discussion reply Health Medical Assignment Help

discussion reply Health Medical Assignment Help. discussion reply Health Medical Assignment Help.

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According to Marquis and Burton (2017), leaders and managers play an important role in any organization. Both roles are expected to promote the mission and vision of the hospital while producing an effective workplace (Marquis& Burton, 2017).However, leaders and mangers have different roles and expectations. There are also certain leadership competencies that health care leaders need (Marquis& Burton, 2017).

At my organization, there are a few leaders and managers in the surgical department. One person that comes into mind works in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). This person has a lot of leadership qualities or competencies as in skills, abilities and knowledge(Marquis& Burton, 2017). Laurette (2013), describes in simple terms that leaders direct people and at the same time influence change. A leader is a person who motivates or influences workers to achieve a specified goal (Hinton, 2018).

There are three primary leadership styles: democratic, authoritarian and lasissez-faire (Marquis& Burton, 2017). Person “A” uses an authoritarian style that has worked effectively in the PACU. Their leadership style has allowed nurses to be engaged in the department, speak up and increase job satisfaction (Keys, 2014). Thus, empowering staff to provide superior care to patients which aligns with the organizations mission. Person “A” is definitely more focus on standards of work than hands-on work.

Mangers use resources to problem solve and control the environment around them, yet due not influence change (Laureat, 2012). They oversee assignments, budgeting, quality improvement among other daily tasks (Leach & McFarland, 2014). Person “B” is a manger of the operating room. They make and monitor personal and professional growth and provide career opportunities (Marquis& Burton, 2017). Person “B” is very committed to their work, has competence, and committed to working (Hinton, 2018).

There are many roles in healthcare. Leaders and managers have certain competencies or traits to contribute to the organization. Each role working together to support the organizations mission and values.


Hinton, T. (2018). Achieving personal leadership effectiveness. Nursing Management, 49(8), 11–12. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NUMA.0000542302.90248.e…

Keys, Y. (2014). Looking ahead to our next generation of nurse leaders: Generation X Nurse Managers. Journal of nursing management, 22(1), 97–105.doiI: 10.1111/jonm.12198

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Integrating leadership and management competencies. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Doucette, J. N. (2016). The mindful nurse leader. Nursing Management, 47(11), 44–48. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NUMA.0000502802.29800

discussion reply Health Medical Assignment Help[supanova_question]

Ethereum, DAPPS and Initial Coin Offering Computer Science Assignment Help

FinTech promises to revolutionise finance as well as social organisations with decentralisation
as well as automated control and coordination through the use of tokens and smart contracts.

These entities are assembled meaningfully into decentralised apps (dapps) to solve business
problems. Dapps are in turn used as building blocks for even bigger coordinative structures
that may lead to decentralised organisations.

A wide range of dapps have been created and published on the Ethereum platform as one can
observe on the website stateofthedapps.com. These dapps use the underlying infrastructural
technology of the Ethereum network and provide a variety of services that are encoded by their
underlying smart contracts.

With the rise of other smart contract platforms, such as the EOS or Qtum, the number of dapps
floating around on the internet is slated to increase.

A typical dapp proposes to solve one specific business problem or a host of them, spelt out
clearly in a whitepaper, with developers creating code and raising funds in the form of coin of
the underlying network through the issuance of a token over a period of time.

For this assignment, you will identify a business or financial problem, or a host of them, and create
or propose to create a dapp in order to provide solutions to your identification.

You will adhere closely to how dapps are generally created and published on a smart contract
platform. Therefore, you will explain the problem and solution in a whitepaper, propose a dapp
and create it in code either partially or fully.

Furthermore, you will also plan for the fund raising in the form of an ICO.

Question 1

Undertake and complete a comprehensive project as specified under Topic.
You may find the following questions useful as guidelines:

• Analyse the landscape of existing dapps on the Ethereum network and/or other smart
contract platforms to gain a sense of the coverage and use cases in the provision of
business solutions.

• Survey and distinguish the present and anticipate the future fintech landscape in your
proposal of a problem that can be feasibly and fruitfully solved with a dapp.

• Illustrate your plan in rolling out the dapp in full details.

• Design, construct and write code for the smart contract(s) underlying the dapp and
carefully explain how they work.


Compensation Practice: Research a publicly traded company for which you would like to work. Writing Assignment Help

Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you:

  1. Briefly describe the company you researched, its compensation strategy, best practices they are applying, and compensation-related challenges they are facing.
  2. Analyze how your company applies compensation practice to determine the positive or negative impact to the company and its stakeholders.
  3. Examine the ways in which laws, labor unions, and market factors impact the company’s compensation practices. Provide specific examples to support your response.
  4. Evaluate the effectiveness of traditional bases for pay at the company you researched.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • This course requires use of new Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.
  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow SWS or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze how compensation practice can be applied to positively impact an organization and its stakeholders.
  • Examine the ways in which laws, labor unions, and market factors impact companies’ compensation practices.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of traditional bases for pay (seniority and merit) against incentive-based and person-focused compensation approaches.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in compensation management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about compensation management using proper writing mechanics.


Question is in the description Humanities Assignment Help

Hi. I have this assignment that is due tomorrow (Monday 22nd). I only need 3 more pages to add onto the paper. Here is the professor directions. I would do it but I have so much work to do and I don’t have the time for it. It would be a great help.


You are to tell us about the benefits your business will bring to the developing nation. Will your company raise the wages people earn? Will the services or products benefit the people? How? Will your business help to bring infrastructure to more people? Will your business help to raise the quality of life? How? You must define, cite, and use two concepts from our books. Minimum 2 pages, maximum 4

I am going to attached my paper, and you add third part on it (directions above)

Also can you add about 4 scholarly journal articles.

I listed the book below.

Double Space. Times New Roman. 12 font.


conducting and writing observations Writing Assignment Help

OBJECTIVE: To experience conducting unstructured, non-participant observation and compare different note-taking strategies.

You will conduct three separate unstructured observations in public spaces. Each observation will be 15 minutes in duration and conducted in a different location. At each location, you will conduct unstructured observations and practice focussing on people, place, actions and interactions – as relevant to the purpose of your observations. Depending on your purpose, you may focus more on one aspect than others, but all three areas should be included in each observation. Your observations should focus on everyday activities (i.e. grocery shopping, restaurants, riding Marta etc). For these observations, you will be a non-participant observer, so try not to engage with others directly while you are observing. You may be a passive participant in the sense that you are grocery shopping yourself while observing, but you should not deliberately interact with others.

In planning your observations, identify the research objective of each observation (try to frame this as a research question), identify what or who you need to observe to meet your research objective (see the weekly readings) and identify the best location to conduct each observation to meet your objective.

For each observation you will use a different note-taking strategy to record the observations.

  1. For the first observation: take brief jottings while you are observing (e.g. statements, words, sketches, notes, phrases to trigger your memory) to help you recall details of your observations later when writing your field notes. Then, shortly after the observation, transform your jottings into field notes that describe your observation in detail. Try to include as much detail as possible, such as colors,sounds, smells, people’s appearances, actions, utterances, interactions, bodylanguage, etc. Make sure your final field notes focus on your research objective. You can include your own thoughts, feelings or interpretations in brackets– but be sure to make a clear distinction in your field notes between your own thoughts and your actual observations, as discussed in class.
  2. Your second observation will be similar to the first, but instead of taking notes while observing take a couple of breaks to stop observing and write jottings of the

observation (e.g. break every 5 or 8 minutes). Write your jottings into field notes as before.

3. For your third observation do not write anything at all during the observation. Instead, sit down afterwards and jot down as much as you can remember. Write your jottings into field notes as before.

For this assignment you will submit:

  1. Your field notes (not your jottings) from each observation that respond to your research objective. Your field notes should be a maximum of one single spaced page per observation (i.e. 3 pages in total). Your field notes for each observation may differ in length, but each should not exceed one page (80% of grade). Clearly label each observation, including:
    1. a) Research objective for each observation.
    2. b) Place of observation
    3. c) Date of observation
    4. d) Start and end time of observation
    5. e) Your gaze while observing
    6. f) The note-taking strategy you used
  1. A 500-word (maximum) response to the following (20% of grade):
    1. a) Describe the challenges you experienced in using each of the note takingstrategies.
    2. b) Describe what you learned from using observation that you would not have gained from interviewing participants. Provide specific examples from your observations.
    3. c) What could you gain if your observations had been longer (e.g. 3-5 hours each)?

    Your assignment will be assessed on:

    • Adequate labelling of your field notes
    • Including a clear research objective for each observation and the extent to which your field notes focus on this objective.
    • How well we are able to visualize the setting, people, and activities from your field notes.
    • Using the concrete principle and clear separation of your observations from your interpretations.
    • Thoughtful discussion of the challenges of each note-taking strategy, the value of using observation for your research objective and the benefits of longer observation.

### IMPORTANT INFORMATION about the three observations ###

please, please, please read every single instruction THIS IS MY LAST CHANCE FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT.

I would like you to observe three places, which are a Starbucks store, a gym, and a grocery store. please you should use three different research questions, one for each.

PLEASE, you should use three different strategies which are:

1) jotting while you observe (in this strategy you have to write more more information about what you observe because you can write immediately the notes) *at least one page and please use a Starbucks store for this strategy.

2) observe for three minutes then take a break for jotting down what you observe. please repeat this for five times to complete 15 min observation. (please do this strategy at a Gym, Between half page and one page)

3) observe for 15 min then jotting down what you observe. (please use a grocery store for this strategy, and half page is enough ).

***what you observe are the place, people (what they wear, how they look like, what they are doing), actions, reactions, behaviors, and any thing that seems observations.

for example:

I smell bla bla . the two people who sat next to me are bla bla. the reactions between the customer and the cashier bla bla.

and so on.

***please remember this is an observation so do not write something like assumptions or use generalization in your observations.

*** the Gaze means where you sit in the three stores while you are observing.

***there are two parts for this assignment( the three observations and writing a 500 word max)

*** please read everything carefully and let me know if you have any question or misunderstanding.

I have attached the lecture please read it carefully as well.

thank you



Capstone Project Presentation powerpoint and 2 evaluation tools Health Medical Assignment Help

1. will create two new electronic files and powerpoint

2. two evaluation tools will be created (tests, questionnaires, charts for observations notes, etc. Create two evaluation tools. Include all in the same file as separate pages with clear headings and instructions designating the use of each tool.One form will address evaluation of content (example: a post-test or survey, audit form) and one form will address quality (rate the presentation, speaker, and environment; consider using a Likert scale). Remember you will create both forms for this assignment. Do not copy forms from other sources.Include the time, place, and who you presented presentation. Also, discussion on the methods you used to evaluate your project.Include why the method, how you will use the results, and plans for improvement.Other types of evaluation tools you might use are databases or spreadsheets. It is important that you design such tools so that you need only to upload and submit one file, though, so if you use a combination of Word documents and spreadsheets, copy/paste the contents of the spreadsheets into the Word document to create a single file.

3.Design evaluation tools to accompany your project.

Locate peer-reviewed articles discussing evidence-based nursing practice.

Design evaluation tools to accompany your project.

You will submit a Power Point presentation containing a title slide, 10-15 slides each with comprehensive content demonstrating use of your peer-reviewed sources, and reference slides. Remember to include a source for each image or graphic included on the slides; this is easiest done directly on the slide under or next to the image. Your “talking points” are considered speaker notes and should contain 20-30 minutes of “talk time.” Information read directly from the slide should be included in the speaker notes. We recommend you time yourself while reading your speaker notes to determine if your presentation is within the 20-30 minutes for content. Your speaker notes should be written exactly as you would be speaking to your audience. You do need to include citations in your speaker notes. Be sure to include all of your references on the reference slide(s).

Evaluation Paragraph

You must include at least a paragraph (minimum 100 words) to discuss the methods to evaluate your Project. Include why the method you have chosen to evaluate the project is appropriate. Include in your paragraph how will you will take results from the evaluation and change or improve the presentation.

Reference Page

Create a formal reference page including all of your nine (or more) references from your project. Please be sure to use formal APA format. Refer to your APA manual for any questions.

ATTACHING RUBRIC. Please ask questions.

Capstone Project Presentation powerpoint and 2 evaluation tools Health Medical Assignment Help[supanova_question]

​Final Visual Analysis Project – Thesis & Outline Business Finance Assignment Help

Final Visual Analysis Project – Thesis & Outline

For this Final Visual Analysis Project, you will choose one website that you visit frequently (it must be a professional business website, not your own personal website). Feel free to use websites such as Nike, Apple

A thesis statement will give your readers direction. It will discuss the main elements of your analysis findings. Your thesis statement should clearly state the effect of the visual elements on viewers. Review these examples:

Example 1 — The analysis of the five perspectives will demonstrate how the visuals used in ___________ website work together to create an emotional connection with viewers to persuade them to purchase these products.

Example 2 – The analysis of the five perspectives will demonstrate how the visuals in _____________ website enhance the viewer’s understanding of the concepts presented by transcending language barriers and clarifying communication.

Create your Thesis Statement here:

Final Visual Analysis Outline

  • Introductory Paragraph
    • General statements about visual communication and media
    • General statements about the effects of visuals on viewers
    • Thesis Statement (the last sentence of your Introduction)
  • Sensory Response
    • Visual examples of Sensory Responses used in website (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of the effects of these visuals (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of how the visuals may be used to strategically reach the targeted audience (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Details, information, examples that support your analysis ideas (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Quotes/paraphrases from academic sources substantiating your analysis ideas
  • Perceptual Response
    • Visual examples of Sensory Responses used in website (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of the effects of these visuals (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of how the visuals may be used to strategically reach the targeted audience (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Details, information, examples that support your analysis ideas (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Quotes/paraphrases from academic sources substantiating your analysis ideas
  • Technical Response
    • Visual examples of Sensory Responses used in website (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of the effects of these visuals (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of how the visuals may be used to strategically reach the targeted audience (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Details, information, examples that support your analysis ideas (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Quotes/paraphrases from academic sources substantiating your analysis ideas
  • Emotional Response
    • Visual examples of Sensory Responses used in website (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of the effects of these visuals (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of how the visuals may be used to strategically reach the targeted audience (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Details, information, examples that support your analysis ideas (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Quotes/paraphrases from academic sources substantiating your analysis ideas
  • Ethical Response
    • Visual examples of Sensory Responses used in website (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of the effects of these visuals (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Analysis of how the visuals may be used to strategically reach the targeted audience (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Details, information, examples that support your analysis ideas (include as many as you deem important to consider)
    • Quotes/paraphrases from academic sources substantiating your analysis ideas
  • Concluding Paragraph
    • Thesis Statement (the first sentence of your Conclusion)
    • General statements about visual communication and media conclusions
    • General statements about conclusions regarding the effects of visuals on viewers



use your knowledge of science terminology and pseudoscience techniques to sell me an idea. Science Assignment Help

Your job in this assignment is to use your knowledge of science terminology and pseudoscience techniques to sell me an idea. Convince me of a product or an idea that you believe, as the inventor, would be of benefit to society. I am making this very open ended, but I will be looking for creativity of an idea, use of convincing scientific language, and citations and actual scientific premises to help prove your idea. Again, this is a reflection of what you have learned about pseudoscience and how well you can apply the ideas that you have learned in this unit and from what you have learned about the scientific method.

1-What is Pseudoscience?

First, we must define what pseudoscience is and then figure out why pseudoscience is problematic. Read this article by Michael Shermer (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. from Scientific American.

Induction and Deduction | Realism and Antirealism

The history of the philosophy of science has its roots in philosophy, and emerged as an autonomous discipline sometime in the nineteenth century. Until the 18th and 19th centuries, there was no real distinction between scientist and philosopher, and many of the great scientist-philosophers of antiquity were also theologians.

Science gave philosophy a way of empirically testing theories and concepts, whilst philosophy has helped to develop the scientific method used today.

We discussed in previous lesson three philosophical ways to gain knowledge. Rationalism and empiricism are both use in science to gain knowledge. Scientist combine the empirical experimentation with math and logic, combining data collected through our senses with reasoning and intuition.

Science is not only a process of gaining knowledge is as well based on arguments and reasoning.

We can define two main way of reasoning: deductive and inductive reasoning.

  • Deduction, also called top-down logic, is a method of reasoning in which a conclusion is logically reached from premises. For example, if we know the current relative positions of the moon, sun, and Earth, as well as exactly how these move with respect to one another, we can deduce the date and location of the next solar eclipse.
  • Induction is a method of reasoning in which a generalization is argued to be true based on individual examples that seem to fit with that generalization. For example, after observing that trees, bacteria, sea anemones, fruit flies, and humans have cells, one might inductively infer that all organisms have cells.

The process of science requires both deductive and inductive reasoning.


A long-standing and continuing controversy exists regarding the role of induction and deduction in reasoning and in scientific inquiry.

Plato, one of the first philosophers of science, stated that everything had a perfect potential abstract form, and that any knowledge gained through observation and experiment was filtered by the senses. For Plato, Empirical knowledge, was mere opinion. Therefore, he reasoned, that pure knowledge could be advanced by deduction alone.

Aristotle, by contrast, believed that Plato had everything the wrong way around, and that knowledge could only be gained by comparing it with what was already known and perceived. Aristotle believed that inductive reasoning was required to establish some basic premises before scientific demonstrations.

During the scientific process, deductive reasoning is used to reach a logical true conclusion. Inductive reasoning has its place in the scientific method. Scientists use it to form hypotheses and theories. Deductive reasoning allows them to apply the theories to specific situations.

Physicists generating beautiful and elegant mathematical theories to explain the cosmos are far closer to Plato than Aristotle. What do you think biologist use, deductive or inductive, or both…?


Another important idea to understand when we talk about philosophy of science is the difference between Realism and Antirealism.

First of all it is important to note that both theories accept the reality of the world. So it is important not to confuse either with skepticism. The difference between them has to do with the status of scientific theories, on the one hand, and observable phenomenon on the other.

Scientific Realism and Antirealism

Debates about scientific realism concern the extent to which we are entitled to hope or believe that science will tell us what the world is really like. Realists tend to be optimistic; antirealists ( also called instrumentalist) do not.

A realist is someone who thinks that scientific theories aim at describing the world as it is (of course, within the limits of human epistemic access to reality), while an anti-realist is someone who takes scientific theories to aim at empirical adequacy, not truth. So, for instance, for a realist there truly are electrons out there, while for an anti-realist “electrons” are a convenient theoretical construct to make sense of certain kinds of data from fundamental physics, but the term need not refer to actual “particles.” It goes without saying that most scientists are realists, but not all.

No-one doubts that our current scientific theories are enormously successful in terms of both prediction and manipulation of empirical phenomena but realism and antirealism are two sides of a philosophical debate behind the whole basis of accepted scientific truth.

These contrasting views dictate how the observations generated by science are applied to the world. Although applicable to science, the wider debate involves many areas, including religion, politics and everyday life.

In science, the debate is a very important undercurrent, questioning the boundary between theory and applied science. It is not so critical when maybe talking about pH and basic chemistry, but it is in areas such as quantum physics and cosmology.

Realists and anti-realists will behave identically when doing scientific research, and both are happy to use the fruits of science as guides in their daily lives. The only difference is that the realist adds an extra and unnecessary assumption that the reason our best theories are so empirically useful is that they accurately describe the world as it is, whereas the anti-realist prefers not to make that assumption.

The basis behind realism is the acceptance that non-observable phenomena actually exist.

A strong realist would argue that both observable phenomenon and non-observable phenomenon are true descriptions of the world out there, whereas an strong anti-realist would say that only observable phenomenon are true, and theories based on non-observable phenomenon are neither true of false.

None of us would think that observable phenomenon are not real, that when I see a donkey there isn’t a donkey out there.

What isn’t so certain is that all theories really point to something out there. This is because much of the basis of many scientific theories actually point to phenomena that we cannot observe. If we cannot see something, then how can we say that it is part of the world? We cannot literally see inside of the atom. We only have theoretical pictures of what they look like, and we do not know if at that level the universe really looks like that at all. Do we still believe the scientific atomic theory?

The realist would say that we cannot see inside the atom but we can detect the existence of atoms by ionization when they are passed through a cloud chamber. The anti-realist, however would say that, all we know is real is the ionization trails themselves, and we cannot not know whether the atoms are real or not, just as we should confuse the trail that a plane leaves in the sky with the plane itself. The realist will say, the trails are the prove for the existence of the plane, even if you don’t see the plane.

When we look at the history of atomic theory it does appear that we are getting a progressive understanding of the structure of atom, and it would seem entirely bizarre that the theory would predict what we ought to see, and at the same time being entirely false.

Another great example of assuming existence is black holes. No scientist has ever seen a black hole, but theory predicts that they exist. The observation of vast clouds of matter swirling around super-dense objects leads many physicists to state that they should be regarded as truth. The data suggest that entities that we can’t observe, called black holes, exist. The antirealist would say, we can’t know for sure if black hole exist or not.

Antirealist believe that science is full of theories that are proved incorrect, and that the majority of theories ultimately are rejected or refined. Great theories, such as Newton’s laws, have been proved incorrect.

Realist believe that the theories are the best explanation of the real world we have at a particular moment in time and theories are improved when more data and knowledge is gained.

No scientific research can ever be accepted as fact, the boundary between theory and research is blurred. The main support for this idea is that science should be regarded as approximately true.

The realism and antirealism debate is very complex and, as with most philosophy, there is a vast grey area.

For example, I have never been to Australia, but I am sure that it exists. I have no solid evidence to base this upon, but it is accepted by fact by most people in the world.

By contrast, if I say “I have never seen a quark, but I believe that they exist”, this is part of a more complex debate. Theorists have only ever seen quarks indirectly, but there is a chance that other phenomena may be explained by the existence of an entity scientist called quark.

In this respect, some people argue there is a small dividing line between extreme science and religion. Saying that God exists is not too dissimilar to saying that Quark’s exist, although it is more likely that empirical evidence will become available for the latter and the existence of quarks is predicted by empirical data.

The slow accumulation of observations, and the testing of small hypotheses, in order to construct a larger theory, is one way of avoiding potential problems with realism and antirealism.

This is the attitude of most scientists; they try to ignore the debate and let the philosophers decide the fine details about the nature of reality!

2- https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=MYnZgJeOqqg


Popper’s Falsification

From inductivism to Popper’s falsification

From: Philosophy and the Science for Everyone by Michela Massimi. ISBN: 9781138785434

Karl Popper

Philosophers of science are interested in understanding the nature of scientific knowledge and its distinctive features. For a very long time, they strove to find what they thought might be the distinctive method of science, the method that would allow scientists to make informed decisions about what counts as a scientific theory.

The importance of demarcating good science from pseudo-science is neither otiose nor a mere philosophical exercise. It is at the very heart of social policy, when decisions are taken at the governmental level about how to spend taxpayers’ money.

Karl Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was, undoubtedly, one of the most influential philosophers of the early twentieth century to have contributed to the debate about demarcating good science from pseudo-science. In this section we very briefly review some of his seminal ideas.

Popper’s battleground was the social sciences. At the beginning of the twentieth century, in the German-speaking world, a lively debate took place between the so-called Naturwissenschaften (the natural sciences, including mathematics, physics, and chemistry) and the Geisteswissenschaften (the human sciences, including psychology and the emergent psychoanalysis), and whether the latter could rise to the status of proper sciences on a par with the natural sciences.

This is the historical context in which Popper began his philosophical reflections in the 1920s. Popper’s reflections were influenced by the Vienna Circle, a group of young intellectuals from different branches of science. The philosophical view adopted by the Vienna Circle is known as logical empiricism:knowledge comes in two kinds; the first kind is knowledge of logical truths (truths independent of experience); the second is empirical knowledge, whose truths are based on experience.

Popper’s influential book The Logic of Scientific Discovery was first published in 1934 (the English translation came much later, in 1959) in the Vienna Circle series edited by Schlick; and it dealt precisely with the problem of how to demarcate good science from pseudoscience.

Before Popper, the received view about scientific knowledge and the method of science was inductivism: on this view, scientific theories are confirmed by inductive inferences from an increasing number of positive instances to a universally valid conclusion.

For example, Newton’s second law seems confirmed by many positive instances from the pendulum, to harmonic oscillators and free fall, among others. We can think of scientific theories as sets of sentences, i.e. laws of nature; and laws of nature, as taking the form of true universal generalizations, ‘For all objects x, if Fx then Gx’ (e.g. Newton’s second law would read as follows: if an external force acts on a body of mass m, then the body will accelerate). And we can think of true universal generalizations as being confirmed when a sufficiently large number of positive instances (and no negative instances) have been found for them. Inductivism was at work in the logical empiricists’ criterion of verification: namely the idea that any claim or statement is scientific if there is a way of empirically verifying it (i.e. if there is a way of finding positive empirical instances confirming that claim or statement).

The problem with inductive methodology – according to Popper – is that it is too liberal as a method for demarcating good science from pseudo-science.

Political theories such as Marxism or Freud’s psychoanalysis would equally meet the requirements of inductivism. A Freudian psychoanalyst could appeal to plenty of positive instances of people’s dreams that can confirm the validity of Freud’s analysis of the Oedipus complex, for example. But is this per se sufficient to license the scientific status of Freud’s psychoanalysis? People that read horoscopes can similarly claim that there are positive instances in their monthly working schedule confirming the horoscope’s warning that it is going to be a very demanding month for Aquarians! Does it mean that horoscopes are scientific? Positive instances are where one wants to find them. Thus, to demarcate good science from pseudo-science, Popper thought, we need to probe a little deeper.

The problem – as Popper saw it – is that theories such as psychoanalysis do not make specific predictions, and their general principles are so broadly construed as to be compatible with any particular observations, whereas scientific theories such as Copernicus’ heliocentric theory or Einstein’s relativity do make novel predictions, i.e. predictions of new phenomena or entities. Remember our assignment about Astronomy?

As the historian Koyré once said, the amazing thing about Copernican astronomy is that it worked, despite the overcast sky of Copernicus’ Poland! Using Copernican astronomy, Galileo could predict the phases of Venus, a novel phenomenon not predicted by Ptolemaic astronomy and observed by Galileo himself with his telescope. Or consider Einstein’s general relativity, which predicted light-bending, a phenomenon indeed observed by Arthur Eddington’s expedition to Brazil in 1919. What makes Copernicus’ or Einstein’s theory ‘scientific’ is not just having positive instances, but instead, being able to make very specific and precise predictions about previously undreamt-of phenomena – predictions that may turn out to be wrong.

Popper’s conclusion was that scientists should be looking for instances that are risky predictions, namely potential falsifiers (predictions that if proved wrong, would reject the theory). Having no potential falsifiers is the hallmark of dubious scientific standing.

Pseudo-scientific theories have a tendency to accommodate evidence, as opposed to predicting novel, risky phenomena. But no matter how many positive instances of a generalization one has observed or accommodated, there is still no guarantee that the next instance will not falsify it. No matter how many white swans we might have observed, nothing excludes the possibility that the next observed swan will be black, as indeed explorers found in Australia. Hence, Popper’s conclusion that the distinctive method of science does not consist in confirming hypotheses, but in falsifying them, looking for one crucial piece of negative evidence that may refute the whole theory.

According to Popper, science proceeds by a method of conjectures and refutations: scientists start with bold (theoretically and experimentally unwarranted) conjectures about some phenomena, deduce novel undreamt-of predictions, and then go about finding potential falsifiers for those predictions. Currently accepted scientific theories have passed severe tests and have survived, without being falsified as yet. If a theory does not pass severe tests, and/or if there are no sufficient or suitable potential falsifiers for it, the theory cannot be said to be scientific. The history of science is full of theories that enjoyed a relative period of empirical success until they were eventually falsified and rejected: from the caloric theory of Lavoisier (which regarded heat as an imponderable fluid) to Stahl’s phlogiston theory in the eighteenth century, and Newton’s ether theory. Science has grown across centuries by dismantling and rejecting previously successful theories – scientific progress is characterized and made possible by falsification.

To conclude, falsificationism is the distinctive method of science, according to Popper. It is a deductive (instead of inductive) method, whereby scientists start with bold conjectures, and deduce novel predictions, which then they go about testing. If the predictions prove wrong, the conjecture is falsified and replaced with a new one. If the predictions prove correct, the conjecture is corroborated and will continue to be employed to make further predictions and pass more tests, until proven wrong.

To review the concept of Demarcation and falsificationism watch the video below



Travel Guide for Intercultural Communication 371 Business Finance Assignment Help

**I have attached an example (please review)**

**I also attached the grading rubric**

Travel Guide power point Instructions

Travel Guide PPT – (1 x 100 points)

For this assignment you are going to take on the role of a Communication scholar/Travel Guide and choose one country (other than the U.S.). Using your chosen country, you are to create a PPT that discusses communication characteristics, cultural faux pas, and recommended travel plans for a 7-10 day visit. Feel free to choose a country that is not a mainstream, “popular” tourist destination, and one that you have not yet traveled to. It is important that you include what’s required below and be creative, yet realistic in your planning.

The PPT must include, but not be limited to, the following:

(1)A brief history/background on the country you have chosen. Understandably, many countries may have a vast history. Focus on what you perceive as the most important elements of the country’s history. Maybe discuss the origins/structure of the current government system, how old the country is, what language is spoken, the currency, etc. I’m looking for 2-3 slides of background on your country. Be sure to cite your sources on your reference slide.

(2)How your chosen country ranks on the following dimensions of cultural variability:

a.Individualism versus Collectivism

b.Masculinity Versus Femininity

c.Power Distance

d.Indulgence Versus Restraint

e.Long Term Orientation Versus Short Term Orientation

f.Uncertainty Avoidance

If you are unable to locate direct research indicating where your country aligns on these dimensions you need to do your best to provide research that supports your rationale for where you would assume your country would rank on these dimensions. Be sure to explain what each dimension is and also give specific examples for each of these dimensions. Also, make sure to cite your sources on your reference slide.

(3)Faux Pas. List societal faux pas for the country you have selected. Be specific and give examples. 10-15 Faux Pas are ideal. Be sure to cite your sources on your reference slide.

(4)A 7-10 day daily break down of activities/tours for someone interested in visiting this country (be creative, have fun, and keep in mind your target audience while planning daily activities – your peers!). Be sure to include cost and information about the included activities.

A.Flight and accommodation details (and inter-country flights if applicable).

B. Information about the country (Customs, currency, visa requirements, vaccinations, best time of the year to visit, etc.)

C. Cost. Understandably, cost will vary depending on the time of the year. Do your best to provide your classmates with a rough estimate of the cost for the trip. Include flight(s), accommodations, tours, food, and anything else that may cost money for this trip. A breakdown and total cost would be an awesome thing to include!

*Do some research online (sites like Tripadvisor, Fodors, Triptuner, to name a few, may be helpful – there are many resources available to help with planning), and talk with friends who may have already traveled to your chosen destination to help with this project. Include pictures! Most importantly, have fun with this assignment and learn something cool about a place you may actually be traveling to yourself in the near future!

Warning – If you copy and paste from websites to your slides this constitutes as plagiarism and you will receive a zero on this assignment. Be sure to paraphrase by putting what you read into your own words while also making sure to cite your sources.


Environmental Economics Case Study Science Assignment Help

Need help with this writing assignment!

Assignment Instructions: Suppose you are the Dictator of Imagineland, an island about the size of Iceland located in the North Atlantic Ocean with a population of 1 million people. Major industries are commercial fishing and tourism, but these industries (in their current form) are not growing your country’s economy and you need to figure out what to do. Commercial fishing on the open ocean has been declining due to over-harvesting by other countries. Imagineland is formed over an old oceanic volcano system and has a mountainous environment (elevation ranges from sea level all the way to 4,000 feet).

Most of your inland areas remain undeveloped, as the majority of your population lives in coastal areas. You have a mix of public and private property throughout. Property rights are relatively well established and enforced (in the areas that fall under Imagineland’s jurisdiction).

You have just discovered a vast amount of petroleum deep in the ocean floor just off of your coast (in your country’s territorial waters).

Your #1 objective is to grow your country’s per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) over the long run. Consider how you might think about whether to develop and extract this resource according to economic principles of sustainability, and what you have to consider as alternatives, tradeoffs, environmental issues, etc.

You should flesh out the country of Imagineland according to your own “Imagination.” Consider environmental concerns as well as economic concerns, such as employment, GDP (total and per capita), and trade.

Your assignment should be no more than 4 pages double-spaced, 12-pt font. Cite real world examples (this isn’t the first time oil has been discovered; there are probably lessons to be learned from other countries). Use APA format for references and citations.

Include the following 5 information/headings:

Issue Identification and objectives.

State your primary objective (as given above). Develop a secondary objective that you think is also important for your country. Make sure it is measurable (you can’t achieve an objective if you can’t measure your success) in some fashion.

Summarize the issue, including the current status of your country (size, population, major industries, employment, GDP per capita, average education level, major resources, major industries, etc.). Many of these will require you to use your “imagination” but keep them reasonable. Also, make sure GDP per capita aligns with the rest of your metrics. For example, it is not reasonable to say a country that depends mostly on tourism and commercial fishing with an unemployment rate of 20% has a GDP per capita of $50,000. Check the CIA Fact book, World Bank, or other data source for comparable countries.

Decision and Alternatives

Identify the decision to be made. This is not where you make the decision – it is where you decide what you have to decide.

Present two alternative choices regarding what you might do to grow your country’s long run GDP. These choices should be mutually exclusive, such that you cannot do both (either because you have limited resources to invest right now, or because one industry interferes with the other). One of your choices should be to develop the oil resource (flesh out a few details on when, how BUT don’t go into a huge amount of detail). Your other choice should be to focus on a different industry. It does not have to be something already mentioned. You DO have to think about how you would pay for the initial investment required for either alternative. Do not assume that you can rely on taxes (remember your country is struggling) or that your government has a magical pot of money to draw from.

Evaluation of Alternatives

What are the tradeoffs associated with each alternative? Explain what your country gains and loses (in terms of economics, financial, social, etc.) if you choose one alternative versus the other one. Evaluate each alternative separately (don’t compare them in this section), using common metrics such as impact on GDP growth, impact on the environment, impact on taxation, education, etc. The metrics you choose are up to you, but at remember we are talking about tradeoffs. What do you gain and lose if you pick Alternative 1? What do you gain and lose if you pick Alternative 2? Remember, you do not compare them here. That means that the costs of Alternative 1 (e.g., ecological damage from extraction) ARE NOT the benefits of Alternative 2. That would be a comparison.

Decision and Justification

Based on your evaluation above, describe what alternative you might select and why you think it best satisfies your #1 objective. How well does it satisfy your secondary objective?


You must include at least three scholarly references. Each reference must also be properly APA cited in the body of your paper (don’t just tack them on at the end).


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