Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge

Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge. Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge. Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge.

“Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge.” Scientific American (2020, March 18).Vidal (2020) brings back the story of the Jan 1996 Ebola virus epidemics to demonstrate how the ongoing appearance of new viral diseases derives from what several researchers think to be “humanity’s destruction of biodiversity” (p. 2). As he claims, this leads to the emergence of “a new discipline of planetary health” and new forms of relations between humans, other living things, and entire ecosystems. In your research paper (due in week 12), you will be asked to formulate a research question and present what other researchers (including the ones listed below) have found and claimed on the above social problem. The first stage of your research paper writing process will be the one-on-one presentation on your findings concerning the research paper’s topic idea, on the basis of Vidal (2020) and the following four sources: 1. Geng, He Yuan and Wen Jie Tan. “A Novel Human Coronavirus: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Human Coronavirus.” Science China Life Sciences 56 (2013): 683–687. 2. Alanagreh, Lo’ai, Foad Alzoughool, and Manar Atoum. “The Human Coronavirus Disease COVID-19: Its Origin, Characteristics, and Insights into Potential Drugs and Its Mechanisms.” Pathogens 9, no. 5 (2020): 331. 3. Kremen, Claire and Adina M. Merenlender. “Landscapes that Work for Biodiversity and People.” Science 362, no. 6412 (2018): doi:10.1126/science.aau6020. 4. Haahtela, Tari. “A Biodiversity Hypothesis.” Allergy 74 (2019): 1445–1456.  Description:Your task is to write and submit a term paper, consisting of the following elements: 1) a topic, 2) an abstract (a ca. 150-word summary of your term paper: its core objectives and topical orientations), 3) references to at least 13 academic sources: it’s for you to decide how much space you dedicate to each source – some of them will likely be more important than the others, in which case you will probably discuss them across a few paragraphs, while others will be interesting additions to your main argumentation line, in which case you will likely mention them once or twice in a footnote, 4) at least three footnotes signalling other possible threads and perspectives on your topic, which you have not extensively focused on in your paper. FORMAL REQUIREMENTS: Your text needs to be at least 10 pages long (which translates roughly into 30,000 characters with spaces) – the word limit does not include bibliographies, references in footnotes, and abstracts. Your paper needs to be formatted according to APA, Chicago, or MLA requirements.[supanova_question]

LI499: Bachelor’s Capstone in Liberal Studies LI499: Bachelor’s Capstone in Liberal Studies

LI499: Bachelor’s Capstone in Liberal Studies

LI499: Bachelor’s Capstone in Liberal Studies

Peer Review Worksheet Questions

The goals of conducting a peer review are 1) to help improve your classmate’s paper by pointing out strengths and weaknesses that may not be apparent to the author and 2) to help the author complete the Unit 9 Assignment.


Read the paper assigned to you twice: once to get an overview of the paper and a second time to provide constructive criticism for the author to use when revising his/her paper. Return the partner’s paper with your suggestions for editing or revising and your answers to these questions below to the professor and to the writer.

1. Partner’s name:

2. Title and topic of the paper reviewed:

3. What is your favorite part of the paper? Why?

4. What part(s) of the paper need work? This may be at the word, sentence, or paragraph level, perhaps an incorrect word or odd punctuation, need for clarification, correction of grammar, spelling, etc. The sentences might be awkward or too long. Even if the confusion clears up later in the paper, tell where the sections are, and explain why they are confusing.

5. Look carefully at the discussion sections (human behavior, human expression, ethics, recommendations, and final thoughts). What suggestions/feedback can you offer in these areas? Do you feel each of these areas was developed effectively? Explain

6. On what page and in which paragraph does the writer discuss diversity? This could be within a section about cultural awareness, different effects due to background, geography, education level, socio-economic status, age, or other factors that might be included in the research.

7. Review the introduction and conclusion. Is the introduction sufficiently engaging? Does it motivate you to read further? Does the conclusion bring some closure to the paper?

8. What overall improvements and/or additions can you suggest?

9. What other advice/feedback do you have to give?

Page | 1[supanova_question]

LIAS Program Observation & Reflection TIP: Before you start this assignment, be

Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge LIAS Program Observation & Reflection

TIP: Before you start this assignment, be sure you have WATCHED this video: OST leaders discussing LIAS principles (14:30 min):

AND that you have READ the directions for the LIAS tool so you each learn how to use the tool properly.


Part 1:

Following the directions on the LIAS Observation Tool, then watch this video of an afterschool activity to complete the LIAS tool: The Carpenter’s Shop Center Science Club:

Be sure to complete and upload the activity summary form as part of your assignment as well so it is clear what you observed.

Complete the LIAS rubrics by administering ratings for each domain area and by handwriting comments in the evidence section that back up your ratings. (see the tool for detailed directions). *Take enough notes to provide ample evidence of your rating. I know there isn’t a lot of room…just do your best and make sure whatever you write justifies the rating you give.

You will upload a hard copy of your ratings and comments to Canvas so that I can see your handwritten notes (handwritten is easier and most practical to do in the field!). It is best if you can scan the pages as ONE document, please!

Part 2:

Write a 1 to 1 1/2 page reflection examining what you learned from using the observation tool, and how you might use the tool to suggest improvements in the activity you observed, if you had the chance.

*Note: use 12 pt font and make it double-spaced

You will have 3 uploads for this assignment!

1) Activity Summary

2) Completed LIAS observation tool (scanned in as one document, please)

3) Reflection[supanova_question]

Kelly I. Aliano, PhD Research Paper Assignment for LIB 200 RESEARCH PAPER

Kelly I. Aliano, PhD

Research Paper Assignment for LIB 200


For this research paper assignment, you will be interrogating some aspect of the “modern,” based on your research questionnaire and proposal. Your discussion should include both of the following:

A definition of what the term avant-garde or Modern means to you

A clear case study from history, literature, or popular culture that allows you to explore and analyze that definition

-Research Papers MUST be 1000-1800 words in length, PLUS a Works Cited page (the Works Cited page does NOT count in the word count). Please make the final line of the body of the essay the word count for the paper.

-You must use at least THREE outside sources:

-At least one source should be a book

-At least one source should be a journal article

-No more than one source may be a website (Wikipedia, Spark Notes, & the like are not acceptable AT ALL)

-You may use the textbook as well as any sources that I have shared via Blackboard

-All citations (both in-text & in Works Cited) must be in proper MLA format; points will be deducted for incorrect MLA format

-Papers must have a clear introduction paragraph with a thesis statement. Your introduction should include two key components:

A clear articulation of your definition of what avant-garde or Modern means.

A justification for your case study(s)’s relevance to this definition.


Organization—40 points

Evidence—30 points

Argument—20 points

Citations/Style—10 points[supanova_question]

Writing Question

This assignment, or final course project, is a culmination of the previous assignments you completed during this course and the application of APA ethical principles and multicultural assessment practices. In this assignment, you will select one of the three tests you have reviewed in previous assignments and defend your selection based on the synthesize of your previous research. In addition, you will apply APA ethical and multicultural assessment practices to your selected test and propose steps to adhere to these practices in one’s specialization or a related profession.
For this final assignment:
Select one of the three tests you reviewed for the previous assignments. Defend your decision to select this test over the other two tests based on a synthesis of all the data and information you gathered on your selected test throughout the course.
Identify highlights, both positive and negative, both advantages and disadvantages, according to all of the elements researched.

Locate research for evidence of fairness and test bias for ?your selected test. If the research or reviews do not address fairness or test bias in any way, then you will need to cite the references you reviewed and note that they were lacking in addressing fairness or bias, drawing appropriate conclusions for when a test is lacking such evidence.

Identify multicultural assessment practices and guidelines that should be followed when administering, scoring, and interpreting your selected test. You may use the source, Testing and Assessment with Persons and Communities of Color [PDF], or other articles on multicultural assessment practices you have located through your research.

Apply APA ethical principles on assessment practices (9.01 through 9.11) to your selected test. For each ethical principle, explain how you would follow each principle if you were using your selected test in your specialization or a related profession.

Instructions for the content of the paper are in the u09a1 Assignment Template [DOCX].
Additional Requirements
Your paper should meet the following requirements:
References: A minimum of nine references. These may include journal articles, literature reviews, MMY reviews, and publisher websites. At least three of the nine references must be from peer-reviewed journals. It is likely and appropriate that many of these references and citations were included in one or more of your previous assignments. Alternatively, you may want to supplement your paper with current, peer-viewed journal articles you located after completing an earlier assignment. Those inclusions would also be acceptable.
Length of paper: At least nine double-spaced pages, not including the title page, abstract, or references.
APA format: Current APA format and style is required throughout. Be sure to use the correct format and style for each respective type of reference, for example, website site versus journal). Refer to your APA manual for guidance. American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).



LGBT affect Gender Marketing 6


Student’s Name

Class/ Course/ Code

Professor’s Name

University/ School

City, State


How LGBT affects Gender Marketing

The increasing visibilities of different sexual orientations in our society and government policies that protect groups like the LGBT have created the need for a better understanding of consumer behaviors and patterns (Serina et al., 2012). Even though the LGBT has been part of our society for a long time, prior marketing strategies focused on the physiological differences in gender marketing. The increase in positive social acceptance towards the LGBT is something marketers should consider (smith, 2017).In the past, the church was more powerful than today; thus, society had beliefs and morals rooted in religion. However, today social morals and religion are two different things; before the eyes of our society. The disgust and hatred towards the LGBT have changed; more people are aware of and respect them (Bond, 2016). The change of heart has been influenced by social movements and LGBT activism trying to unify the community with a sense of belonging. In today’s world, most government agencies, a large part of our community, and social movements are against discrimination, homophobia, and bullying. Therefore, if a business sticks to the old-fashioned binary gender marketing, it will be viewed as being against the LGBT (Takács, 2017). Thus, a binary gender marketing strategy can attract activism groups and social movements to stand against companies that fail to adopt all-inclusive advertisement methods. Therefore, the business will lose a lot of customers and the trust they have been given by the community; thus, affecting their potential sales.

Additionally, the lack of representation in brand marketing, product design, and customer expectations can affect consumer choice behavior (Wood, 2012). To win customers, companies are adopting inclusive communication policies. Also, potent spending power has captured the attention of many businesses that want to serve LGBT and address any past issues that held them back (Wood, 2012). Therefore, there is a need to understand their characteristics, preference, and behaviors. For example, Netflix has included more themes and advertisements related to LGBT in series, movies, and documentaries. The LGBT dedicated content on the Netflix platform is a great visual representation of a massive gender marketing campaign. Also, PS4 has themes that are “#4alltheplayers” that show support for LGBT among its young LGBT customers. Moreover, companies can target LGBT customers how often feel left out in gender marketing; thus, creating a positive brand association.

Furthermore, to better understand how LGBT affects gender marketing, we should ask ourselves the LGBT customers? Understanding that question is essential in knowing how many they are in the market. The lesbian, gay, bisexuals, and transgender are often more than the estimated number, mainly because some of their members don’t want their homophobic family members to know their sexual orientation, which can cause social pressure. Also, some LGBT are hindered by their religious background. Thus, the discrimination constrains a number of them from identifying with the LGBT community. Therefore, when companies try to establish their actual number in a chart of customers, they may underestimate the actual number. Thus this can affect the decisions they make on gender marketing. However, suppose the barriers that prevent them from openly identifying as LGBT and using products related to LGBT are destroyed. In that case, companies that neglected the non-binary gender marketing strategy may be left behind in their purchasing power and the untapped market value. Therefore, the numbers can affect companies’ gender marketing strategies.

The LGBT members may be willing to spend more than heterosexuals. The idea is delivered from the availability of disposable income, where most LGBT members don’t have children; thus, less responsibility. According to Drescher (2014), LGBT is conspicuous and will often choose brands that support them. Therefore this specific consumption habit can have a substantial economic weight that can affect gender marketing. Therefore, companies may consider targeting LGBT customers to help win the hearts of LGBT members.


Number of Countries

The number of counties that recognize same-sex sexual activities is still far from what LGBT want. Although the United Nations recognizes the human rights of the LGBT, many countries are yet to agree with policies that legalize homosexuals. Also, LGBT activism is trying to create awareness in society (Boerties, 2012). However, up to now, only 29 countries out of 195 countries have legalized same-sex marriages (Boerties, 2012). Thus, the hatred and discrimination towards LGBT members are still far from over. Most counties have taken a firm stand in defining marriage and what is considered morally acceptable to them. For example, countries with Islamic sharia law prohibit LGBT activism, education of matters of LGBT, and same-sex marriages. Also, in the same countries, their laws classify homosexuality as a punishable crime. Additionally, even in the countries that have recognized LGBT rights, they have yet to get full recognition countrywide by their citizens. Therefore, if a company choices gender marketing that advocates for LGBT rights, they may get banned or rebellion from customers in homophobic countries. Thus, international companies may choose marketing that does not affect their market share.


The biological differences between males and females that humans have understood since ancient times are facts; backed up with scientific evidence that is almost impossible to unlearn or ignore (Takács, 2017). However, despite the changes in social understanding on matters concerning LGBT, most products will be produced or developed on biological differences. Thus, marketers may stick with gender marketing that only focuses on gender differences, male or female. Furthermore, some industries are known to be either male or female-dominated (Boerties, 2012). Therefore, when designing products, the product designs that meet that gender’s expectations. Mainly because their target either males or females to buy their products; thus, they don’t see the need to consider the other gender. For example, most sports car manufacture often considers male customers in their marketing strategies. However, industries that are rooted in gender stereotypy should be encouraged to change and realize the benefit both genders can bring to the industry. Therefore, it can be a long way before they accept the LGBT community when doing gender marketing.

Brand association with LGBT

When companies target LGBT in marketing, they risk having an LGBT image, which may have negative responses from other customers who are not members of the LGBT community. Therefore, it can be challenging for marketers to choose between LGBT-related themes without labeling their products as products only intended for LGBT members. The straight population may shy away from products that have gay themes. Therefore, companies may decide to only stick with gender marketing strategies that only focus on most of their customers. However, most heterosexual people don’t mind implicit LGBT images in advertising but may feel uncomfortable with explicit LGBT images in advertisements (Byne, 2018). Therefore, a marketer may choose implicit LGBT images to avoid the negative reaction towards their product by other customers who are not part of the LGBT community. However, implicit LGBT images may not align with “coded imagery,” which can cause LGBT members to not respond to that marketing strategy because they feel less represented.

Practical use

It is hard to prove the impact of the LGBT community on gender marketing (Shewmaker and Hains, 2021). Often, marketers choose to include the LGBT community in their marketing strategy to create awareness for their customers to recognize the changes within society. Also, LGBT customers may only pay or buy the products if they think it’s worth it. Therefore, brand loyalty cannot be achieved by just marketing strategies that include LGBT members, and the products must be standard. Also, not all members may switch to a product that supports them if they are loyal to another brand that does not include LGBT themes in their advertisements.


Reevaluate the gender marketing ratio

Companies need to reevaluate the gender marketing idea that only considers the physiological idea of males and females. Therefore, companies need to consider adding the LGBT sector to company products. Companies need to keep up with the changes that happen within our society and embrace them. A positive image from all members of our society can help companies grow as the community changes. Also, companies get to show that they consider the minority in society and support them without focusing only on sales. Also, the advertisements should not overwhelm the brands’ themes and stories with LGBT content but rather have stories that highlight the need for an inclusive environment.

Also, companies should try and build a strong link between the interests of the LGBT and what the brand is planning to use to advertise LGBT interests. It is essential to focus on a bland message that looks at different customers’ different interests and build a balanced advertisement that different groups will accept within our society. Furthermore, the brand should adopt natural and realistic methods, but will also benefit the company as well. Notably, companies’ advertisements should aim to provide a unique experience to LGBT members and be appealing to them and other groups within our society.

Adverts that use LGBT colors, symbols, and imagery in a clever and unique are appealing and engaging to the LGBT consumers. LGBT communities have expressed strong opinions supporting adverts that use rainbow colors, images, and symbols that depict a celebration of their identity. The gay communities frequently use such colors, symbols, and images as symbols of pride during their rallies.

Adverts thought to be successful always strive to establish an emotional connection between the advertiser and the LGBT consumer. Therefore, instances where advertisers use colors and symbols linked with the LGBT community, serve to build a strong sense of liking between the advertiser and the LGBT community and generate a strong emotional connection (Zeng & Mourali, 2021). The media and the general population have for many years depicted negative stereotypical images towards the gay community. Consequently, the LGBT activists for years have fought hard against such stereotypes and proven that their general concerns are not different from those of the rest of the population.

Sponsorship and endorsements as marketing strategies demonstrate the long-term commitment between an organization and the LGBT community. Such strategies have been deemed credible and genuine in building rapport between the business world and the LGBT community. Examples of organizations that benefit from endorsements and sponsorships include community centers, charities, youth LGBT centers, and advocacy groups (Zeng & Mourali, 2021).

Have different developers

Companies should include different designers that represent other social groups. When companies have different designers who target and are aware of the various groups in our society, the chances of discriminating against the lesser groups are minimized (Rink, 2016). Rather than assuming that everyone is comfortable with their products, marketers should do better resources to understand how they can include all community members. Also, by having different designers representing the different groups, companies can avoid false assumptions about what the LGBT like and what they are looking for in products in the market (Puckett et al., 2020). Therefore, companies need to ask them to self-identify within their surveys to better design for genders beyond the binary. Therefore, consumer satisfaction is essential in any marketing strategy that aims for an all-inclusive society (Dewit et al., 2021). Thus, it’s not just about including LGBT in gendered marketing but also about decision-making when doing LGBT designs. Moreover, companies need to measure LGBT consumer activities.

Creating awareness globally

Also, the UN can help create awareness among their member countries on the importance of having an all-inclusive social setting. Additionally, apart from making policies that protect the minority in our society, the government should address the barriers that prevent members of the LGBT community from participating in their group activities or identifying themselves. Also, research is important to help us know and address the concerns that members of the LGBT may have about expressing their sexual orientation.

Therefore, if gender marketing uses that identity in marketing their brands, it may affect their products. Past gender marketing strategies only considered past explanations such as evolution theory and biology differences between the sexes, thus neglecting the potential differences in sexual orientation (Smith, 2017). Therefore, marketers neglected the consumer consumption-based role of demographic factors. However, modern knowledge is based on the interpretation of economic value and LGBT disposable income. Thus, this dissertation proves that failure for companies and businesses to include LGBT in gender marketing can have negative results for a business. Therefore, there is a need for gender marketing strategies that have an all-inclusive approach.


Boerties, J., 2012. LGBT-Equality in the Global Workplace: Organizational Responses to Administrative Challenges around LGBT-Workplace Equality. SSRN Electronic Journal,.

Bond, R., 2016. Sub-state national identities among minority groups in Britain: a comparative analysis of 2011 census data. Nations and Nationalism, 23(3), pp.524-546.

Byne, W., 2018. Resilience and Action in a Challenging Time for LGBT Rights. LGBT , 5(1), pp.1-5.

Dewit, I., Jacoby, A. and Matthyssens, P., 2021. Design Preconditions for Product–Service Integration. Designs, 5(2), p.29.

Drescher, J., 2014. Controversies in Gender Diagnoses. LGBT , 1(1), pp.10-14.

Puckett, J., Brown, N., Dunn, T., Mustanski, B. and Newcomb, M., 2020. Perspectives from Transgender and Gender Diverse People on How to Ask About Gender. LGBT Health, 7(6), pp.305-311.

R. Rink, D., 2016. Balanced incomplete block designs: selected business-related applications and usage caveats. Innovative Marketing, 12(1), pp.15-28.

Serina, A., Hall, M., Ciambrone, D. and Phua, V., 2012. Swinging Around Stigma: Gendered Marketing of Swingers’ Websites. Sexuality & Culture, 17(2), pp.348-359.

Shewmaker, J. and Hains, R., 2021. Gendered Marketing and Promotion of Stereotypes in Girls Aged 8-11 Years. Academia Letters,.

Smith, j., 2017. Your Marketing Strategy Can Make All the Difference. The Major Gifts Report, 19(2), pp.2-2.

Takács, J., 2017. Our gender ghosts and gender angels: A review of supporting Transgender & Gender Creative Youth: Schools, Families, and Communities in Action. Journal of LGBT Youth, 14(2), pp.233-236.

Wood, M., 2012. Marketing social marketing. Journal of Social Marketing, 2(2), pp.94-102.

Zeng, X., & Mourali, M. (2021). Consumers as creative agents: How required effort influences willingness to engage. Psychology & Marketing.[supanova_question]

Michael Lewis ENG2322 Progect #1 Community of Strongman By: Michael Lewis What

Michael Lewis


Progect #1

Community of Strongman

By: Michael Lewis

What makes Strongman a community? Strongman is not only a sport, but also a way of life for some people. Strongman groups train together, support each other, and develop lifelong friendships. If you ask me, that is the perfect example of a strong community. A community that helps push each other to their limits, and a community that I am happy to be a part of myself.

I fit into this group; I have been training and competing in strongman for about three years now. Not only do I train with a group at a local strongman gym, but I have also read multiple books on the topic. Plus, I am a part of several online communities for the sport of strongman.

Being a member of the sport, I can vouch for the good sportsmanship and support that is spoken about in the sport of strongman. In other sports, it is common to see people get lost in the competition aspect of the sport. Where in strongman you will see two competitors cheering each other on. This comes from the desire to be as strong as possible, which is shared by all strongman competitors. The Competitors push each other in this way. If one person improves, it is now on the other person to grow and match that level of strength. They are competing against each other, but more so they are competing against themselves to become as strong and powerful as possible.

Strength, speed, explosiveness, and power are the key values held by the strongman community, but good sportsmanship and supporting your fellow competitor is still key to the Strongman ideology. There are times where competition can cause tension between members of the community. I have witnessed people chase a weight for a long time, only to watch another person hit that number with ease. The tension usually manifests itself in the form of envy. While this is not the usual philosophy taken by strongman competitors, sometimes basic human thoughts or desires take hold of people.

To give an example of the support and friendship to be found in this community, here is an observation I made yesterday while at the gym. A member of the gym was attempting a new deadlift Record. I didn’t notice how much weight was on the bar. To be honest it did not matter. They all knew he was attempting a weight he had never done before and that is the type of thing that hypes up members of the strongman community. I watched from afar as everyone in that small gym gathered around him as he set up for his pull on the bar. A few people were yelling, “Go” or “Come on”. You could see that he wanted the pull. He looked determined. I watched as he walked up to the bar and methodically wrapped his wrist straps around the bar. He set himself into position and started to push the bar off the ground with his legs. As the weight broke the floor, he engaged his back muscles and dragged the bar up his shins. However, things started to turn on him as the weight got up to his knees. At that part of the lift, it is up to the lower back to finish pulling the bar up to lockout, while the hips and glutes wedge the lifter under the bar and shoot forward so that you are standing straight up with the weight. It appeared he would get the weight but as his hips tried to come forward the weight fell back to the ground in defiance. He was so close, and you could tell he wanted it. At this moment the whole group didn’t appear to judge him, they were still all there cheering him on. The group went from yelling to words of encouragement and solace. I felt like this was a great moment, one that makes someone want to come to a place like this to train. The people whom I witnessed gather around him at the same time were there to support him when he failed.

Strongman has had a massive impact on my life. It has helped me lose weight and be more active in general. Plus, it plays into my mental state of wanting to be as strong as possible. It has helped me make friends and find places that have become almost a second home. I have seen people use lifting to overcome drug use, obesity, and depression. But, with strongman it takes it to another level, you really have the sense of community. The gyms are much smaller and more intimate. I can name every member that works out at my local gym.

I know it is easy to spot my bias when it comes to the sport and the comradery in strongman. Even without my bias to the sport, I do still think it is an easy case to be made for strongman being a community. In the physical sense, strongman usually consists of a small group training together. Whether it be in someone’s garage or in a gym. In the Social sense, strongman competitors gather for competitions. Sometimes traveling to other countries to compete. Also, there are several online groups of strongman, places for people to seek help and advice.

While strongman may not be the community everyone wants to be a part of, it is hard to argue that it is not a community. In my research from being immersed in the sport and the community, it is an accepting community and a community I am proud to be a part of.[supanova_question]

Olivia’s Art Supply…

Open your book on page ( see book name attched) EX58 Module 2: FORMULAS, FUNCTIONS, AND FORMATTING.
Following the book, complete all step-by-steps (the red circles) from page EX58 to EX 105.
Enter your name and section in cell A19.
Don’t type just numbers, I’ll check each formula, function, and conditional formatting.When you complete all steps, your document should look exactly like the following picture. (Without textboxes)

HIST 1301: US History to 1877 Levine Book Review Secondary sources provide

HIST 1301: US History to 1877

Levine Book Review

Secondary sources provide historical interpretation and analysis to the public and set the conversation for historical debate. Critical to engaging in this debate is being able to understand and interpret the arguments put forth by modern historians in secondary works. Students will a six-hundred to seven-hundred and fifty (600-750) word review discussing aspects of Half Slave and Half Free: The Roots of Civil War by Bruce Levine.

Rather than take on the book’s overall argument, students will instead focus on Levine’s description of one of the two competing sections: North and South. Each student has the option of which section to look at, which you will claim by signing up on the Google Doc at this link:

You have until Monday August 2 to make your selection. If you do not, or do not want to, choose, I will pick one for you. Check the sheet after class on Monday so you know what to be reading.

A successful review will have a thesis, which for this paper should answer the following question: What is the central feature of this section (North or South) that drives their worldview leading up to the Civil War?

Use your body paragraphs to provide details and smaller ideas from the book that support this big idea. There are many details in these books, so you will need to figure out which pieces are the most important to supporting the main idea.

In your conclusion, you should wrap up your argument and consider how clearly Levine makes this point. How does he connect it to the outbreak of the Civil War?

As part of the writing process, we will have several in-class open-book writing assignments that review some chapters in the book. These are meant to introduce you to the book and help you focus on key points. The quizzes are scheduled to be given on August 3, August 5, August 11, and August 12. They will represent 20% of the final review grade.

As part of the writing process, students will also engage in peer reviewing. Each student will share his or her paper with a group of classmates, and this version of the paper must be typed and printed by the start of class on that day. Groups are listed on D2L, and you can arrange with one another the best way to share your papers (printed hard copy or online before/during class). In this version of the paper, make sure you have highlighted your thesis in some way (Bold, Italics, Underline) so that both you and your reviewer can find it easily. Because your classmates are relying on you to have materials ready, there will be no late assignments accepted. The tentative peer review date is Monday August 16.

The final paper is due by 11:59 pm on Tuesday August 17 as a Word Doc or PDF file uploaded to the appropriate folder on D2L. These are the only acceptable file formats, as I cannot read any others. If your file format is not correct, you did not submit the paper.

Please post your paper using the following file name: LastNameFirstInitial_AuthorReview.

If I were to turn in a paper this way, it would look like this: AltavillaK_LevineReview.

This is important because it helps me to sort your papers while grading them. Points will be deducted if this is not done.

Unless I have granted written permission otherwise, these are the only ways to turn in the paper.

This review will account for 20% of the student’s final grade.

All late assignments will be penalized 10 points per calendar day.

Paper Requirements

– At the top of the first page, write your name and a citation of the book done in Chicago style (this is different from other formats like MLA or APA). Use the formatting for a Chicago citation here: This link is also available on D2L.

– Do not include additional information, including but not limited to items such as the due date, the class, my name, a cover page, or a bibliography. That takes up space you could be using for the review.

– Use standard fonts (i.e. Times New Roman, Calibri, Cambria) in size 12, double-spaced.

– Use 1-inch margins on the page.

– For this kind of paper, do not use direct quotes. You do not need to provide quotes or citations, as you already have a citation at the beginning. I want to hear your voice, not the author’s.

Avoiding Plagiarism

– Read the entire book. Not finishing the book makes it difficult to follow what is going on, and increases the chances that you will try to make up for that by cheating.

– It is okay to work together outside of class. You need to make sure, though, that your paper is your own.

– It is okay to read other reviews that you might find online to help you highlight important parts of the book or main idea. It is not okay to use those reviews in your paper. Make sure you always use your words when writing.

– Copying another review and using another website or thesaurus to change words is not “making it your own words.” In most cases, this leads to you changing the meaning of what was said in a way that makes your writing worse.

Other Writing Tips

– This book is a work of historic non-fiction, and therefore is not a “novel.” Do not refer to it as such.

– A paragraph must have at least three (3) sentences.

– Do not use contractions (don’t, couldn’t, it’s).

– Do not end lists with phrases like “etc.” If you do not have anything else to add to your list, just end it.

– Book titles should always be underlined or in italics. Use one or the other, not both.

– On verb tenses: generally, use past tense for historical actors (“Washington attacked…”), and present tense for modern historians and writers (“Godbeer argues…”). Avoid mixing tenses in the same sentence.

– Limit the use of the passive voice. It is a correct verb tense, but regular use is not good writing. Keep sentences short and declarative, and avoid “to be” verbs. “Lincoln gave a speech” is better than “The speech was given by Lincoln.”

– Limit the use of first person pronouns. The whole paper represents your thoughts, therefore it is not necessary to say, “I think…” Avoid other, similar “filler” phrases like “in conclusion.”

– Keep an eye out for homophones, similar sounding words, and AutoCorrect errors: (were/where; your/you’re; there/their/they’re)

– Keep your sentences short and direct. If your sentence is running on to a third line, it is too long, and can be broken up into smaller sentences. This will keep your sentences focused, and help them to make sense.

– When introducing a person in the text, use their full name the first time (Thomas Jefferson), and their surname after that (Jefferson). Do not use the person’s first name alone unless there is a specific reason for doing so. You do not know Jefferson personally, so there is no reason to call him “Thomas” in your paper.

– To make a noun plural (more than one), add “s” to the end. Do not add an apostrophe (‘), as this makes the word possessive (“Colonists” is more than one colonist; “Colonist’s” is something belonging to a colonist; Colonists’ or Colonists’s is something belonging to a group of colonists)

– When abbreviating “United States,” you should either put periods after both letters (U.S.) or none at all (US). Either way is fine, just be consistent. Just one period between the two (U.S) is incorrect.

– Do not ask questions in the paper. Reviews are for answering questions, so provide an answer. Let your reader assume the question being asked.[supanova_question]

Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge

Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge

Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge