# Module 14 – Introduction to Inference (2 of 4 groupwork 1)

Module 14 – Introduction to Inference (2 of 4 groupwork 1). Module 14 – Introduction to Inference (2 of 4 groupwork 1).

She displays the following picture.

Then she pulls out a new deck of cards. She removes the plastic wrap from the deck of new cards, opens the box, and pulls out the cards. She removes the jokers and any other cards not displayed in the picture above. Then she starts shuffling the cards – which is difficult because the cards are brand new and slippery. She continues to shuffle and reshuffle until you agree that the deck is well-shuffled. Then she sets the deck down.
To verify that you know how to calculate various probabilities for a randomly drawn card, she asks the following questions which you answer correctly.
If I randomly select a card, what is the probability of drawing a red card? YOUR ANSWER: 26/52 = 0.5 or 50%
If I randomly select a card, what is the probability of drawing a 9? YOUR ANSWER: 4/52 ≈≈ 0.0769 or 7.69%
If I randomly select a sample of two cards, what is the probability that both cards are red? YOUR ANSWER: (26/52)(25/51) ≈≈ 0.2451 or 24.51%
In the above calculation you multiplied, (26/52)(25/51). Why? YOUR ANSWER: Randomly selecting a sample of two cards means we draw two cards – one at a time without replacement. So a random sample of two red cards means the first card is red and the second card is red. When we randomly select the first card, the probability we draw a red card is 26 red cards out of 52 total cards, or 26/52. We set that first red card aside. So, when we randomly select the second card, there are only 25 red cards out of a total of 51 cards, so the probability we get a red card is 25/51. We need to calculate the probability that the first card is red AND the second card is red. So we multiply the two fractions together, (26/52)(25/51).
Then your classmate says, “O.K. Let’s make a little bet. If you draw a black card, I will help you with all remaining homework in this class.” If not, you must wash and wax my car for me. Since she opened a brand new deck of cards right in front of you and you verified they were well-shuffled, you know the probability of drawing a black card is 0.5 or 50%, so you agree to the bet.
She picks up the deck of cards, fans them out (face down of course), and asks you to randomly select a card. You select a card and turn it over. It’s red – not black.
You set the card aside and ask to try again. She reluctantly agrees and warns that if you lose, you will have to wash and wax her car twice. But if you win, you will not have to wash and wax her car, and she will help you with your homework as promised. You draw another card. It’s red – not black.
You set the card on top of the previously drawn red card and ask to try a third time. Again, she reluctantly agrees, and you draw another card. It’s red – not black. You must now wash and wax her car three times. You decide to quickly calculate the probability of randomly selecting a sample of three red cards.
2652⋅2551⋅2450≈0.11762652⋅2551⋅2450≈0.1176 or 11.76%
You set the card on top of the previously drawn red cards and think, “The next card has to be black.” You ask to try a fourth time. Again, she reluctantly agrees, and you draw another card. It’s red – not black. You now have a random sample of 4 red cards, and you must wash and wax her car four times.
You set the card on the stack of previously drawn red cards, and ask to try again. Once again, she reluctantly agrees, and you draw another card.
PromptWhat is the probability of drawing a random sample of 4 red cards (write the probability as a decimal and a percentage)? Would you consider the random sample of 4 red cards unusual? Why or why not?
What is the probability of drawing a random sample of 5 red cards (write the probability as a decimal and a percentage)? Would you consider the random sample of 5 red cards unusual? Why or why not?
When your classmate began shuffling the deck of cards, what obvious assumption did you believe was true? If you draw a random sample of 5 red cards from the deck, should you reject that assumption? Why or why not?
Based on your responses to the previous question, what will you infer about the deck of cards?

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## Research hypothesis should be about “Measures of disease frequency in hospitals”

Students will write a report (APA format) describing a research study in their area of study. This report will include the introduction, participants/sampling method, procedures, data analysis, and results/conclusions.Description

Students will write a report (APA format) describing a research study they design in their area of study. This report will include the introduction, participants/sampling method, procedures, data analysis (using one of the statistical tests covered in this class), and results/conclusions. This should be your own research study that you design. This is not an evaluation of published research. YOU CANNOT USE ONE OF THE STUDIES THAT YOU ALREADY PRESENTED IN THE WEEKS 5 – 7 FORUM.NOTE: You are NOT required to collect data or run the analysis. Based on your understanding of your research question, make-up numbers that would be appropriate for your study. These numbers should make sense in the context of your research, however.Requirements:

Report – maximum of five pages, double-space. Be sure to include a cover page, abstract and reference list (these 3 pages do not count as three of the five pages). You must use APA for the report. For an example, see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/ . I recommend that you have no more than two direct quotes in your paper. You must submit your project to Turnitin (see page 2).Components of the Report:

Introduction: Description of the study including the purpose and importance of the research question being asked. What is your null hypothesis? What is your research or alternative hypothesis? Your introduction should include at least two resources. These resources MUST be from peer-reviewed journals. You must use other resources and correctly cite (such as our text) when describing statistical concepts.

Participants/Sampling Method: Describe the sample collected for the study, as well as the sampling method. How were your participants selected? Who is your population of interest? If you did a survey, how many will you survey to ensure your target sample size? How did you come up with that number?

What do you expect your response rate to be? What was your sample size? How representative is the sample of the population under study?

Procedures: How were the data collected? Was a survey or questionnaire used to collect data? What are the independent and dependent variables? How are the variables defined and measured? Are the variables nominal, ordinal,

interval, or ratio measurement scales? Are the data collected in a way that avoids bias? What is your selected alpha level?

Data Analysis: What statistical test was used to analyze the data? Describe the statistical test. What are the requirements? Did you meet those requirements? Describe why your selected method was appropriate to answeryour research question. Make up a test statistic value. Given that value, do you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? Is your p .05 (assuming alpha = .05)?

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## Evaluation of Publications

Statistics Assignment Help How do you determine if a resource is a quality resource or not? Although peer-reviewed resources are often considered quality, what factors might make a peer-reviewed resource a less than optimal source for your research project? Also, explain how you will ensure any information you retrieved from the internet is scientifically accurate.[supanova_question]

## Article 2 Questions

How did the researchers justify the use of both types of t-tests? Do you think using both types of t-tests is preferred than using just one (either repeated or independent)?
Discuss the sample size in the Sumter County sample. Discuss the validity of the design with just 5 participants.
In the article, the authors indicate that some data are positively-skewed. Discuss the meaning of that, and why would the skewed data interfere with using it in the t-tests? (In your response, consider the distribution of the test statistic).
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https://anyessayhelp.com/ How do you determine if a resource is a quality resource or not? Although peer-reviewed resources are often considered quality, what factors might make a peer-reviewed resource a less than optimal source for your research project? Also, explain how you will ensure any information you retrieved from the internet is scientifically accurate.[supanova_question]