page count – 2 points

-Student included at least 5 five websites – 2

-Student tied the websites to a lecture, documentary and/or reading from the course – 2

-Student ANALYZED not summarized the material – 4 points

Max grade: 20 points

Note – this mirrors the syllabus as well as Prof. Robinson’s 12/8 email about the final paper.

Good luck!!

_______________________________________________________________________________________

It is recommended to use our past weekly reflections as reference and say things like ‘as prof Robinson stated in lecture…’ which can help complete the final paper.

SOC 120 University of California Global Justice Movements Discussion Humanities Assignment Help[supanova_question]

Bowie State University Business Financial Optimal Solution Discussion Business Finance Assignment Help

Be sure to read the instructions below before getting started.

Instructions: Review the data file and answer the questions. Your answers should be submitted in the form of a Word document. The Word document should include ALL your answers including any charts, tables, or graphs required. Answer questions with complete sentences and using appropriate units and notation. You need to submit the Excel files that supports your work

PROBLEM:

INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIES, INC.

International Industries, Inc. is a $53 billion conglomerate that owns and runs a wide variety of businesses worldwide. The scope of these businesses (which are called “divisions” at International Industries) ranges from retail packaged foods to industrial machine tools to financial services. George Ye has been CEO of International Industries for the past six years. At a recent meeting of the Board of Directors, Mr. Ye had come under criticism for International Industries poor performance in the last two years. In particular, the Board felt that Mr. Ye was not decisive enough in selling divisions that had been underperforming, and that he was also not aggressively investing in new businesses (particularly in the computer and bio-technology sectors). To his credit, Mr. Ye had closed four divisions during his tenure as CEO (which were smart moves, even in hindsight), and he had invested more than $2 billion in a new worldwide-web-based internet division, and more than $1 billion in a new division involved in the development of industry-oriented financial software.

After the Board of Directors meeting, George Ye arranged a meeting with the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of International Industries, Mr. Paul Glasser. George Ye asked Mr. Glasser to undertake a comprehensive re-evaluation of all the divisions of International Industries. More specifically, he asked Mr. Glasser to recommend to him which divisions to sell, which divisions merited further investment of capital, and which should be maintained at status quo. Furthermore, he wanted this analysis completed within the next two months, in time for the next quarterly meeting of the Board of Directors.

Mr. Glasser retained the services of the consulting firm GCG, Inc. for assistance in this decidedly large and important undertaking. Mr. Glasser asked the directors of each of the thirty divisions of International Industries to submit a request for capital expenditures (with justification and back-up). For each division, Mr. Glasser wanted to decide whether International Industries should further invest in the division, maintain the division with no significant additional investment, or sell the division. Of course, it would also be nice to consider other investment options for each division, such as investing more or less than the requested amount, but with only two months to complete his analysis, Mr. Glasser honestly thought he would have to keep his decision framework purposely limited in scope.

For each of the thirty divisions and for each of the three decision choices (invest, maintain, or sell), Mr. Glasser asked the division vice president to report the investment amount required, the expected financial implications of the choice (measured in net present value (NPV)), and the cash flow implications of the choice for the coming year. With the help of the GCG consultants, each of the thirty divisions submitted the requested information. For example, consider the tool and die manufacturing division, which is division number 2. The summary information for division 2 is shown below:

Choice

Investment Requirement (in $ million)

Net Present Value (in $ million)

Cash Flow for Next Year (in $ million)

Invest

300

-257

-200

Maintain

40

-16

35

Sell

400

1,100

1,600

The plan to invest in this division consists of building a new factory in Mexico, buying new machinery, buying new computer systems, and expanding warehousing capacity. The plan to maintain this division merely requires upgrading obsolete equipment. The plan to sell this division involved funds expended for canceling leases and contracts and for severance packages for higher-level managers. The spreadsheet (link) contains all the information collected by GEG for all 30 divisions.

Mr. Glasser needed to determine which decision (invest, maintain, or sell) to recommend for each division. His decision criterion was to maximize the net present value to International Industries, subject to cash flow considerations. The cash-flow considerations were that the total investment amount for next year could not exceed the total cash flow for next year. Mr. Glasser also identified some choices that were interrelated, which he listed as follows in his discussions with GCG:

(a) For strategic reasons, if International Industries sells division 1, then they should invest in division 2 and vice versa. Similarly, if International Industries sells division 1, then they should sell division 3 and vice versa.

(b) If International Industries invests in division 6, then they should also invest in division 7, but not necessarily, vice versa.

(c) For diversification purposes, Mr. Glasser felt that at most one of the following choices could be made: sell division 3, sell division 4, sell division 5, maintain division 6, sell division 7, and sell division 9.

(d) Lastly, given the similarities of divisions 24 and 28, Mr. Glasser felt that if International Industries invests in division 24, then they should also invest in division 28.

Given that there are three choices for each of the thirty divisions, Paul Glasser realized that there were possible investment strategies to consider, which of course is an astronomical number. When he discussed this with the consultants at GCG, they pointed out to him that they thought they might be able to compute the optimal investment strategy by formulating and solving the decision problem as a discrete optimization problem. Mr. Glasser knew that even if he found the “optimal decision strategy” George Ye would most certainly ask him about the sensitivity of his decision to key financial assumptions. From previous experience, Paul Glasser also knew that George Ye would ask him not only for his “optimal” recommendation, but he would also ask Paul for his second-best and third-best alternative recommendations.

Questions

Suppose that you are an associate of the firm GCG. Using the data provided in the spreadsheet, construct an optimization model of the problem faced by International Industries.

  • A) Provide the linear programming formulation. Define decision variables, objective function and constraints. Feel free to use short notation and abbreviate parts of the formulation.
  • B) Create the spreadsheet model and solve it using Solver. Use “FORMULATEXT” to show constraint calculations and objective function calculation. <Insert screenshot of model, and answer report>
  • C) What is the optimal recommendation? Use a visual to communicate the recommendation.

(b) What is the penalty for imposing restrictions (a)-(d) outlined above? That is, how much does the optimal NPV change if these restrictions are removed?

(c) Your boss knows that Mr. Glasser likes to have options and asked you to also include in your report the second best and third best solution to the optimization model.

  • 1)Devise, explain and implement a methodology to generate the second best and the third best solutions.
  • 2)How do the alternative solutions differ?
  • 3)How much does the optimal NPV change compare to the best?

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Bowie State University Two Sample Hypothesis Testing Questions Business Finance Assignment Help

Instructions: Review the data file and answer the questions. Your answers should be submitted in the form of a Word document. The Word document should include any charts, tables, or graphs you create. You are also required to submit an Excel file, or copy of hand calculations to support your answers.

Question 1

A real estate agent has collected a random sample of 75 houses that were recently sold in a suburban community. She is particularly interested in comparing the appraised value and recent selling price of the houses in this particular market. The data are provided in the file Real_Estate.xlsx.

  1. Calculate summary statistics for the data. Copy and paste the results.
  2. What test is more appropriate (a two-sample test or a paired test) to assess whether there is evidence of a mean difference in the appraised values and selling prices? Explain your reasoning.
  3. Using this sample data, test whether there is a statistically significant mean difference between the appraised values and selling prices of the houses sold in this suburban community.
    1. Set up the appropriate null and alternative hypothesis for this situation. Specify whether this is a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test and explain your reasoning.
    2. Use StatTools to conduct the test and compute the p-value for your test statistic. For which level of significance is it appropriate to conclude that no difference exists between these two values? Copy and paste the output generated by StatTools.
  4. Communicate the results of the test in plain English within the context of the problem.

Question 2

A bank has the business objective of improving the process for servicing customers during the noon-to-1PM lunch period. To do so, the waiting time (defined as the number of minutes that elapses from when the customer enters the line until he or she reaches the teller window) needs to be shortened to increase customer satisfaction. A random sample of customers at two different branches of the bank is selected and the waiting times are collected and stored in the file BankTimes.xlsx. Is there evidence that the mean waiting time in Branch 1 is less than in Branch 2?

  1. Specify the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. State whether you are using a one- or two-tailed test and explain your reasoning.
  2. Determine the appropriate hypothesis test to this problem. Justify your answer.
  3. Conduct calculations “by hand” to compute the critical value and p-value of the test. Determine your decision using two methods, the rejection region and the p-value approach.
  4. Use StatTools to conduct the hypothesis test. Copy and paste the command and output generated by StatTools.
  5. Communicate the results of the test in “plain English” including the meaning of the p-value.

Question 3

How often does work intrude during off hours? A survey of 1,000 office workers indicated that 53% of males and 41% of females had office intrusion while on vacation. Assume that the survey consisted of 500 males and 500 females. At the 0.05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in the proportion of males and females who experience office intrusions while on vacation?

  1. Specify the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. State whether you are using a one- or two-tailed test and explain your reasoning.
  2. Determine the appropriate hypothesis test to this problem. Justify your answer
  3. Conduct calculations “by hand” to compute the critical value and p-value of the test. Determine your decision using two methods, the rejection region and the p-value approach.
  4. Use StatTools to conduct the hypothesis test. Copy and paste the command and output generated by StatTools.
  5. Communicate the results of the test in “plain English” including the meaning of the p-value.

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Trident University International Week 3 Case Ethics Program Discussion Business Finance Assignment Help

Ethics Program Implementation

As you can see by your reading, a lot of energy goes into the implementation of an organizational ethics program. And Lockheed Martin has clearly allotted considerable resources to assuring their program is successful. In this assignment, we’ll be focusing on what the company did to ensure the implementation of a successful program that was flexible enough to accommodate the changing needs of the organization.

Assignment

Please address the following questions:

  1. On p. 83 Terris discusses the company’s ethics code. Why is the code considered important to the company’s ethics program?
  2. Discuss the importance of ethics training and employee involvement. What are some of the things Lockheed does to make the training process interesting and worthwhile?
  3. How does Lockheed measure success with respect to ethics in the workplace?
  4. What are some of the things Lockheed does at the operational level to make their ethics program work?

Assignment Expectations

Write a 3- to 4-page paper, not including the title page or references page addressing the issue, and upload it by the end of this module.

Your paper should be double-spaced and in 12-point type size.

Your paper should have a separate cover page and a separate reference page. Make sure you cite your sources.

Use APA style, and proofread your paper.

Upload your paper by the end of the module.

The Chief Ethics Officer

Assignment Overview

In this assignment, you will be asked to consider the role of organizational leaders with respect to ensuring companies work to create an ethical workplace culture. It is important for all upper-level leaders to ‘walk the talk’ so to speak. In addition, many larger companies have a Chief Ethics and Compliance Officer who provides leadership and oversight to the company’s business ethics-related endeavors. Recall that Lockheed Martin has such an executive-level position. However, not all companies have such a position. In this assignment, you will be asked to discuss the contributions of executive leaders and of the Ethics Officer with respect to building an organization that values workplace ethics.

  1. What do you believe are the most important characteristics of ethical leadership?
  2. Describe the relationship between the ethical leader and the follower.
  3. Why is this relationship important for organizations that are attempting to do the right thing?
  4. Based on your readings (both the articles provided and Terris’ text), what is the role of the Chief Ethics Officer, and how does the role of this person relate to the success of the ethics-related endeavors within large organizations?

Assignment Expectations

Your paper should be 2–3 pages, double-spaced, and in 12-point type size.

Your paper should have a separate cover page and a separate reference page. Make sure you cite your sources.

Use APA style, and proofread your paper.

Upload your paper by the end of the module.

Terris, D. (2013). Ethics at work: Creating virtue at an American corporation. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press. Retrieved from the Trident Online Library.

For your SLP assignment, please read the following article.

Gnazzo, P. J. (2011). The chief ethics and compliance officer: A test of endurance. Business & Society Review (00453609), 116(4). Retrieved from the Trident Online Library.

Also, please spend some time researching other sources to help you develop your key arguments.

Mihelic, K. K., Lipicnik, B., & Tekavcic, M., (2010). Ethical leadership. International Journal of Management and Information Systems, 14(5), 31-41. Retrieved from the Trident Online Library.

Oates, V., & Dalmau, T. (2013). Instilling ethical leadership. Accountancy SA, 38-41. Retrieved from the Trident Online Library.

Cavico, F. J., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2017). Wells Fargo’s fake accounts scandal and its legal and ethical implications for management. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 82(2), 4-19.

Venezia, C. C., Venezia, G., Cavico, F. J., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2011). Is ethics education necessary? A comparative study of moral cognizance in Taiwan and the United States. The International Business & Economics Research Journal, 10(3), 17-28.

The following tutorial provides detailed information that can be applied to the topics of this course. There are a number of videos and lessons on ethics.

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/epcc-introethics-1/chapter/do-you-have-to-be-an-expert-to-practice-ethics/

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VIS 127P University of California Los Angeles Japanese Buddhist Art Essay Humanities Assignment Help

Writing for Art and Art History

Overview │Forms of Analysis │ Critical Terms │ │Citation Style

An Overview

Writing for Art and Art History is most often critical analysis. Papers generally follow the traditional format for an analytical essay: intro with thesis, body paragraphs in support of the thesis, and a conclusion. Include a topic sentence for each paragraph, and keep your thoughts clear and concise. The writing should state its intention, and then work slowly to prove said intention to the reader. Since this writing is critical analysis, all claims should be supported by evidence.

There are several different types of writing in Art and Art History. Formal analysis is a study of the principles and elements of art. Stylistic analysis is a study of the art object in the context of the stylistic period in which it was created. Patronage analysis explores the effects of a patron on an art object, as well as that object’s personal history. Iconographic analysis is the study of the content of the images and their symbolic associations. Theoretical analysis/criticism looks into social and historical contexts of the piece and their implications for interpretation.

Avoid sweeping generalizations and assuming authority on the topic. For example, instead of saying “the Laocoon is an amazing and awe-inspiring masterpiece in the time period,” say, “the Laocoon’s command of form, use of dramatic movement and strong diagonal form makes it a masterpiece of its time period.” Pay close attention to the definitions of the elements and principles of art. These terms and their definitions can be the building blocks for your critical essay, adding a level of sophistication and understanding when used properly. Be aware of subtle differences in meaning, which can often lead to their misuse (e.g. color and value, or shape and form. Read and reread the definitions before including them in your writing!

Forms of Analysis

There are several types of analysis in both art and art history writing. Formal analysis is used predominately in writing for studio classes. Stylistic, patronage, and iconographic analyses are used predominately in writing for art history classes. Theoretical analysis is used in both of these disciplines. Below is a brief description of all of the styles, along with some tips and tricks for the writing process.

Formal Analysis:

Formal analysis breaks down the use of the Elements of Art (see terms below—line, shape, space, value, color and texture) and the Principles of Art (see terms below—unity, harmony, balance, rhythm, contrast, dominance, gradation). It looks closely also at composition and the Attributes of Art (emotional, esthetic, spatial). It is an in-detail description of how each of the

elements and principles are used in the art object. This type of writing is often inductive. This means that you will begin with a detailed description of the art object, using the critical terms (see terms below) and eventually conclude with what makes this piece a successful or unsuccessful one. In Art, this type of writing is typically used for peer or personal review. In Art History, this is most often used as a means of analysis for more well-known works. Formal analysis is all about transferring visual language into written language, one of the skills required of art historians; think of this as an exercise in communication.

Stylistic Analysis:

Stylistic analysis discusses an object in the context of its stylistic period (i.e. Renaissance, Hellenistic, Modern). Most often this will be a comparison of two objects from similar or different time periods. Focus on the characteristics of the established time period: How does this art object fit into its established time period? How does it differ from contemporary art objects? What was going on during the time it was created? How was it received by the public? This type of paper allows for a look at broader historical and social contexts as opposed to only the art object itself. If the art piece differs from the norm of the time, explore why and look into how this piece could have improved the science of its contemporaries. This is a look into larger historical trends.

Patronage Analysis:

Patronage analysis is an examination of the experience of an art object. Look at the influence of a patron (the one who purchases the art) and what this says about the life of the artist during this time period. In what time period/movement was the art object created? What was the intention of the art object (personal, public, religious)? Track the history of an object before it came to a museum, and its significance in history. Do not neglect the effect of the patron’s status, religion, or political stance on the piece.

Iconographic Analysis:

This is a study of the content of images and symbols, as understood by art historians. These images are often religiously based but can also be culturally based. Look at this in a broader social context of the time. Do not be afraid to compare the imagery to that used in objects with like subjects. What is the intention behind the symbols? How is this influenced by the patron? What is the context of the piece? What does the setting say about the objects themselves? Look into the history of those things which the objects represent. Does an understanding of the icons provide new meaning to and/or understanding of the piece?

Theoretical Analysis and Criticism:

This type of analysis is not about the art object itself but instead about its social and historical circumstance. Consider what this piece is saying about the social, economic, religious, gender and/or cultural contexts at the time. Explore these topics, using critical theory as a framework for the analysis. There are many art theorists. Read up on the literature surrounding the piece and its time. Is there further intention than aesthetics? If there is no further intention, what does that say about the piece? Consider the applied ontology (how the medium is used with a specific intention i.e. painting a portrait) of the medium versus the physical ontology (the study of what the medium is and what it does i.e. acrylic paint is powder pigment suspended in water based medium, which later dries like plastic).

List of Critical Terms

One of the most difficult parts about writing in art and art history is commanding the language. Many of the terms have extremely specific and intertwined definitions. Therefore, using the correct terminology is important to building an accurate analysis of any piece. Below is a list of critical terms to get you started. The Elements and Principles of Art are the building blocks of any critique or analysis in art. Be sure to pay close attention to the subtle differences in each definition. If you are stuck on where to begin, try looking at the subject of your paper and describe it using the Elements and Principles of Art.

Elements of Art:

Line – Lines define the edges of objects in art pieces. Take note of their shape andthickness.

Shape – Shapes are formed from the meeting of lines and the enclosing of areas in two-dimensional space.

Form – Form is the three-dimensional partner to shape. Essentially it is shape with valuein order to give it a third dimension. (The art object does not need to be three-dimensional in order for form to be discussed.)

Space – Space is an empty place or surface in or around a work of art. Space can be two-dimensional, three-dimensional, negative and/or positive. Negative space is the spacewhich no object is occupying (e.g. a blank background in a photograph). Positive spaceis the space that an object occupies (e.g. the space an apple occupies on your counter).

Color – Color refers to the hue and intensity of the colors of the art object. It may alsorefer to the value, or the darkness, or the color. Note that tint and saturation are also to beconsidered. Hue is the name of the color on the color wheel. Value is the lightness ordarkness of the color present, how black or white it is. And Intensity is the brightness ordullness of a color.

Value – The lightness or darkness of the color. Value is often used to denote form andspace.

Texture – The use of, or illusion of, different textures, such as metal, wood, or fabric, inan art object.

Principles of Art:

Rhythm – This is the creation of visual rhythm by repeating specific elements throughouta piece, even using patterns.

Movement – This is the flow through a composition. Look to lines and contrast in thepiece. Focus on how the viewer reads the visual aspects of the art object.

Pattern – The repetition of a line, shape or color over and over again.

Balance – This can be symmetrical or radial. It is created through visual weight in thepiece. Balance can be both formal and informal.

Variety – Often used to draw your eye to a focal point, variety is created by somethingthat differs from the rest of the composition.

Emphasis – This is used to make certain parts of the artwork stand out. This can be donewith techniques with line, value, shape, and pattern. This can also be interpreted as afocal point.

Harmony – Brings together a composition through similar elements.

Unity – How all of the parts of a piece function together to create a whole.

Citation Style

Although there is no standard for citation in art and art history writing, Chicago style is most commonly used. So why cite sources? When utilizing or referencing anyone else’s intellectual material, proper citations are the best way to avoid plagiarism. Intellectual material should be accredited to its original thinker. Keep in mind that not everything needs to be cited during this process. If something is considered general knowledge to the audience to whom you are writing (Leonardo Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa), the information does not need to be cited. If the information is a more specific claim that supports your argument (such as the Mona Lisa is said to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini), it needs to be properly cited.

Chicago style can either be done in footnotes or with in-text citations and a bibliography.

The format for footnotes or endnotes

1. Contributors’ Name, “Title of Resource,” Publishing Organization/ Web Site Name in Italics,last edited date, website.

Bibliography

Name, Contributer 1, Contributer 2 Name, and Contributor 3. “Title of Resource” Publishing Organization/ Website. Last Edited Date.

In-text Citation

(Contributors’ Surnames, year of publication, page or section number when available)

There is additional information for how to properly cite sources available on the following websites. Keep in mind that if you use sites that automatically cite information for you, such as EasyBib or Zotero, this information is not always guaranteed to be correctly formatted. Always make sure to double check these sources before submitting your bibliography..

UVM Libraries: http://library.uvm.edu/guides/citation/chicago.php (Links to an external site.)

Purdue Owl: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02

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