One worksheet and a written proposal Economics Assignment Help

One worksheet and a written proposal Economics Assignment Help. One worksheet and a written proposal Economics Assignment Help. One worksheet and a written proposal Economics Assignment Help.

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Assignment 1. In this assignment you give that advice in a scenario we have drafted. Based on what you have learned in this course, what is the financial planning advice you would give? Answer this by completing the assignment.

Complete the Investment Planning Proposal

Assignment 2. I uploaded the worksheet and the instructions are on the worksheet.

One worksheet and a written proposal Economics Assignment Help[supanova_question]

Public speaking Writing Assignment Help


For this module, google the descriptor “Persuasive Speech Topics” and list from the websites at least ten topics that would make for a good persuasive speech. Don’t choose topics that don’t interest you. Pick ten that you would like to speak on sometime if you get the chance. List the ten and reflect on the topic for a few seconds to sense what direction you might take on it. You do not need to write your response down, but feel it, sense it inwardly. Obviously these are topics on which people hold varying positions. When you think on each of the ten, see how strongly you feel about them.

Send along your list of ten for me to see.


We will cover the special occasion speech more in Module 15, but let me make sure you see this bit of advice that will always help a special-occasion speech. Put it in your “for keeps” pocket.

ONE PIECE OF ADVICE: When you are asked to speak on special occasions such as at a wedding or funeral, commemoration or dedication, the key to hitting a home run is to share a brief story. For example, if you speak at a friend’s wedding, don’t rattle off a list of adjectives such as “She is nice, friendly, kind and generous.” Tell a story instead; a short story that gives a window into your relationship with your friend from the past. For example, “Tiffany and I used to join my grandmother in her kitchen and eat half the batter before she ever got the cookies in the oven.” You might want to add a few details, but that kind of story is what an audience wants to hear. And after all, Dr. Lucas says that telling a story is the way to make maximum impact in any speech, including those at special occasions.

Let me start a list of Special Occasion speeches and have you add at least three more settings where you might be asked to share a special speech.



Give me three more.

Assignment 4:

In our day, it is not comfortable to tell people that we want them to change their mind. We are a pretty tolerate people. We usually say, “live and let live.” But if persuasive speaking means anything, it means that you want people to come around to your point of view. Whether it’s on recycling, burning the flag or organ donation, we have things that matter to us and which we want others to agree with us on.

For this assignment, suggest why you think persuasive speaking is more difficult to do. I have mentioned that we are more tolerate than perhaps a past generation, but what else? Why is it harder to give a persuasive speech than it is an information speech? Your thoughts?


In this chapter, Lucas observes that a good speech needs an organizational structure. You can’t just toss out a handful of ideas willy-nilly and hope the audience sorts it all out and takes it all in. Part of a good speech is giving it structure, an organizing structure. For example, you might use the steps of a process to organize the speech. Let me have you try it. If you are describing how to make a bed to a person who has never done that (and I’ve met a few in class), talk him/her through the process. Mention at least eight steps that one would need to go through to move from a bare mattress to a fully made bed. Lay out the steps as you would envision them.


In this chapter, the author says that you might also organize your speech around a time line. Often called a chronological order, this structure is sometimes used with speeches about historical events. Let’s give it a try. If you are describing an event when you or a person in your family went to the hospital, tell us what caused the need for the hospital trip to arise and take it from there in a series of points. Beginning with the accident or onset of a physical problem, take us on the trip with you. Take us up to the point where you or the person you are describing was able to return home. This type of speech is called chronological because it follows a time line and lets the audience follow the narrative as realistically as possible. Create your outline of events that unfolded in your hospital experience.


Let’s focus a little more on strategic organization. In this case, let’s start with a subject and work back in the other direction. This chapter sets forth four types of strategic organizations: TIME LINE SPEECHES, PROCESS SPEECHES, SPATIAL SPEECHES, PROBLEM-SOLUTION SPEECHES.

Here is a definition of each:

TIME LINE: Usually associated with speeches on a historical event, this outline follows a time line to help the audience see how various components fit together.

PROCESS: This approach to an outline simply follows the steps involved in a building or developmental process.

SPATIAL: This strategic approach allows the audience to visualize actual 3-D dimensions or at least to see a space-related explanation of the topic.

PROBLEM-SOLUTION: This approach is often used by politicians and involves posing a problem and then offering a solution to it. It is one of the most commonly use types of speech today.

For each of the topics cited below, tell which of these four approaches would probably be the best strategy for developing the outline of the speech.



For this exercise, you are to put the content from Chapter 9 in your own words. Dr. Lucas mentions four types of connectives that make the flow of a speech smoother. For each of the four, write down a definition that shows your understanding of the idea.






Instead of looking in the text, do this one out of your own mind. There are any number of things that can make a speech seem jerky and disorganized. You may include something you learned by reading the chapter, but add to that. What else do you hear people do when speaking publically that makes the speech less than free flowing? Jot down at least six things that a speaker can do that create this lack of continuity in a speech.


Thinking back to the Tent Icon that we mentioned earlier, you will remember that the tent starts with a high mast, follows with four or five main points and then closes with an even higher mast. A speech needs to grab the audience quickly, maintain attention by giving a series of rich and textured points, then closing even higher with a summary or story. Here are a series of ideas for opening a speech that were shared earlier. They are repeated here for emphasis. They are tools you will want in your tool box when you stand up to present a speech. They will bring an audience to you almost every time. I encourage you to use them regularly in every speech you are privileged to give.

When it comes to getting the audience’s attention early, there are at least ten good techniques for helping that happen. Let me explain these one at a time then give you an example of each.

You are to complete this assignment by giving an example as well. Come up with an example of each and send me your examples as the answer to this assignment.

CLOSURE: In this technique for getting audience attention, you start your speech by reciting a familiar line or poem and letting the audience finish it. Any time the audience can close your quote, you have their attention.

For example, Jack be nimble, Jack be quick; Jack jumped over __________ ______________.

Not one of us said “his spotted Dalmatian.” We know that Jack jumped over “the candlestick.” Just to make sure you got it, start a quote or short poem of your own, making sure it is something familiar to the audience.


QUESTION: This technique has long been used to let the members of the audience turn suddenly to their own thoughts as to what they might say if called on to answer aloud. Ideally the question should be fresh and land on what people in the audience might wish for. You want to avoid overly used questions such as the one I mentioned in a previous Module, “What would you do if you won the lottery?” Many people are honestly turned off by that question; they have heard it too often with no good luck.

For example, “If I could give you five days and a pocket full of cash and tell you to go anywhere in the world for that week, where would you go and why?” That is a fresh question that we have likely not heard before.

STARTLING STATEMENT.: This technique gets attention by surprise. You want to be careful not to shock or anger the audience, but a good startling opening can draw an audience in.

For example, a student in one class began her speech on cancer with these words, “In this class of 24 students, statistics tell us that four or five of us will have some form of cancer during our lifetimes.” The statement caused all of us to glance around and sense the pain of a small group of us struggling later in life with this dreaded disease.

CLASSIC LINE FROM LITERATURE: This method taps the familiar. We share many bits of information in common with others. Any time you as a speaker can show an audience that you and they share common knowledge, they are drawn to you. For example, if I say, “Humpty Dumpty sat on the wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall; All the king’s horses and all the king’s men couldn’t put Humpty together again,” most people will easily remember that childhood ditty. And we smile and share a common thought.

Offer a classic childhood piece to see if I connect with you. What do you think you and I would know in common?

HISTORICAL QUOTE: This technique can be used with a more educated group who would enjoy hearing a line from John Kennedy or Ronald Reagan or Maya Angelou. To use it indicates that you have a knowledge of history and realize that many great things have been stated in the past. For example, when Pearl Harbor was bombed, President Roosevelt stood in the well of the senate on the following day and said, “December 7th is a day that will live in infamy.” Most of us remember the line. It is a surefire way to gain attention for most Americans.

I share these to reinforce the idea that you need to be connected with the audience really early in the speech, within 30-60 seconds, if you plan to have them with you. These approaches to a good attention-getting opening have been reliable for centuries and I am sure they will give you the audience’s attention as well.


For this exercise, you are to turn to speeches on YouTube and evaluate how well some of the speaker there do when it comes to getting off to a strong start. This will also give you a sense of how various people prefer to start a speech. You are to focus on their first sentences; what they use to get the audience’s attention.

You do not have to send the URL for the speeches you listen to, but do send a short summary of how well they did with their opening. Did they get your attention? Was it a rather average beginning without much pop? What made you feel that way? Watch the openings of at least five speeches—only the openings—and offer your evaluation below. If you will, at least provide the title of the speech and the speaker you are critiquing if the website gave that information.

You only need to watch five minutes of whatever speech you choose. If you choose something of personal interest to you, you may go longer if you want. But the first five minutes will help you complete this assignment.


In this chapter, Dr. Lucas offers five crucial tips for giving an attention-getting introduction. I wish I could circle them in red and highlight them in yellow. They are vital. For this assignment, please literally restate these by typing them in yourself. Just the first sentence of each one will do. But having done hundreds of speeches myself, I can tell you that these five need to be in your memory as permanently as possible. You will use them every single time you stand before a group.


At the end of the chapter, the author deals with conclusions. For this exercise, please write two sentences for each of the following statements as a way of summing up the content of these great guidelines. They follow the flow of the final section of the chapter. Share your summaries on each of these five and what they mean with me.








By far the biggest idea in this chapter is the importance of relating your speech topic to the audience in front of you. It is the same as finding common ground that we discussed earlier. But allow me a second hearing because of its benefit to every speech you share. Put in question form, it runs, “How does my topic relate to this particular audience?” And the follow-up question is a close second, “What can I say that will show that relationship?”

For example, if you were talking to a group of twenty year old college students on the topic of managing finances, one topic that is almost a given for them would be the cost of their education. If they do not receive a full ride to college, they have to find ways to fund the rather expensive venture we call education. Therefore, to start a speech on finances with references to the costs of college would no doubt draw their attention immediately.

For the following topics, let’s stay with twenty year old college students. For each of the topics, state how you might get started on a speech so that the college students connect with you right away. If we fail to show an audience how our topic relates to them, we may as well be talking to the wall. Place a couple of sentences after each of these topics to help me see how you would connect this topic with a coed class of college students.






Assignment 14:

I heard one man say, “That person had a pretty decent speech, but he didn’t know how to close it.” What do you think contributes to difficulty in closing a speech? Gosh, all of us have heard it, a person who gave a good presentation, but didn’t have a good way to “land it.” They kept circling the airport looking for a way to get the wheels on the runway.

What causes this? What may be happening if a person does a poor job of closing out a speech? Offer your thoughts on what may be going on when that happens.


2 project management assignments Business Finance Assignment Help

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Assignment 2: LASA – Project Planning – Developing the Project Plan and Determining Critical Path

  1. Using the District4WarehouseMove WBS.xls provided, create a project plan for the District 4 Warehouse Move project. Use the PDF document, Project Plan Check – District4Move, to check your work to be sure you have created your starting project plan correctly. ProjectLibre is required for this task. If you have not yet downloaded ProjectLibre, please click here and follow the directions to do so now.

    Note: you will need to insert a column to include your WBS codes, then you will need to sequence the tasks to show tasks by work package.

  2. Based upon the details in the WBS and the project case, determine which tasks need to be completed first and which tasks are dependent upon other tasks to be completed prior to starting. Using this information identify predecessors in your project plan’s predecessor column. Complete the predecessor column by entering the line number of tasks that must be completed in order for each task to start. This will create your project timeline.
  3. Using ProjectLibre’s Network or flow diagram view, determine the critical path for this project. In a MS Word document, list the activities that are on the critical path. Considering the risks identified in the risk table below, identify which risks would be most likely to increase your project timeline. Justify your responses.
  4. Submit both your completed project plan and your MS Word document.

District 4 Production Warehouse Move Project – Risk Table


Permits are not received per the schedule


Finish work contractors walk off the job half way through


Framing and drywall contractors are running behind schedule and can only produce half their crew as scheduled


Work benches are poor quality and 1/3 will have to be rebuilt

Submit your plan to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

Assignment 2 Grading Criteria Maximum Points
Correctly developed a project plan from the WBS provided


Completed the predecessor column correctly in the project plan based upon information in the case.


Correctly identified critical path activities


Correctly identified risks that would impact the project schedule


Used proper writing components such as, correct grammar, spelling, and word choice and cited all sources using correct APA style, etc.




M4 Assignment 2 Submission

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Assignment 2: Project Schedule Changes

You have kicked off the District 4 Production Warehouse Move project, your contractors are in place and working on receiving the proper building permits.

You originally were told the permits would only take 2 weeks to obtain but the contractors are telling you it will now take 3 weeks. You need to build the additional week into your schedule for each permit that will be obtained.

In addition, your framing and drywall contractors have just told you they are running late on their other jobs and can only release half their crew for your project. This will double their schedule.

Build the extra time into your schedule by doubling the installation work timelines for both the framing and drywall. Your project plan should also be updated with the new 3-week timeline for obtaining permits. Use the project plan you created for this task.

You are now looking at an extended project delivery date. Your project sponsor was very clear that you must be done in a 4 month timeframe so you will need to look at options for reducing your schedule to fit into the 4 month window.

You have an option of hiring another contractor to help with the framing and drywall work but it will increase your budget by $200,000.

Determine your best course of action for bringing this project in on schedule and update your project plan to reflect your recommendation. Develop a 5-6 slide presentation for senior management outlining your proposed solution. You are seeking approval to proceed with your new plan.

Submit both your updated project plan in PDF format and your PowerPoint presentation.

Submit your plan to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

Assignment 2 Grading Criteria Maximum Points
Correctly updated the project plan to reflect revisions based upon risks and details presented.


Created a senior level presentation detailing the recommendations and seeking approval.


Used correct grammar, spelling, and word choice and cited all sources using correct APA style.




Using the District4WarehouseMove WBS.xls provided, create a project plan for the District 4 Warehouse Move project. Use the PDF document, Project Plan Check – District4Move, to check your work to be sure you have created your starting project plan correctly. ProjectLibre is required for this task. If you have not yet downloaded ProjectLibre, please click here and follow the directions to do so now.


8 pages and presentation Humanities Assignment Help

* make sure to use simple and clear language and avoid plagiarism. Follow all the instrctions below

*Before you start, I want you to give me examples of what are you going to write about ( the disorder)

Research Design Essay paper – Instructions – Design an experiment for the study of a particular treatment (this could be a type of therapy or a hypothetical new medication) for a Neurological or Psychological Disorder. (Chpts. 4 and 16) You may work together but write up your own report (This is a written analysis research design essay paper) Tunitin is included) . 8-10 pages . SUBMIT as PDF file

1. The Research Question (i.e. Does cognitive therapy work for disorder such as Autistic Disorder? Discuss the disorder . My example.

2. Literature Review – Overview of research on possible treatments used for this disorder. 3-4 journal articles and text

3. Hypothesis – i.e. Cognitive therapy does or does not work for Autistic Disorder? This is your educated guess. My example

4. The Experiment (using control and experimental groups)

a. Experimental Group – receives Cognitive Therapy

b. Control Group – does not receive Cognitive Therapy

5. The Data (describe pre and post tests, survey, or observations, used to obtain data experimental results)

6. Conclusion – about your Hypothesis. (you can make up data to support your conclusion i.e. 95% of the experiment group improved after cognitive therapy – Treatment does or does not work- to prove or disprove your hypothesis) My example


Slide 1 – The Research question – What is the treatment question? What did you want to find out? Discuss the disorder.

Slide 2 – The Hypothesis – this is your educated guess?
Slide 3 – The Literature Review – research about treatments Slide 4 – The Experiment (describe your experiment with the experimental and control groups)

Slide 5 – The Conclusions about your experiment based on data Slide 6 – References (from the Literature review)

Slide 6- List your References


Ordinary People (1980) Analysis Humanities Assignment Help

PSYC-101 Ordinary People (1980) Analysis – 75 points

For this assignment you will be watching the movie Ordinary People (2001) in class. Be sure to use the questions below to guide your attention as you watch the film.

The written portion of this assignment must be computer-generated, double-spaced, 12 point font with 1-inch margins, and written in APA format. The final document should be 4-5 pages (900-1000 words) with a word count shown at the end of the paper. This page count does not include the Title page or Reference page. The word count should not include the set of questions. You may exceed this limit but direct your efforts to answering the questions posed. A grading rubric is provided on the Canvas site for the class. This assignment must be submitted in Canvas and MUST generate a Turnitin score.

Steps for writing the paper:

1. Create a title page which includes: The title of the assignment, your name and your Instructor’s name. (3 pts).

2. The body of the paper will focus on answering the questions below. Copy and paste the questions into a word document, putting the answers after each set of questions.

A. Summary of the movie plot, in your own words (1/2 page maximum) (5 pts)

B. What is the major psychological disorder that Conrad suffers from? Discuss the etiology (symptoms) of his psychological disorder. How do the symptoms interfere in his life? Substantiate your answer with information from the film and your textbook. (10 pts)

C. How does Conrad cope with his illness? What steps does he take to be treated? What impact does the treatment have on his life? Support your answer by citing specific examples from the movie. (10 pts)

D. What part does the therapist play, including important information, generally of the relationship between Conrad and his therapist? What type of therapy is Conrad’s therapist using? Describe specific techniques and evaluate their effectiveness for Conrad. (10 pts)

E. How does Conrad’s illness impact his relationship with his mother and father? Support your discussion with evidence from the movie. Make sure you discuss his mother and father separately! (10 pts)

F. Describe 2 other characters in the movie (besides his parents and his therapist). Discuss how Conrad’s illness impacts his relationship with both of these characters. Do these characters help or hinder Conrad’s recovery? (10 pts)

3. Reference page, reference citations, grammar/spelling, written communication (17 pts): Include an APA style reference page which includes the videos and your textbook. (7 pts) You must also cite the movie and textbook using APA style within the body of the paper and your paper will be graded for grammatical and spelling accuracy (6 pts) Finally your paper will be graded for written communication (4 pts)

Citing the movie in APA format:

If you describe a scene by saying: In the movie Ordinary People (1980) …, the title is italicized and the year is in parentheses.

If you describe a scene by saying Conrad showed signs of … (Ordinary People, 1980). The title is italicized and both the title and year go in the parentheses before the period at the end of the sentence.

Citing the textbook in APA format:

In Okami (2014, p. 213), family of people diagnosed with … Only the year of publication and the page number go in the parentheses. The page number included if the page number from the book from which the reference comes.

Treatment issues include… (Okami, 2014, p. 213). The author’s name, year of publication and page number all go in the parentheses before the period at the end of the sentence.

Basic APA reference format for the film looks like this. (Reference page should begin on a separate page!):


Schwary, R. (Producer), & Redford, R. (Director). (1989). Ordinary People [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Make sure you also include the textbook on the Reference page and make sure you cite the appropriate pages!

The following are the main characters in Ordinary People (1980):

Conrad – the main character in the movie.

Buck – the oldest son who died in the boating accident

Beth – the mother

Cal – the father

Dr. Berger – the psychiatrist

Karen – the girl he met in the mental hospital

Jeanine – the girl in the choir Conrad takes bowling

Remember, anytime you describe a scene from the movie you must cite the movie appropriately.



Case Study Economics Assignment Help

Specific Instructions. Using methods of engineering economic analysis as developed in this course, assist the Flying Fish Ferries management team by conducting an after-tax financial analysis of the options and recommending the design to be selected. The firm’s after-tax minimum attractive rate of return is 20%. Also be sure to address the sensitivity of your recommendation to potential changes in the cost of diesel fuel4. The firm is especially interesting in determining the price per gallon for diesel fuel (if any) at which it would be economically indifferent between the two designs.

Develop and submit a written report that clearly and professionally explains your work and recommendations.
In this report, be sure that you clearly: 
Identify any additional assumptions that you needed to make, if any, and explain your reasons for them;5 
Compare the alternatives using an appropriate economic analysis method and explain why that method was selected; 
Show all your computations in an accompanying spreadsheet or in summary tables (ideally in an appendix); 
Summarize the results of your analyses; and use these to 
Explicitly state your recommendations and explain your reasons for them. Your report does not need to include an explanation of your computational work if that work is submitted in a separate and clearly-labelled Excel workbook. (If you choose not to submit a separate Excel workbook, then your computational work should be presented and described within your report, ideally using appropriate tables.)
Overall, your report should be written in order to convince the reader that adequate study and analysis have been accomplished to justify your recommendations. As such, your grade will depend not only on the completeness and correctness of the analyses you perform but also on your effectiveness in conveying what you have done.

Note: please make Excel for this Case Study because it is very important.

Case Study Economics Assignment Help[supanova_question]

Business Assignment Business Finance Assignment Help

? Please bid for this assignment only if you can adhere to the following:

• Stick to the given deadline, NO extension will be given.

• Be responsive, communicate with us regularly.

• Send us the assignment progressively on the 50% mark and when it has been completed.

• No copy and pasting work, DO NOT plagiarise. We use the Turnitin system to check for plagiarism, we do not recognise any other plagiarism checking tool.

• No using of fake references. References used must tally with content written.

• Do not take up any assignments from us if you are under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

The assignment details are attached in the file named Portfolio Assignment Workbook. Task 4-6

All the work should be done in the word file attached. Make sure you show your working and the assignment to be similar to the attached samples (PDFs and Image). Make sure you use the files attached for data required.

There is a file named titled decision form analysis which needs to be referred to and filled.

Referencing style: APA
Number of References: 3


Python with deep learning Programming Assignment Help

Assignment : Deep Learning

In this assignment, you’ll need amazon_review_500.csv for this assignment. This csv file has two columns as follows. The label column provides polarity sentiment, either positive or negative




I must admit that I’m addicted to “Version 2.0…


I think it’s such a shame that an enormous tal…


The Sunsout No Room at The Inn Puzzle has oddl…

Q1: Train a CNN classification model

Create a function sentiment_cnn( ) to detect sentiment as follows:

the input parameter is the full filename path to amazon_review_500.csv convert the text into padded sequences of numbers (see Exercise 5.2)

hold 20% of the data for testing

carefully select hyperparameters: max number of words for embedding layer, input sentence length, filters, the number of filters, batch size, and epoch etc. create a CNN model with the training data

print out accuracy, precision, recall calculated from testing data.

Your precision_macro, recall_macro, and accurracy should be all about 70%.

If your result is much lower than that (e.g. below 67%), you need to tune the hyperparameters

Also note that the label in the dataset is either 1 or 2. Your binary prediction out of CNN is either 0 or 1. Conversion is needed in order to compare predictions with actual labels

This function has no return. Besides your code, also provide a pdf document showing the following

How you choose the hyperparameters

Screenshots of model trainning history

Testing accuracy, precision, recall

Q2 Improve the performance of CNN model

Create a function improved_sentiment_cnn( ) to detect sentiment with improved accuracy

You still need to train a CNN model

You can apply different techniques, e.g.

map words to pretrained word vectors

e.g. from Google




usp=sharing)) or

e.g. from spacy package ( (

e.g. create your own pretrained word vectors using other review documents you can find

add additional features etc.

Your taraget is to improve the accuracy by about 5% from the model you created in Q1.

For fair comparison, make sure you use the same datasets for training/testing.

This function has no return. Please provide a pdf document showing the following

Screenshots of model trainning history

Testing accuracy, precision, recall

Your analysis about

what technique contributes to the performance improvement why this technique is useful


week 4 forum responses Humanities Assignment Help

In need of a 250 word response/discussion to each of the following forum posts. Agreement/disagreement/and/or continuing the discussion.

Original forum discussion/topic post is as follows:

Describe brain function during REM sleep, including a discussion of the relationship between sleep and memory. How would you use this information to assess a patient who has chronic insomnia, and has already had extensive treatment with hypnotic medications? Based on your reading and research, which theories on the biological perspectives on dreaming do you agree with and why?

Forum post response #1

There are four well defined phases of sleep: NREM 1, NREM 2, NREM 3, and the REM (Rapid Eye Movement) stage. Of note, the N stands for Non (REM) (sleep) in the first three sleep phases. The special REM sleep state characteristically happens about ninety minutes or so after one falls asleep. Because people wake up during sleep and because the sleep cycle frequently starts all over again and repeats itself, REM sleep can happen more than one time. Vivid dreams occur during REM. REM is also widely accepted to be the restorative part of the cycle. Most important, it is theorized that memory consolidation occurs during Rapid Eye Movement Sleep. During the day, it is thought that new memories are compartmentalized in the proper part of the brain, depending upon what type of memory it is. While this is not yet quite understood, scientists have also theorized (with some mice research fortifying the theory) that bits and pieces of episodic memory obtained from the prior day’s events, which were temporarily stored in the brain’s hippocampus component, are processed and transferred into the cortex during sleep, the outer layer of the cerebellum and thought to be the seat of consciousness. Newly stored long term memory thus becomes information stored in the brain seemingly indefinitely. Consequently, REM Deep Sleep is viewed as particularly valuable for memory formation.

This information is especially helpful for assessing a notional patient with chronic insomnia, who already has had extensive treatment with hypnotic medications. Insomnia refers to chronic sleeplessness. Hypnotic medications are psychoactive prescriptions, which are known to induce sleep. Other sedative-hypnotic drugs are prescribed for anxiety. Of note, this medication category is ripe for misuse and abuse by the patient. Hypnotics are also the “go to” treatment for patients suffering from insomnia. Indeed, the notional patient appears to have been using prescribed hypnotics for sleeplessness without success. Long term usage of hypnotics for insomnia carry many risks such as residual sedative results, fall downs with injury, memory impairment, depression of the respiratory processes leading to lung congestion, rebound insomnia, dependency, and death (Kramer, 2000). Special note is made of the memory impairment risk. Some studies indicate that long term use of hypnotics tends to interrupt the crucial REM sleep stage. This could mean that the physiological transfer of memories into long-term storage is thwarted through the use of hypnotics. Having the patient participate in a sleep laboratory would be helpful. It would also be helpful, if not compulsory, for the patient to be weaned off the hypnotics in favor of psychological therapy, such as behavioral. However, the clinician must be mindful of the effects of hypnotics’ withdrawal. Biological causes should also be explored, such as any medical conditions causing poor sleep; caffeine dependency; a reliance on allergy medications; environmental features; and faulty sleep patterns. A physiological psychology approach would help deal with these biological causes.

There are a variety of biological perspectives on dreaming. Some researchers state that the brain is bustling with activity during the dream state, based on brain waves. In this regard, scientists concluded that dreams help to organize and process the day’s events. Other researchers asserted dreams help process emotional trauma and address problems. Still other researchers stated that dreams promote optimal neuro-cognitive development. While I do not disagree with these theories, I must return to a question that Doctor King posed to one of my classmates in Week One. I do not believe that consciousness, mind, and physical brain are all the same entity. Most relevant, based upon my ongoing research, I personally do not believe that the physical brain creates consciousness at all; but, instead, acts more as a reducing valve, so to speak. Nor is the so-called “mind” the producer of consciousness. Consciousness is of itself and by itself. Accordingly, “sleep is of the brain, by the brain, and for the brain” (Hobson, 2005, para. 1), but not for consciousness. Instead, consciousness undergoes adjustments in conjunction with the sleep-caused changes to our brains (Hobson, 2005). Although it is widely accepted that people abandon consciousness when they fall sleep, there is other ample evidence showing this not to be the case at all. It appears that sleepers and dreamers enter a new (and potentially expanded) state of consciousness, but do not leave it. Therefore, while the “battery” (the human body) is “recharging”, our mysterious consciousness is already whirring and in flight, still investigating and learning non-localized. The fascinating hypnagogic and hypnapompic jolts experienced during “threshold” sleep states (almost like a sensation of lift off or descending), while the person is half awake and half asleep, bolsters this other scientific theory (as investigated by Tart, Monroe, Campbell, and other researchers). Some dreams are not necessarily dreams at all, but consciousness on the move. The present reductive materialistic viewpoint does not appear to properly address the dreaming phenomenon. However, this is not to say that other biological functions, as discussed above, are not also taking place simultaneously. Even so, these biological processes, such as processing the day’s events and emotional trauma, seemingly take a back seat to the primary purpose of what is called dreaming. Not all dreams are dreaming.

Forum post response #2

According to this week’s lesson, the functions sleep is due to muscle fatigue and/or exhaustion and is indicative of conserving energy within the body (American Public University System [APUS], 2018). Additionally, the purpose of sleep it to regenerate the body’s cell stages through mitigating metabolism rates as well as sustaining memory function levels (a preservation process). That’s why it’s very important for children and adults to receive the proper hours of sleep per night. As a chronic insomniac, I know all too well about this topic. In 2006, I was diagnosed with insomnia and symptoms/severity exacerbated when I deployed to Afghanistan. I’ve participated in multiple sleep studies (EEGs) and have taken every sleeping medication you can think of (most don’t work or my body became immune to it), in which my neurologist studied my sleep patterns and actual hours of sleep. He told me “good sleep pattern levels” are approximately 85 percent or higher. Mine was at 55 percent. My brain was very active during my bouts of sleep and he’s been trying to determine if stress, insane work schedules, or migraines are correlated to the insomnia. Next month, I’m scheduled for a second MRI to see if there’s any visual signs of brain, nerve damage, and/or possible illness that can be responsible for the longevity of my insomnia. In 2015, the first MRI revealed a small cyst on the back of my brain, but the neurologist I had, at the time, stated it was too dangerous to remove it. Now I’m separated from the military, my new neurologist will assess the size the cyst and make further recommendation on how to move forward.

REM, also known as paradoxical sleep, happens during the third and four stages of sleep, which is predicated on “heart rate, breathing, and brain wave activity” (APUS, 2018, para. 2). During such stages of sleep, the brain is dependent upon the reduction of sensory functions and can show possible signs of deep and light sleep. How I know I’m in a deep sleep is the multiple dreams I have during the week. I noticed that when I’ve had a significant amount of rest is when I had a long dream that I can remember when I woke up. If I don’t, I usually didn’t have that much sleep. Week four’s notes states that during the dreaming phase, an EEG shows irregular activity of the brain as if an individual is awake and sleep interrupts will essentially produce the rebound effect, in which onel will spend additional time in the REM phase. This usually happens to me early in the morning because I drink a substantial amount of water, especially at night. It provokes to wake up between 3:00 and 4:00am and I will be in a deep sleep for another three to four hours. Just like clockwork.

Having chronic insomnia, I cannot assess my condition any further that it has been. I know the doctors continue to look at three main factors because of what I do for a living: stress, schedule, and environment. But honestly, when those aren’t factors, I still can’t sleep. I work out at least three times a week, I have a balance diet (for the most part), I’ve managed my stress by mitigating work based on priority, and I make a point to cut off work time so I can go to bed before 11pm (sometimes). I’ve completed breathing exercises, I’ve seen treatment specialists, and carved out some leisure time just for me to just chill. I still toss and turn and must have the TV on to fall asleep. One thing I haven’t tried is hypnotic sessions. It was an option presented to me, but I don’t know if that’s something I want to do. The only thing I can assess is maybe the cyst has something to do with my insomnia and I should have those answers in a few weeks.

A sleep theory I found fascinating is called lucid dreaming. The concept of lucid dreaming is essentially that one is aware of dreaming through various factors (Busby, n.d). For example, an individual is cognizant of dreaming through realization, mid-dream, or REM, but never loses conscious awareness of the dream state. Once an individual realizes they’re in a dream state and that it’s not realistic, they can control their dreams. The possibilities of what happens within the dream of indefinite (Busby, n.d.). The false-reality of the dream and being conscious that it’s not realistic is predicated on the physiological aspect and neuroscience of dreaming.

Forum post response #3

It is actually quite ironic that when one falls asleep it is said that they are “Out like a light.” This is because when a person falls asleep, their brain does not simply turn off, it actually stays highly functioning, just in a different way than we are used to. REM, short for Rapid Eye Movement, is controlled by the subcoeruleus nucleus, which make up a small, clustered group of cells in our brain stems. The subcoeruleu nucleus help our body’s muscles to become paralyzed and our both our breathing and our heart rates to become erratic. This is also the stage in which we begin dreaming. The reason our bodies experience REM is a bit of a mystery, although researchers are still studying the neurobiology and biochemistry which take place before, during and after this phase of sleep, in the hopes of learning more about it (What Happens in the Brain During Sleep, 2018). Although scientists may not understand exactly what the point of REM is, there is a definitive link between memory loss and poor sleep. This is because when a person falls asleep, memories are transferred through brain waves from the hippocampus region of the brain to the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is the region of the brain where long-term memories are stored. Not only can poor sleep or interrupted sleep cause memories to not be stored properly, but it can actually lead to a slow deterioration of the brain over time (Nordqvist, 2013).

There are a wide variety of hypnotic medications that are often prescribed in order to help a patient fall asleep or stay asleep. However, if I were to have a patient who suffered from chronic insomnia who experienced little to no relief with the help of a hypnotic medication, I would choose to look at what was causing the insomnia rather than the insomnia itself. Insomnia can often be the result of depression, stress, anxiety, traumatic events or even other medications a patient may be taking. If they were not taking a secondary medication that could be contributing to (or causing) the problem, that would be ruled out. However, finding out what is going on in their life that could be working as a trigger for their chronic insomnia would most likely be the key to putting an end to their problem (Hypnotics for Sleep: Side Effects, Sedatives, Addiction & Withdrawal, 2018).

One fascinating biological perspective on dreaming that I agree with is sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis takes place when a person is undergoing REM, so their body’s muscles are paralyzed, yet their brains are firing off a multitude or rapid images for dreams. The result is for the person to mentally wake up to the point that they realize they cannot physically move, yet there are enough REM images for them to believe something is going on around them. This can be a very fearful experience for a person who does not understand what is going on. It is believed that sleep paralysis takes place when a person immediately enters the REM stage of dreaming rather than gradually building up to it at the end of a sleep cycle. Because studies on sleep paralysis can be difficult to undertake, it is believed that between 5-60% of people have experienced them, with an emphasis on people who suffer from narcolepsy (Pappas, 2013).


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