I’ve attached all the instructions, links, sources, etc. Feel free to contact me with any questions. To keep it. I’ve attached all the instructions, links, sources, etc. Feel free to contact me with any questions. To keep it.
EDSP 521 Exceptionality Chart Grading Rubric Criteria Levels of Achievement Content Advanced
Exceptionality Chart Grading Rubric
Levels of Achievement
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the full and correct definition of all 7 exceptionalities.
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the full and correct definition of exceptionalities, with vague definition on 1-2 exceptionalities.
1 to 4 points
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the full and correct definition of exceptionalities, with vague or incorrect definition on one or more exceptionalities.
More than 4 definitions were incomplete/incorrect.
Criteria for Services
18 to 20 points
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the criteria for services in all 14 exceptionalities.
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the criteria for services in 13 exceptionalities, or 1-2 vague criterion.
1 to 16 points
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the criteria for services in 11-12 exceptionalities, or 3-4 vague criterion.
More than 4 incomplete sections on the criteria for services.
18 to 20 points
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the characteristics in all 14 exceptionalities.
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the characteristics in 13 exceptionalities, or 1-2 vague or incorrect characteristics.
1 to 16 points
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the characteristics in 11-12 exceptionalities, or 3-4 vague or incorrect characteristics.
More than 4 incomplete sections on the characteristics of these exceptionalities.
18 to 20 points
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the strategies for all 14 exceptionalities.
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the strategies in 13 exceptionalities, or 1-2 vague or incorrect strategies.
1 to 16 points
Application of knowledge demonstrated regarding the strategies in 11-12 exceptionalities, or 3-4 vague or incorrect strategies.
More than 4 incomplete sections on the strategies for these exceptionalities.
Correct spelling, grammar, and capitalization are used.
18 to 20 points
Application of correct spelling, grammar, and capitalization used throughout.
There are 1–2 glaring errors in spelling, grammar, or capitalization.
1 to 16 points
There are 3–4 glaring errors in spelling, grammar, or capitalization.
There are more than 4 glaring errors in spelling, grammar, or capitalization.
Application of current APA formatting in the areas of title page, citations, and Reference page
There are 1–2 glaring errors in current APA formatting
1 to 7 points
There are 3–4 glaring errors in current APA formatting
There are more than 4 glaring errors in current APA formatting
Page 2 of 2[supanova_question]
1 EXCEPTIONALITY CHART 1 Exceptionality Chart Student Name Course Identifier/School Author’s Note
I’ve attached all the instructions, links, sources, etc. Feel free to contact me with any questions. To keep it 1
Insert content here
General Teaching Methods/
Instructional Strategies/ Technology
Autism Spectrum Disorder
“A variety (or spectrum) of related disorders that affect a child’s social development and ability to communicate and that include unusual behavioral manifestations such as repetitive motor movements” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 143).
An individual must meet criteria A, B, C, and D:
Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across contexts, not accounted for by general developmental delays.
Restrictive, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities.
Symptoms must be present in early childhood (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities).
Symptoms together limit and impair everyday functioning” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 146).
“Lack of Theory of the Mind (the ability of human beings to understand the thinking and feelings of other people that’s necessary for understanding, predicting, and shaping the behavior of others).
Acting out or aggressive behavior due to limited ability to communicate.
Hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli
Trouble with important thinking skills like decision-making, problem solving, executive function, and the more complex mental processes of reasoning and evaluation.
Difficulty with a range of motor skills such as gross motor, fine motor, and motor planning” (Kirk et al., 2020, pp. 148-150).
“Early intervention and early diagnosis
Naturalistic intervention Peer-mediated instruction and intervention
Social narratives of social stories; Comic strip conversations
Prompting; visual supports
Improving Social Skills
Functional Behavior Assessment
Assistive Technology (voice output communication aids)
Focused Intervention Practice
Comprehensive Treatment Models (TEACCH, EIBI)” (Kirk et al., 2020, pp. 154-161).
“Concomitant impairments (such as intellectual and developmental disabilities—blindness or intellectual and developmental disabilities—orthopedic impairment) that result in severe educational needs that require special services” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 423).
“A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures)” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 423).
Traumatic Brain Injury
“An acquired injury caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability and/or psychosocial impairment that requires special educational services” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 423).
Visual Impairment, including Blindness and Deafblindness
Deafblindness: “Concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes severe communication, developmental, and other educational needs that require special services” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 423).
Other Health Impairment
“Limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that are due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorders, diabetes, epilepsy, cystic fibrosis, heart conditions, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, or Tourette syndrome and that require special educational services” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 423).
“In the United States, defined by each state, and can occur in any of the five critical domains: cognitive, communicative, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive development” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 79).
Language Developmental Disorder OR Speech/Language Impairment
“This disorder involves difficulties with any combination of spoken, written, and symbol systems used to share ideas and messages. Language disorders may impact understanding and use of (a) language form (phonology, morphology, syntax), (b) language content (semantics), or (c) language function (pragmatics)” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 293).
Cultural/ Ethnic/ Socioeconomic Factors/ ELL
“Many students for whom English is a second language have difficulty learning in American schools and may be referred to special education as a result” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 57).
The criteria for services should be the same for the exceptionality of a student with English as the primary language as it is for a student with English as a second language.
Students who fall under the characteristics of a specific disability, but also who have other cultural/ethnic/socioeconomic factors or variables.
Test students with nonbiased assessment that include the use of interpreters, “culture fair” tests, and separate norms. (Kirk et al, 2015, p. 56).
Mindful interpretations of the tests.
“The RtI model Tier II, which allows for additional support for learning short of referral to special education” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 57).
Medical Aspects/Major Health Impairments
A broad range of exceptionalities that involve medical attention/care.
“When children are dealing with serious health problems, their life and education will be impacted. The support needed for each child will depend on the range and severity of the problem…medical experts take the lead on the diagnosis and planning medical interventions, while the general education teacher takes responsibility for needed daily supports and for knowing the appropriate protocols for initial response in an emergency” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 427).
A wide variety of medical health impairments that could include:
Sickle Cell Anemia
“Advances in medicine have led to lifesaving interventions for children with physical disabilities and health impairments. As medical interventions have improved, the life expectancy for children with severe disabilities has been extended. Improved medical interventions are also increasing the survival rate for soldiers who have been wounded…medical supports also can enhance the quality of individuals who have lost limbs regain functioning, new blood sugar monitors can maintain a continuous check to help regular diabetes, improvements in surgical procedures for infants allow doctors to repair heart defects, and new treatments for cancer have led to nearly 80 percent survival rates for children” (Kirk et al., 2020, p. 421).
Kirk, S., Gallagher, J., Coleman, M., Hardman, M., Egan, M. W., Drew, C., Gargiulo, R., Metcalf, D., Boyle, J., Scanlon, D., &
Landrum, J. (2020). Foundations of Exceptionality. Cengage.[supanova_question]
What role do you think accounting plays in helping owners (shareholder) decide Dick’s value?
Consider Dick’s stock price. On January 30, 2017, you would pay $52.17 to own one share of Dick’s stock. When you add the value of all the shares of stock together, Dick’s is valued at over $4 billion . That’s a lot of money. Do you think Dick’s is worth that much money? What role do you think accounting plays in helping owners (shareholder) decide Dick’s value?
few seconds ago[supanova_question]
Excerpts from Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol S. Dweck.
Excerpts from Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol S. Dweck.
Publisher’s description: After decades of research, world-renowned Stanford University psychologist Carol S. Dweck, PhD discovered a simple, but groundbreaking idea: the power of mindset. In this brilliant book, she shows how success in school, work, sports, the arts, and almost every area of human endeavor can be dramatically influenced by how we think about our talents and abilities. People with a fixed mindset—those who think that abilities are fixed—are less likely to flourish than those with a growth mindset—those who believe that abilities can be developed. Mindset reveals how great parents, teachers, managers, and athletes can put this idea to use to foster outstanding accomplishment. With the right mindset, you can motivate those you lead, teach, and love—to transform their lives and your own.
Endorsement from Bill Gates—“Through clever research studies and engaging writing, Dweck illuminates how our beliefs about our capabilities exert tremendous influence on how we learn and which paths we take in life.” Bill Gates, Gates Notes
Chapter 2: Inside the Mindsets
One day my doctoral student, Mary Bandura, and I were trying to understand why some students were so caught up in proving their ability, while others could just let go and learn. Suddenly we realized that there were two meanings to ability, not one: a fixed ability that needs to be proven, and a changeable ability that can be developed through learning.
That’s how mindsets were born. I knew instantly which one I had. I realized why I’d always been so concerned about mistakes and failures. And I recognized for the first time that I had a choice.
When you enter a mindset, you enter a new world. In one world—the world of fixed traits—success is about proving you’re smart or talented. Validating yourself. In the other—the world of changing qualities—it’s about stretching yourself to learn something new. Developing yourself.
In one world, failure is about having a setback. Getting a bad grade. Losing a tournament. Getting fired. Getting rejected. It means you’re not smart or talented. In the other world, failure is about not growing. Not reaching for the things you value. It means you’re not fulfilling your potential.
In one world, effort is a bad thing. It, like failure, means you’re not smart or talented. If you were, you wouldn’t need effort. In the other world, effort is what makes you smart or talented.
You have a choice. Mindsets are just beliefs. They’re powerful beliefs, but they’re just something in your mind, and you can change your mind. As you read, think about where you’d like to go and which mindset will take you there.
Is success about learning—or proving you’re smart?
Benjamin Barber, an eminent political theorist, once said, “I don’t divide the world into the weak and the strong, or the successes and the failures, …I divide the world into the learners and nonlearners.”
What on earth would make someone a nonlearner? Everyone is born with an intense drive to learn. Infants stretch their skills daily. Not just ordinary skills, but the most difficult tasks of a lifetime, like learning to walk and talk. They never decide it’s too hard or not worth the effort. Babies don’t worry about making mistakes or humiliating themselves. They walk, they fall, they get up. They just barge forward.
What could put an end to this exuberant learning? The fixed mindset. As soon as children become able to evaluate themselves, some of them become afraid of challenges. They become afraid of not being smart. I have studies thousands of people from preschoolers on, and it’s breathtaking how many reject an opportunity to learn.
We offered four-year-olds a choice: they could redo an easy jigsaw puzzle or they could try a harder one. Even at this tender age, children with the fixed mindset—the ones who believed in fixed traits—stuck with the safe one. Kids who are born smart “don’t do mistakes,” they told us.
Children with the growth mindset—the ones who believed you could get smarter—thought it was a strange choice. Why are you asking me this, lady? Why would anyone want to keep doing the same puzzle over and over? They chose one hard one after another. “I’m dying to figure them out!” exclaimed one little girl.
So children with the fixed mindset want to make sure they succeed. Smart people should always succeed. But for children with the growth mindset, success is about stretching themselves. It’s about becoming smarter.
One seventh-grade girl summed it up. “I think intelligence is something you have to work for…it isn’t just given to you…Most kids, if they’re not sure of an answer, will not raise their hand to answer the question. But what I usually do is raise my hand, because if I’m wrong, then my mistake will be corrected. Or I will raise my hand and say, ‘How would this be solved?’ or ‘I don’t get this. Can you help me?’ Just by doing that I’m increasing my intelligence.”
It’s one thing to pass up a puzzle. It’s another to pass up an opportunity that’s important to your future. To see if this would happen, we took advantage of an unusual situation. At the University of Hong Kong, everything is in English. Classes are in English, textbooks are in English, and exams are in English. But some students who enter the university are not fluent in English, so it would make sense for them to do something about it in a hurry.
As students arrived to register for their freshman year, we knew which ones were not skilled in English. And we asked them a key question: If the faculty offered a course for students who need to improve their English skills, would you take it?
We also measured their mindset. We did this by asking them how much they agreed with statements like this: “You have a certain amount of intelligence, and you can’t really do much to change it.” People who agreed with this kind of statement lean toward a fixed mindset. Those who lean toward a growth mindset agree that: “You can always substantially change how intelligent you are.”
Later, we looked at who said yes to the English course. Students with the growth mindset said an emphatic yes. But those with the fixed mindset were not very interested. Believing that success is about learning, students with the growth mindset seized the chance. But those with the fixed mindset didn’t want to expose their deficiencies. Instead, to feel smart in the short run, they were willing to put their college careers at risk.
This is how the fixed mindset makes people into nonlearners.
Chapter 3: The Truth about Ability and Accomplishment
The danger of praise and positive labels
If people have such potential to achieve, how can they gain faith in their potential? How can we give them the confidence they need to go for it? How about praising their ability in order to convey that they have what it takes? In fact, more than 80% of parents told us it was necessary to praise children’s ability so as to foster their confidence and achievement. You know, it makes a lot of sense.
But then we begin to worry. We thought about how people with the fixed mindset already focus too much on their ability. “Is it high enough?’ “Will it look good?” Wouldn’t praising people’s ability focus them on it even more? Wouldn’t it be telling them that that’s what we value and, even worse, that we can read their deep, underlying ability from their performance? Isn’t that teaching them the fixed mindset?
Adam Guettel has been called the crown prince and savior of musical theater. He is the grandson of Richard Rodgers, the man who wrote the music to such classics as Oklahoma! and Carousel. Guettel’s mother gushes about her son’s genius. So does everyone else. “The talent is there and it’s major,” raved a review in The New York Times. The question is whether this kind of praise encourages people.
What’s great about research is that you can ask these kinds of questions and then go get the answers. So we conducted studies with hundreds of students, mostly early adolescents. We first gave each student a set of ten fairly difficult problems from a nonverbal IQ test. They mostly did pretty well on these, and when they finished we praised them.
We praised some of the students for their ability. They were told: “Wow, you got eight right. That’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.” They were in the Adam Guettel you’re so talented position.
We praised other students for their effort: “Wow, you got eight right. That’s a really good score. You must have worked really hard.” They were not made to feel that they had some special gift; they were praised for doing what it takes to succeed.
Both groups were exactly equal to begin with. But right after the praise, they began to differ. As we feared, the ability praise pushed students right into the fixed mindset, and they showed all the signs of it too. When we gave them a choice, they rejected a challenging new task that they could learn from. They didn’t want to do anything that could expose their flaws and call into question their talent.
When Guettel was 13, he was all set to star in a Metropolitan Opera broadcast and TV movie of Amahl and the Night Visitors. He bowed out, saying that his voice had broken. “I kind of faked that my voice was changing….I didn’t want to handle the pressure.”
In contrast, when students were praised for effort, 90% of them wanted the challenging new task that they could learn from. Then we gave the students some hard new problems, which they didn’t do so well on. The ability kids now thought they were not smart after all. If success had meant they were intelligent, then less-than-success meant they were deficient.
Guettel echoes this. “In my family, to be good is to fail. To be very good is to fail…The only thing not a failure is to be great.”
The effort kids simply thought the difficulty meant “Apply more effort or try new strategies.” They didn’t see it as a failure, and they didn’t think it reflected on their intellect.
What about the students’ enjoyment of the problems? After the success, everyone loved the problems, but after the difficult problems, the ability students said it wasn’t fun anymore. It can’t be fun when your claim to fame, your special talent, is in jeopardy.
Here’s Adam Guettel: “I wish I could just have fun and relax and not the responsibility of that potential to be some kind of great man.” As with the kids in our study, the burden of talent was killing his enjoyment.
The effort-praised students still loved the problems, and many of them said that the hard problems were the most fun.
We then looked at the students’ performance. After the experience with difficulty, the performance of the ability-praised students plummeted, even when we gave them some more of the easier problems. Losing faith in their ability, they were doing worse than when they started. The effort kids showed better and better performance. They had used the hard problems to sharpen their skills, so that when they returned to the easier ones, they were way ahead.
Since this was a kind of IQ test, you might say that praising ability lowered the students’ IQs. And that praising their efforts raised them.
Guettel was not thriving. He was riddled with obsessive-compulsive tics and bitten, bleeding fingers. “Spend a minute with him—it takes only one—and a picture of the terror behind the tics starts to emerge,” says an interviewer. Guettel has also fought serious, recurrent drug problems. Rather than empowering him, the “gift” has filled him with fear and doubt. Rather than fulfilling his talent, this brilliant composer has spent most of his life running from it.
One thing is hopeful—his recognition that he has his own life course to follow that is not dictated by other people and their view of his talent. One night he had a dream about his grandfather. “I was walking him to an elevator. I asked him if I was any good. He said, rather kindly, ‘You have your own voice.”
Is that voice finally emerging? For the score of The Light in the Piazza, an intensely romantic musical, Guettel won the 2005 Tony Award. Will he take it as praise for talent or praise for effort? I hope it is the latter.
There was one more finding in our study that was striking and depressing at the same time. We said to each student: “You know, we’re going to go to other schools and I bet the kids in those schools would like to know about the problems.” So we gave students a page to write out their thoughts, but we also left a space for them to write the scores they had received on the problems.
Would you believe that almost 40% of the ability-praised students lied about their scores? And always in one direction. In the fixed mindset, imperfections are shameful—especially if you’re talented—so they lied them away. What’s so alarming is that we took ordinary children and made them into liars, simply by telling them they were smart.
Right after I wrote these paragraphs, I met with a young man who tutors students for their College Board exams. He had come to consult with me about one of his students. This student takes practice tests and then lies to him about her score. He is supposed to tutor her on what she doesn’t know, but she can’t tell him the truth about what she doesn’t know! And she is paying money for this.
So telling children they’re smart, in the end, made them feel dumber and act dumber, but claim they were smarter. I don’t think this is what we’re aiming for when we put positive labels—“gifted,” “talented,” “brilliant,”—on people. We don’t mean to rob them of their zest for challenge and their recipes for success. But that’s the danger.
Here is a letter from a man who’d read some of my work:
Dear Dr. Dweck,
It was painful to read your chapter…as I recognized myself therein. As a child I was a member of The Gifted Child Society and continually praised for my intelligence. Now, after a lifetime of not living up to my potential (I’m 49), I’m learning to apply myself to a task. And also to see failure not as a sign of stupidity but as a lack of experience and skill. Your chapter helped me see myself in a new light.
This is the danger of positive labels. There are alternatives, and I will return to them later in the chapter on parents, teachers, and coaches.
Chapter 5: Business, Mindset and Leadership
The Smartest Guys in the Room
Yes, it seems as though history led inevitably from Iacocca to the moguls of the 1990s, and none more so than Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling, the leaders of Enron.
Ken Lay, the company’s founder, chairman, and CEO, considered himself a great visionary. According to Bethany McLean and Peter Elkind, authors of The Smartest Guys in the Room, Lay looked down his nose at the people who actually made the company run, much the way a king might look at his serfs. He looked down on Rich Kinder, the Enron president, who rolled up his sleeves and tried to make sure the company would reach its earning targets. Kinder was the man who made Lay’s royal lifestyle possible. Kinder was also the only person at the top who constantly asked if they were fooling themselves: “Are we smoking our own dope? Are we drinking our own whiskey?”
Naturally, his days were numbered. But in his sensible and astute way, as he departed he arranged to buy the one Enron asset that was inherently valuable, the energy pipelines—the asset that Enron held in disdain. By the end of 2003, Kinder’s company had a market value of $7 billion.
Even as Lay was consumed by his view of himself and the regal manner in which he wished to support it, he wanted to be seen as a “good and thoughtful man” with a credo of respect and integrity. Even as Enron sucked the life out of its victims, he wrote to his staff, “Ruthlessness, callousness and arrogance don’t belong here….We work with customers and prospects openly, honestly and sincerely.” As with Iacocca and the others, the perception—usually Wall Street’s perception—was all-important. The reality less so.
Right there with Lay was Jeff Skilling, successor to Rich Kinder as president and chief operating officer, and later the CEO. Skilling was not just smart, he was said to be “the smartest person I ever met” and “incandescently brilliant.” He used his brainpower, however, not to learn, but to intimidate. When he thought he was smarter than others, which was almost always, he treated them harshly. And anyone who disagreed with him was just not bright enough to “get it.” When a co-CEO with superb management skills was brought in to help Skilling during a hard time in his life, Skilling was contemptuous of him: “Ron doesn’t get it.” When financial analysts or Wall Street traders tried to press Skilling to go beyond his pat explanations, he treated them as though they were stupid. “Well, it’s so obvious. How can you not get it.” In most cases, the Wall Street guys, ever concerned about their own intellect, made believe they got it.
As resident genius, Skilling had unlimited faith in his ideas. He had so much regard for his ideas that he believe Enron should be able to proclaim profits as soon as he or his people had the idea that might lead to profits. This is a radical expression of the fixed mindset: My genius not only defines and validates me. It defines and validates the company. It is what creates value. My genius is profit. Wow!
And in fact, this is how Enron came to operate. As McLean and Elkind report, Enron recorded “millions of dollars in profits on a business before it had generated a penny in actual revenues.” Of course, after the creative act no one cared about follow-through. That was beneath them. So, often as not, the profit never occurred. If genius equaled profit, it didn’t matter that Enron people sometimes wasted millions competing against each other. Said Amanda Martin, an Enron executive, “To put one over on one of your own was a sign of creativity and greatness.”
Skilling not only thought he was smarter than everyone else but, like Iacocca, also thought he was luckier. According to insiders, he thought he could beat the odds. Why should he feel vulnerable? There was never anything wrong. Skilling still does not admit that there was anything wrong. The world simply didn’t get it.
Two Geniuses Collide
Resident geniuses almost brought down AOL and Time Warner, too. Steve Case of AOL and Jerry Levin of Time Warner were two CEOs with the fixed mindset who merged their companies. Can you see it coming?
Case and Levin had a lot in common. Both of them cultivated an aura of supreme intelligence. Both tried to intimidate people with their brilliance. And both were known to take more credit than they deserved. As resident geniuses, neither wanted to hear complaints, and both were ready to fire people who weren’t “team players,” meaning people who wouldn’t keep up the façade that they had erected.
When the merger actually took place, AOL was in such debt that the merged company was on the brink of ruin. You would think that the CEOs might work together, marshaling their resources to save the company they created. Instead, Levin and Case scrambled for personal power.
Levin was the first to fall. But Case was still not trying to make things work. In fact, when the new CEO, Richard Parsons, sent someone down to fix AOL, Case was intensely against it. If someone else fixed AOL, someone else would get the credit. As with Iacocca, better to let the company collapse than let another prince be crowned. When Case was finally counseled to resign, he was furious. Like Iacocca, he denied all responsibility for the company’s problems and vowed to get back at those who had turned against him.
Because of the resident geniuses, AOL Time Warner ended the year 2002 with a loss of almost 100 billion dollars. It was the largest yearly loss in American history.
The Praised Generation Hits the Workforce
Are we going to have a problem finding leaders in the future? You can’t pick up a magazine or turn on the radio without hearing about the problem of praise in the workplace. We could have seen it coming.
We’ve talked about all the well-meaning parents who’ve tried to boost their children’s self-esteem by telling them how smart and talented they are. And we’ve talked about all the negative effects of this kind of praise. Well, these children of praise have now entered the workforce, and sure enough, many can’t function without getting a sticker for their every move. Instead of yearly bonuses, some companies are giving quarterly or even monthly bonuses. Instead of employee of the month, it’s the employee of the day. Companies are calling in consultants to teach them how best to lavish rewards on this overpraised generation. We no have a workforce full of people who need constant reassurance and can’t take criticism. Not a recipe for success in business, where taking on challenges, showing persistence, and admitting and correcting mistakes are essential.
Why are businesses perpetuating the problem? Why are they continuing the same misguided practices of the overpraising parents, and paying money to consultants to show them how to do it? Maybe we need to step back from this problem and take another perspective.
If the wrong kinds of praise leads kids down the path of entitlement, dependence, and fragility, maybe the right kinds of praise can lead them down the path of hard work and greater hardiness. We have shown in our research that with the right kinds of feedback even adults can be motivated to choose challenging tasks and confront their mistakes.
What would this feedback look or sound like in the workplace? Instead of just giving employees an award for the smartest idea or praise for a brilliant performance, they would get praise for taking initiative, for seeing a difficult task through, for struggling and learning something new, for being undaunted by a setback, or for being open to and acting on criticism. Maybe it could be praise for not needing constant praise!
Through a skewed sense of how to love their children, many parents in the ‘90s (and unfortunately, many parents of the ‘00s) abdicated their responsibility. Although corporations are not usually in the business of picking up where parents left off, they may need to this time. If businesses don’t play a role in developing a more mature and growth-minded workforce, where will the leaders of the future come from?
Chapter 8: Changing Mindsets
I was in the middle of first grade when my family moved. Suddenly I was in a new school. Everything was unfamiliar—the teacher, the students and the work. The work was what terrified me. The new class was way ahead of my old one, or at least it seemed that way to me. They were writing letters I hadn’t learned to write yet. And there was a way to do everything that everyone seemed to know except me. So when the teacher said, “Class, put your name on your paper in the right place,” I had no idea what she meant.
So I cried. Each day things came up that I didn’t know how to do. Each time, I felt lost and overwhelmed. Why didn’t I just say to the teacher, “Mrs. Kahn, I haven’t learned this yet. Could you show me how?”
In my work, I see lots of young children like this—bright, seemingly resourceful children who are paralyzed by setbacks. In some of our studies, they just have to take the simplest action to make things better. But they don’t. These are the young children with the fixed mindset. When things go wrong, they feel powerless and incapable.
Beliefs Are the Key to Happiness (and to Misery)
In the 1960s, psychiatrist Aaron Beck was working with his clients when he suddenly realized it was their beliefs that were causing their problems. Just before they felt a wave of anxiety or depression, something quickly flashed through their minds. It could be: “Dr. Beck thinks I’m incompetent.” Or “This therapy will never work. I’ll never feel better.” These kinds of beliefs caused their negative feelings not only in the therapy session, but in their lives, too.
They weren’t beliefs people were usually conscious of. Yet Beck found he could teach people to pay attention and hear them. And then he discovered he could teach them how to work with and change these beliefs. This is how cognitive therapy was born, one of the most effective therapies ever developed.
Whether they are aware of it or not, all people keep a running account of what’s happening to them, what it means, and what they should do. In other words, our minds are constantly monitoring and interpreting. That’s just how we stay on track. But sometimes the interpretation process goes awry. Some people put more extreme interpretations on things that happen—and then react with exaggerated feelings of anxiety, depression, or anger. Or superiority.
Mindsets frame the running account that’s taking place in people’s heads. They guide the whole interpretation process. The fixed mindset creates an internal monologue that is focused on judging. “This means I’m a loser.” “This means I’m a better person than they are.” “This means I’m a bad husband.” “This means my partner is selfish.”
In several studies, we probed the way people with a fixed mindset dealt with information they were receiving. We found that they put a very strong evaluation on each and every piece of information. Something good lead to a very strong positive label and something bad led to a very strong negative label.
People with a growth mindset are also constantly monitoring what’s going on, but their internal monologue is not about judging themselves and others in this way. Certainly they are sensitive to positive and negative information, but they’re attuned to its implications for learning and constructive action. What can I learn from this? How can I improve? How can I help my partner do this better?
Now, cognitive therapy basically teaches people to rein in their extreme judgments and make them more reasonable. For example, suppose Alana does poorly on a test and draws the conclusion, “I’m stupid.” Cognitive therapy would teach her to look more closely at the facts by asking, What is the evidence for and against your conclusion? Alana may, after prodding, come up with a long list of ways in which she has been competent in the past, and may then confess, “I guess I’m not as incompetent as I thought.”
She may also be encouraged to think of reasons she did poorly on the exam other than stupidity, and these may further temper her negative judgment. Alana is then taught how to do this for herself, so that when she judges herself negatively in the future, she can refute the judgment and feel better. In this way, cognitive therapy helps people make more realistic and optimistic judgments.
The Mindset Lectures
Just learning about the growth mindset can cause a big shift in the way people think about themselves and their lives. So each year in my undergraduate course, I teach about these mindsets—not only because they are part of the topic of the course but also because I know what pressure these students are under. Every year, students describe to me how these ideas have changed them in all areas of their lives.
Here is Maggie, the aspiring writer:
“I recognized that when it comes to artistic or creative endeavors I had internalized a fixed mindset. I believe that people were inherently artistic or creative and that you could not improve through effort. This directly affected my life because I have always wanted to be a writer, but have been afraid to pursue any writing classes or to share my creative writing with others. This is directly related to my mindset because any negative criticism would mean that I am not a writer inherently. I was too scared to expose myself to the possibility that I might not be a ‘natural.’
Now after listening to your lectures, I have decided to register for a creative writing class next term. And I feel that I have really come to understand what was preventing me from pursuing an interest that has long been my secret dream. I really feel this information has empowered me1”
Maggie’s internal monologue used to say, “Don’t do it. Don’t take a writing class. Don’t share your writing with others. It’s not worth the risk. Your dream could be destroyed. Protect it.”
Now it says, “Go for it. Make it happen. Develop your skills. Pursue your dream.”
And here is Jason, the athlete.
“As a student athlete at Columbia I had exclusively the fixed mindset. Winning was everything and learning did not enter the picture. However, after listening to your lectures, I realized that this is not a good mindset. I’ve been working on learning while I compete, under the realization that if I can continually improve, even in matches, I will become a much better athlete.”
Jason’s internal monologue used to be, “Win, win. You have to win. Prove yourself. Everything depends on it.”
Now it’s, “Observe. Learn. Improve. Become a better athlete.”
And finally, here’s Tony, the recovering genius:
“In high school I was able to get top grades with minimal studying and sleeping. I came to believe that it would always be so because I was naturally gifted with a superior understanding and memory. However, after about a year of sleep deprivation, my understanding and memory began to be not so superior anymore. When my natural talents, which I had come to depend on almost entirely for my self-esteem (as opposed to my ability to focus, my determination or my ability to work hard), came into question, I went through a personal crisis that lasted until a few weeks ago when you discussed the different mindsets in class. Understanding that a lot of my problems were the result of my preoccupation with proving myself to be ‘smart’ and avoiding failures has really helped me get out of the self-destructive pattern I was living in.”
Tony’s internal monologue went from, “I’m naturally gifted. I don’t need to study. I don’t need to sleep. I’m superior.”
To, “Uh-oh, I’m losing it. I don’t understand things. I can’t remember things. What am I now?”
To, “Don’t worry so much about being smart. Don’t worry so much about avoiding failures. That becomes self-destructive. Let’s start to study and sleep and get on with life.”
Of course, these people will have setbacks and disappointments, and sticking to the growth mindset may not always be easy. But just knowing it gave them another way to be. Instead of being held captive by some intimidating fantasy about the Great Writer, the Great Athlete, or the Great Genius, the growth mindset gave them courage to embrace their own goals and dreams. And more important, it gave them a way to work toward making them real.
Many people believe that a person is born either smart, average or dumb—and stays that way for life. But new research shows that the brain is more like a muscle—it changes and gets stronger when you use it. And scientists have been able to show just how the brain grows and gets stronger when you learn. The brain forms new connections and grows when people practice and learn new things.
When you learn new things, these tiny connections in the brain actually multiply and get stronger. The more that you challenge your mind to learn, the more your brain cells grow. Then, things that you once found very hard or even impossible—like speaking a foreign language or doing algebra—seem to become easy. The result is a stronger, smarter brain.
Nobody laughs at babies and says how dumb they are because they can’t talk. They just haven’t learned yet. The density of brain connections changes during the first years of life as babies pay attention, study their world, and learn how to do new things.[supanova_question]
GI532 Exam 2 Human Factor and Risk Management INSTRUCTIONS: Respond to each
GI532 Exam 2
Human Factor and Risk Management
Respond to each of the following questions in a memorandum as if responding to a question from a colleague who does not understand much about information assurance. Your answers should use 400 to 500 words and should be professional, as if you really were responding to a colleague. You may use a page layout in memo form if you find that psychologically helpful. You may not involve any other person in preparing these exam responses.
From: Lisa C. Bryson, CEO
To: YOU as CISO
Re: Risk Management and Management Responsibilities
In your recent presentation to my direct reports you discussed how the implementation of the Risk Management program will provide the tools that senior management needs to meet its obligations for due diligence and fiduciary duty. How exactly is this possible and what is needed by senior management to make this implementation successful?
From: Melanie Waterson, Chief Financial Officer
To: YOU as CISO
Re: Risk Assessment Success
As the Financial end of the business I am always concerned with the bottom line. I like it when things add up and can be examined using an established set of standards. Our financial reports can identify when the corporation has been successful. With that in mind, how do we know when a risk assessment has been successful?
From: Steven Johnson, Internal Audit Manager
To: YOU as CISO
Re: Risk Assessment Framework
I understand you plan to adopt the NIST Risk Management Framework and controls. From my understanding, NIST is geared toward government organizations and not businesses. I was hoping you could tell me why we may want to adopt the NIST RMF and controls over one of the other frameworks, such as ISO 270001, which seems to be more widely recognized. Do you plan to use NIST 800-53 or a smaller subset, such as 800-171 and what is your reasoning behind this? We already have a significant amount of time and money invested in the ISO standard. We were planning to purchase the latest ISO standard and begin reviewing it for our use, but I will hold off on that decision until we hear more from you.
From: Lisa C. Bryson, CEO
To: YOU as CISO
Re: Risk Assessment Results
I received a copy of the risk assessment report for one of our production systems. I noticed a number of vulnerabilities were identified as high impact. Specifically, the IR and PS control families had a number of findings. I had no idea some of these controls were not implemented. I am not comfortable accepting the risk of this system. What is being done to mitigate the risk? What is the timeframe for implementation? Do you need anything from me to help reduce these risks to a more acceptable level? Please get back to me with you plan and needs.[supanova_question]