Thomas Kuhn-Paradigm Shift

Thomas Kuhn-Paradigm Shift. Thomas Kuhn-Paradigm Shift.

Prompt: Discuss how the subject matter of Lecture 2 (on Thomas Kuhn and paradigm shifts) and Lecture 3 (on the development of scientific method out of epistemology) help explicate and expound on the readings from Big History concerning the first four thresholds. In other words, how did the history of the development of scientific method help usher in a new understanding of the cosmos, the elements, the galaxies, our solar system, and, as a result, ourselves. (see attachment)[supanova_question]

Thomas Kuhn-Paradigm Shift

Prompt: Discuss how the subject matter of Lecture 2 (on Thomas Kuhn and paradigm shifts) and Lecture 3 (on the development of scientific method out of epistemology) help explicate and expound on the readings from Big History concerning the first four thresholds. In other words, how did the history of the development of scientific method help usher in a new understanding of the cosmos, the elements, the galaxies, our solar system, and, as a result, ourselves. (see attachment)[supanova_question]

David Christian, Cynthia Brown, and Craig Benjamin, Big History: Between Nothing and Everything (McGraw-Hill, 2013)

Thomas Kuhn-Paradigm Shift Astronomy Assignment Help Module 1 covers the first four “thresholds” that our readings in Big History contend mark our voyage in the universe as from simplicity to increased complexity. This also suggests that the entirety of the universe is evolving, not merely life forms or any one aspect of the cosmos. How do you interpret and respond to this conception of a holistic, interdependent universe evolving toward greater and greater complexity?[supanova_question]

It should be about 1 printed page, double spaced. Using a planetarium program, such as Stellarium (available online as

It should be about 1 printed page, double spaced. Using a planetarium program, such as Stellarium (available online as an interactive program, or as a free download), plot the movement of the Sun at noon on each day of the year for the whole year. In the paper, describe the shape of the motion, and explain it using the tilt of the Earth and Kepler’s second and third laws.[supanova_question]

Thomas Kuhn-Paradigm Shift

Thomas Kuhn-Paradigm Shift

The Big Bang Theory vs alternative forms of universal creation

The Big Bang Theory vs alternative forms of universal creation. The Big Bang Theory vs alternative forms of universal creation.

Submit a statement comparing and/or contrasting the theory of the big bang with another cosmology.Each written assignment should not merely report basic information. A good written assignment is structured around a basic argument. The arguments/issues are laid out in the assignments. Be sure to present the variety of perspectives addressed in the course readings on any given topic.Your written assignment should be grammatically correct and clearly written, express the argument well, and give credit where credit is due.[supanova_question]

This is a very exciting mission to look for signs of past, present, or

This is a very exciting mission to look for signs of past, present, or future potential life on Mars.
For this assignment, please answer the follow questions in your own words after finding information from NASA and other scientific sources:
What past missions laid the groundwork for the Perseverence mission? What did we already know about Mars before Perseverence go there?
What type of research is Perseverence doing while on Mars?
What has Perseverence found so far?
What other moons or planets in the solar system have similar chances of harbouring life?

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This is a very exciting mission to look for signs of past, present, or

Astronomy Assignment Help This is a very exciting mission to look for signs of past, present, or future potential life on Mars.
For this assignment, please answer the follow questions in your own words after finding information from NASA and other scientific sources:
What past missions laid the groundwork for the Perseverence mission? What did we already know about Mars before Perseverence go there?
What type of research is Perseverence doing while on Mars?
What has Perseverence found so far?
What other moons or planets in the solar system have similar chances of harbouring life?

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Group of answer choicesright side up, smallerupside down, bigger
upside down, smaller
right side

Group of answer choicesright side up, smallerupside down, bigger
upside down, smaller
right side up, bigger
Flag question: Question 2Question 21 pts
Telescopes that use mirrors are called _______________
Group of answer choicesreflectorsrefractors
cassegrain
Flag question: Question 3Question 31 pts
Galileo was the first person to point a telescope at the sky.
Group of answer choicesTrueFalse
Flag question: Question 4Question 41 pts
If you increase the diameter of your telescope, you collect ____________ light.
Group of answer choiceslessmore
the same amount of
Flag question: Question 5Question 51 pts
When talking telescopes, what is more important?
Group of answer choicesmagnificationresolution

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The Big Bang Theory vs alternative forms of universal creation

The Big Bang Theory vs alternative forms of universal creation

The North Celestial Pole: a.) Is located on Earth b.) is located at the

The North Celestial Pole: a.) Is located on Earth b.) is located at the. The North Celestial Pole: a.) Is located on Earth b.) is located at the.

The North Celestial Pole:
a.) Is located on Earth
b.) is located at the zenith for all observers
c.) is location in the sky directly above the Earth’s North Pole
d.) has been visited recently by a NASA spacecraft
2. Which process could be responsible for an absorption line at visible wavelength?
a.) a proton jumping to a lower energy level
b.) a neutron jumping to a higher energy level
c.) an electron jumping to a higher energy level
d.) an electron jumping to a lower energy level
3. A star has a measured parallax angle of 0.05 arc seconds. Using the parallax formula: D = 1/P we can compute the distance to the star to be:
a.) 0.05 parsecs
b.) 0.02 parsecs
c.) 50 parsecs
d.) 20 parsecs
4. All of the energy of the Sun is generated in the
a.) photosphere
b.) chromosphere
c.) core
d.) corona
5. The Sun’s photosphere:
a.) an only be seen with a space telescope
b.) is the visible surface of the Sun
c.) is its primary source of the Sun’s energy
d.) can only be seen during an eclipse
6. A star has a peak wavelength of 600 nm (nanometers). Use Wien’s law to compute the temperature of the star. Wien’s law can be expressed as: T(K) = 3,000,000 nm /λmax
a.) 1,800,000,000 K
b.) 60,000 K
c.) 5,000 K
d.) 500 K
7. 10 meter telescope can gather more light than a 5 meter telescope. How many times more? (Note: C = 2 * π* r and A = π* r^2)
a.) 10 times more
b.) 4 times more
c.) 2 times more
d.) 25 times more
8. A star with a very large parallax angle must be:
a.) very close to us
b.) very far away
c.) very faint
d.) very bright
9. The Sunspot Cycle:
a.) is caused by dramatic changes in the Sun’s nuclear reactions
b.) causes the Sun to be brighter and dimmer every 365 days
c.) is an 11 year variation in activity on the surface of the Sun
d.) is responsible for Solar Eclipses
10. The cause of aurorae (eg. Northern Lights) is
a.) Kepler’s first Law
b.) particles from the Sun, deflected by Earth’s magnetic field
c.) light from the Moon
d.) excess heat on the North Pole during summer solstice
11. The source of energy in the Sun is
a.) Nuclear fission of Uranium
b.) The chemical combustion of Hydrogen
c.) Nuclear fission of Carbon
d.) The nuclear fusion of Hydrogen into Helium
12. What would be the best way to determine if a star contains the element Calcium?
a.) determine the color of the star
b.) determine the magnitude of the star
c.) determine the distance to the star
d.) obtain its spectrum and compare it to a known spectrum of Calcium
13. A time of year when the night and day are of equal length is known as:
a.) an equinox
b.) a solstice
c.) the equator
d.) the ecliptic
14. Which is true of Galileo?
a.) He used the theory of gravity to explain planetary motions.
b.) His discoveries disproved the Geocentric Theory
c.) He discovered that planets orbit the Sun following ellipses
d.) He was first to observe retrograde motion
15. How are all of the stars in a constellation (e.g. Orion) related?
a.) they are not related; they are simply in the same part of the sky
b.) they are all the same distance
c.) they are all the same spectral type
d.) they are all the same temperature
16. Which observation of the Moon helped Newton develop his Law of Gravity?
a.) it does not move in a straight line, but curves under some force
b.) it rises at sunset
c.) has phases that repeat every 29.5 days
d.) it is large enough to eclipse the Sun
17. Which of the following people is given credit for the idea that the Sun at the center of the solar system?
a.) Ptolemy
b.) Copernicus
c.) Tycho
d.) Kepler
18. Kepler’s Third Law involved which two properties of a planet?
a.) its mass and its size
b.) its composition and its color
c.) its mass and its energy
d.) its period and its semi-major axis
19. Kepler’s First Law says:
a.) For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
b.) Planets orbit the Sun in a circle
c.) the tilt of Earth’s orbit causes the seasons
d.) Planets orbit in ellipses, with the Sun at one Focus
20. Does an eclipse occur every New Moon?
a.) Yes, and it is always a lunar eclipse
b.) Yes, but it could be partial solar eclipse
c.) No, because the New Moon is too small to cause an eclipse.
d.) No, because Moon’s orbit is tilted
21. Why did Kepler reject Copernicus’ model of circular planetary orbits?
a.) it differed from an idea Kepler had previously proposed
b.) it disagreed with church doctrines
c.) it disagreed with observations made by Tycho
d.) Kepler didn’t like Copernicus
22. The Retrograde motion of a planet
a.) occurs when its course through the sky appears to reverse direction
b.) occurs at either of the two solstices
c.) causes electronics on Earth to malfunction
d.) causes it to temporarily fall out of its orbit
23. A light-year is defined as:
a.) distance light travels in one year
b.) the average distance from the Earth to the Sun.
c.) the speed at which light travels through space.
d.) the time it takes light to reach us from a star
24. The day of the year with the fewest hours of daylight is called
a.) Winter Solstice
b.) Perihelion
c.) Vernal Equinox
d.) Summer Solstice
25. What’s the difference between blue light and red light?
a.) red light is brighter
b.) blue light has shorter wavelengths
c.) blue light is brighter
d.) red light has shorter wavelengths
26. What is special about the constellations that make up the Zodiac?
a.) their stars are closer to us than the stars of other constellations
b.) they form a circle around the Earth from the North to South Celestial Poles
c.) they determine people’s destiny
d.) they are located on the ecliptic, so the Sun passes “through” them every year
27. Which of the following spectral types of star has the coolest surface temperature?
a.) Type O
b.) Type A
c.) Type B
d.) Type K
28. Of two stars, the star with a LOWER apparent magnitude:
a.) appears brighter
b.) appears dimmer
c.) must be closer to us
d.) must be farther from us
29. Most large research telescopes are ____________, which use _______________
a.) Reflectors; mirrors
b.) Reflectors; lenses
c.) Refractors; X-rays
d.) Refractors; mirrors
30. Why does Earth have seasons?
a.) because Earth’s axis is tilted with respect to the Ecliptic
b.) because Earth is gets closer to the Sun in summer, and farther in winter
c.) because the Sun’s energy output is constantly changing
d.) due to effects caused by the Moon
31. The International Space Station orbits Earth 16 times a day. How does it do this?
a.) It burns fuel to keep itself in motion.
b.) Its direct motion is compensated for by its retrograde direction.
c.) It falls under the force of gravity without expending energy.
d.) It has solar panels that provide the energy required to orbit.
32. The equation E = m c^2 is relevant to the energy production of a star. In this equation “M” represents:
a.) magnitude of the star
b.) mass of the star
c.) meters
d.) mass of matter converted into energy
33. On August 21st, 2017, over 200 million people in the US witnessed a total solar eclipse. What phase was the Moon in on this day?
a.) Crescent
b.) First quarter
c.) Full
d.) New
34. When the Moon is directly between the Sun and Earth, which phase is the Moon in? (Hint: make a drawing)
a.) New
b.) gibbous
c.) Full
d.) First Quarter
35. If a star’s spectrum just shows bright lines at specific wavelengths, it is called:
a.) an absorption spectrum
b.) an emission spectrum
c.) a continuum spectrum
d.) a solar spectrum
36. When Earth reaches perihelion (its closest point to the Sun)
a.) it will be winter
b.) Earth’s orbital speed will be largest
c.) Earth will begin to move in a straight line, according to Newton’s Laws
d.) it will be summer
37. Where do the Sun and Moon rise and set?
a.) the Sun rises in the east, but the Moon rises in the west
b.) the Sun rises in the west but the moon rises in the east
c.) both rise in the east and set in the west
d.) both rise in the west and set in the east
38. What is special about Geostationary (or Geosynchronous) satellites?
a.) they orbit the Moon rather than the Earth
b.) they remain above the same part of the Earth while orbiting
c.) they leave the solar system
d.) they orbit other planets, but not the Earth
39. The unit equal to the average distance from the Earth to the Sun is:
a.) the kilometer
b.) the Astronomical Unit (AU)
c.) the parsec
d.) the light year
40. Newton’s realization that the Moon orbited the Earth due to gravity ultimately allowed him to:
a.) Discover that planets orbited the Sun in circles
b.) Prove Kepler’s Laws of planetary motion
c.) Disprove the Heliocentric Theory
d.) Discover that planets orbited the Sun in ellipses
41. In Ptolemy’s model of the Solar System:
a.) The Sun was located at the center of the known universe
b.) Venus would go through the complete set of crescent and gibbous phases, as observed by Galileo.
c.) Planets moved on a small epicycle that orbited the Earth on a larger circle.
d.) Planets would orbit in an ellipse, not a circle.

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Astronomers image various objects and phenomena using different types of telescopes designed to capture various

Astronomers image various objects and phenomena using different types of telescopes designed to capture various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Use the image provided, review your ‘Light’ lecture, and visit the NASA link provided to answer the following questions.
Light_acc.ppt
Why don’t we just image the sky with visible telescopes?
2. Why do we put telescopes in space?
3. List at least 3 astronomical objects (not listed on the EM infographic) or phenomena that astronomers ‘image’ in three DIFFERENT wavelengths:
Choose from:
Microwave
Radio
IR
Visible
UV
X-ray
Gamma Ray

Observatories Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

For Full points:
Copy and paste the questions as written and type your responses below them.
Post questions and answers in a different color (or one in Bold) for better readability.
Use full sentences and give meaningful replies.
Pull down the rubric (three vertical dots on top of discussion) to see how I will assign points.
Respond to at least two other classmates’ posts.
Be careful not to just agree with your peers and restate what they wrote. This will result in a deduction of points.

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Describe how/why it was developed for the space program.
Describe how it benefits us.

pnas-org-content-pnas-115-37-9216-full-instructions-after-completing-the-assigned-readings-and-videos-pick-one-video-and/”>Astronomy Assignment Help
Describe how/why it was developed for the space program.
Describe how it benefits us.
Include a link to your article.
For Full points:
Copy and paste the questions as written and type your responses below them.
Post questions and answers in a different color (or one in Bold) for better readability.
Use full sentences and give meaningful replies.
Pull down the rubric (three vertical dots on top of discussion) to see how I will assign points.
Respond to at least two other classmates’ posts.
Be careful not to just agree with your peers and restate what they wrote. This will result in a deduction of points.

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Download the unit 4 homework assignment worksheet.
astron100_unit4_HW.docx

2. Complete the homework assignment.

Download the unit 4 homework assignment worksheet.
astron100_unit4_HW.docx

2. Complete the homework assignment.
Either type your answers under the questions in a different color or bold, or write questions and answers clearly (in different colors), scan, and upload them in the text box.

3. Upload your homework assignment, or copy and paste it in the text box.
4. Review the rubric to see how I will grade your assignment.
Supporting material to complete this assignment:
1. Your completed unit 4 video worksheets
2. Read the following lectures [Note: most of your answers will come from the lectures. Use these first.]
Light_acc.ppt

3. Supplemental Reading
Chapter 5:
5.1 The Behavior of Light
5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
5.4 The Structure of the Atom
5.5 Formation of Spectral Lines
5.6 The Doppler Effect

Chapter 17:
17.1 The Brightness of Stars
17.2 Colors of Stars
17.3 The Spectra of Stars (and Brown Dwarfs)
17.4 Using Spectra to Measure Stellar Radius, Composition, and Motion

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https://anyessayhelp.com/
Describe how/why it was developed for the space program.
Describe how it benefits us.
Include a link to your article.
For Full points:
Copy and paste the questions as written and type your responses below them.
Post questions and answers in a different color (or one in Bold) for better readability.
Use full sentences and give meaningful replies.
Pull down the rubric (three vertical dots on top of discussion) to see how I will assign points.
Respond to at least two other classmates’ posts.
Be careful not to just agree with your peers and restate what they wrote. This will result in a deduction of points.

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