For this paper you will compare and contract Action-Oriented vs Insight-Oriented Approaches when it comes to counseling. What does.
For this paper you will compare and contract Action-Oriented vs Insight-Oriented Approaches when it comes to counseling. What does that mean? In chapter 5, we will go over Insight-Oriented Approaches. In this chapter we will go over theories that best associated with Insight-Oriented Approaches. In chapter 6, it goes into Action-Oriented Approaches, and again the theories that best fit this approach.
So, what am I looking for?
1.) I want you to understand both of these approaches and go into detail about key aspects that make them different.
2.) What approach do you find works best for you? Explain.
3.) Understand the theories that go along with each approach and discuss what two theories that you favor? Explain.
4.) What two theories do you like the least? Explain.
LITERATURE REVIEW Writer’s Voice and Genre – The Theory and Practice of
Writer’s Voice and Genre – The Theory and Practice of How they Influence Each Other
Lucia Gracia Marquez
Table of Contents
Background and context 3
Problem statement 5
Research questions and Creative Outline 7
Relevance and importance of the research 9
Literature review 11
Gaps in existing knowledge 14
Research design and methods 15
Aims and objectives 15
Methods and sources 16
Practicalities and potential obstacles 17
Implications and contributions to knowledge 18
Practical implications 18
Theoretical implications 18
Reference list 19
Research schedule 21
Research phase 21
From fiction to non-fiction, can a writer’s voice remain intact across these literary genres?
The questions that need to be answered first:
What is a writer’s voice? What does a unique literary voice mean? Do I find it/ create it or copy it?
Is a writer’s voice dependant on the genre of the story? To what extent?
Can a story be sustained if its genre changes halfway through the narrative? Can the voice?
What are the key defining characteristics of fiction and non-fiction?
Can non-fiction still be creative?
Other research questions related to the creative part of this theses:
What is Maladaptive Daydreaming and what purpose does it serve to the story?
What is the connection between Maladaptive daydreaming and “the writer’s voice” and how can it be shown in fiction and non-fiction in this particular story?
Who is the protagonist and what are the main characteristics of her identity? What aspects of it is intended for the reader to pay attention to and why? What are her limitations?
Purpose of this project:
I intend to further explore the extent to which a writer’s voice is an element of writing that stands on its own and is dependant solemnly on who the writer is, or whether voice is directly connected to the genre of the story. I plan to do this by thoroughly studying the works of writers that have written works of fiction and non-fiction such as Isabel Allende, Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
As for the creative project, I intend to write a story that first starts presenting distinct elements of fiction and then evolves into non-fiction using maladaptive daydreaming as the main connection threat between the two genres. The protagonist changes her narration from presenting the themes of her daydreams as the mystical world she lives in, to the real-life struggles of trying to leave daydreaming as a dissociative behaviour behind.
The creative part will then be qualitatively evaluated by beta readers to assess the extent to which perceptions of the writer’s voice changed as the genre went from fiction to non-fiction.
Structure of this review:
First, I intend to clearly define the literary terms I will be using throughout my research to avoid potential misunderstandings, as some of the terms can be interpreted in various ways.
Then, I will review the literature on what has been written about this topic already and finally I will identify the knowledge gap and justify my research.
I will also explain how my research and my creative piece interact with each other.
A Writer’s Voice and its Uniqueness
When talking about a writer’s voice, we fear to be tapping into a rather abstract concept.
Among many, there is the common belief that a writer’s voice is the essence, like the soul of the writing that makes a writer’s style distinct and unique (REFERENCE). Opposite to this, it can be argued that the writing starts when the author disappears from the text and is the reader who interacts with it (Barthes, the death of the author, p.3). Others, however, believe a writer’s voice is not related to the meaning or content of the story itself, but about how linguistic choices related to the use of literary elements and techniques such syntax and diction, their use of dialogue and how the characters develop throughout the story, the themes (REFERENCE), etc. The truth is, these simple assumptions are already a minefield of potential conceptual misunderstandings.
Alvarez addresses the complexity of finding one’s voice by comparing it with issues of personality, writing maturity and experiences “For a writer, voice is a problem that never lets you go, for no other reason that a writer doesn’t properly exist until he has a voice of his own.” Alvarez believes that young writers should not consider themselves writers until they have found a voice they are consistent with throughout the story, but he also recognises that a certain voice would change as the writer changes. The changing of one’s voice, if it happens, doesn’t happen overnight but throughout a lifetime. It happens as the writer grows and experiences life as an older version of himself rather than as a younger one.
The essence of what Alvarez says is that, with time and practise, a writer’s work will reflect the person he is at the moment he writes it. The voice a writer has at this moment, however, might be different from the voice he or she will develop in the future. In accordance with this theory, the Spanish poet Garcia Montero (cabo sunion) reflects in one of his verses “After years have gone by/How will I feel reading these love poems /I’m writing now?/I am the one I am now and words/ still have the warmth of the body who says them”. This is why it can be argued that voice is more than style and techniques: it involves the deeper reasons of why the characters and stories created by a certain writer growing more complex as age and circumstances make the writer mature (REFERENCE). This implies that, if we assume that it is possible to imitate the voice of a writer, realistically we would only be copying the voice of a writer at a particular period of his life and writing career.
Nevertheless, this perspective on voice is not shared by Barthes, who defends the view that the author is not the figure that gives meaning to the writing and by who one can explain it. For him, it is language that should speak and not the person writing it, as he opposes to the notion of the author being like a father that nourishes his creation (REFERENCE). Furthermore, he says that: “The writer can only imitate a gesture that is always anterior, never original,” which means that Barthes believes that the limitations of “voice” are the limitations of language, and that in the world of literature “originality” relies on mixing different kinds of writing instead of attempting to create a “new” one.
Personally, I do not thing Alvarez and Barthes’ theories are completely incompatible. Alvarez places the author as the main responsible for creating voice, and Barthes argues that the author is not the one who creates meaning – it is the reader. However, Alvarez is not defining “voice” as meaning or has the sole reason of why this story was created, but rather as that quality of writing – added by the author’s response to his/her experience of life but without the author necessarily making conscious choices about it in his/her writing – that makes it hard for other writers to replicate (REFERENCE). This can lead us to wonder whether a writer’s voice can be therefore imitated or if they are all unique by default.
Here is when we are invited to look at purpose. He argues that a writer’s voice always conservates a certain degree of uniqueness because he/she writes for different purpose than the one trying to imitate his voice. Imitating a writer’s voice doesn’t necessarily mean one has read all the same books as the original writer, but love for a specific work that the original writer could never have had as a reference or be influenced by because it didn’t exist before he or she actually wrote it: “Young writers often confuse voice with stylishness, but that is something quite different from a voice with the whole weight of a life, however young, behind it.” This makes us think about how the original writer might have changed the manuscript many times before the final version was finalised, trying to find the way in which the story worked best with the characters, plot, setting, even trying to reproduce different genres before his voice was created. However, when writing with the purpose of imitation, this experimentation process, and the story itself, would be underestimated under the struggle of always prioritising voice. Even if voice could be fairly replicated, we would still be left to wonder whether the original writer would have been interested in that story and would have written it with his voice if he had the chance to, or if he would not have considered it in the first place. The reality of Alvarez’s statement struck me: “young writers try to copy the style of more renewed authors before finding their own, but this is just an example of immature writing, which is not the same as imitating the voice.” Which means all the imitator can do is to make a well-informed assumption.
Voice is also dependant on the writer’s creative limitations. For example, Jane Austen was told to “write what you know,” but she did not conform to it. If authors always did this, then overtime their pieces would become predictable. However, if the writer’s voice changes overtime, so can the reader’s, which makes us wonder how does the writer and the reader’s voice interact and influence each other?
I do not attempt to answer that question in this essay, but I do think it is an important consideration to keep in mind when discussing voice in literature because as (REFERENCE) writes, “In order to write well, you must first learn to listen,” which means that even if concluding the same research or reading the same story, two people can potentially come up with different conclusions and impressions because we listen and read subjectively (REFERENCE). What I understand from this is that, since to some extend my reader’s voice influences my perception of a writer’s voice, if I attempted to replicate that writer’s voice, there would be a subjective element in it that would make it a “unique” attempt unlike the attempt of others. This might lead us to think that the same would happen when the same writer writes across genres: even when changing the style and techniques, there is a certain subjectiveness that cannot be abolished according to the previous arguments.
Interestingly, Eliot used other writers’ fragments and quotes to serve his own ends. He did not try to imitate the voice of the authors he borrowed the sentences from. When Eliot said, “Immature poets imitate, mature poets steal,” he was referring to himself as a mature poet after writing “The Waste Land.” Eliot used them not only to commemorate the importance of history, but to express his own personal troubles and worries, which makes the fragments serve a purpose and serve a voice beyond that which they were created for.
Another reflection of what a writer’s voice is and the many challenges that come when trying to form a definitive definition about can be offered by Albert Camus’ “The Outsider.” In this case, I want to focus on how the voice is changed from the original French when translated into English and what affect it has on the level of empathy the reader feels for Meursault, the protagonist. Wilson, among others, reflects on the connotations of the title. “L’Etranger brings to mind an image of a soldier in a foreign land, while the title The Outsider, makes it look like we are talking about a hole-in-corner man.” The connotation of the words varies from language to language, even if it’s a literal translation. These connotations seem to suggest differences in character and mood, which ultimately end up altering the voice.
This leads us to think that cultural interpretations also play a role when it comes to interpreting voice and that the “uniqueness” of the original writer’s voice does not do well in a literary translation. As Cohen states, “An English translator would probably find the author a far wider public than he can hope to reach in his original language,” likewise when looking at this research and personal experience, it seems that the translator’s voice is as important in a translation as the writer’s, however, the original voice is slightly modified, it has the “unique” element added by that translator.
D.Disney argues that having an understanding of the practices and processes of creating poetry is the only way in which second language writers would read as writers, instead of as learners. To his view, poetry enhances critical thinking about the language choices and it helps young writers discover their own voice. Disney writes that “the second language learner is in a constant search of a second language writing voice.” Conceivably, this implies that there are voices that can only exist in one language. For example, when foreign writers adapt their voice to the language and diction that they know and which might alter their original voice. These characteristics are elements of voice that would be missing in his native language written pieces. However, there is no conclusive evidence on whether those modifications that a writer makes in his second language would be consistent across genres or not.
Another variable to consider when referring to voice is that of chronological time. Contemporary writers write with the values, attitudes and vision of their time and culture. Not only because it is what we know, but because it’s what we are limited by. It is also believed that “the categorical imperative of every young writer is to represent his own time.” This means that, if chosen to imitate a classic voice, the working methods might not be the same as in the first author e.g. working on paper and typewriter vs laptop. However, the extent to which writing with different tools influences the structure, mood and voice is not discussed in this essay.
In addition to this, personal routines such as writing schedules and habits might influence voice as well. As Maisel suggests, “We end up adding heavy-drinking or not sleeping enough to our Ernest Hemingway version of our writer identity.” Moreover, “the view that academic discourse is impersonal has long been suspended since those students with the most authoritarian voices in their creative pieces, do better in their academic essays.” This means that there is no such a thing as impersonality in a writer’s work and also that voice, if not at least elements of voice do into creep into contrasting genres. Some writers might be better readers and be more engaged and constant, which means they would have, in theory, more chances to successfully be creative or to imitate other writer’s voice.
In my creative I will be writing across genres in English as my second language. Even if this essay presents some evidence that my writer’s voice would be different if I wrote my creative piece in Spanish as my native language (or if it were to be imitated or translated), there is still room for investigating if changes to voice will occur from switching the story from fiction to non-fiction.
Fiction and Non-Fiction
“What if there was a world we could enter where there was not the need for so sharp a distinction to be drawn between the hard and fast ‘reality’ of symptoms seen in a person’s ‘behaviour,’ and what is happening inside their head?” Literature offers us a chance to enter that place, but not all pieces serve that purpose. Since this is very similar the statement by which I would define by creative piece, I have decided to carefully choose to study some of the books that have these common intentions. The books are, from Gabriel Garcia Marquez, “One Hundred Years of Solitude” and “Living to Tale the Tale”. From Isabel Allende, “The House of the Spirits” and “The Sum of Our Days.”
The reason why I have chosen these books is because they have all been written originally in Spanish and then translated, which will give me some insights into how (if) voice has changed from one language to the other. However, mainly I will study the translated version of these books instead of the original Spanish. Also, I have chosen one book from each written in fiction and another in non-fiction (biography). Also, because the genre they belong to magical realism seems undermine the borders of reality and fantasy.
In fact, Dana del George defines magical realism as a postmodern, written version of the fairy tale, as both of these styles share a ‘lovely fog’ which allows them to depict the cruel realities of life while remaining hopeful for justice (REFERENCE) She further explains that this resemblance is based in that both fairy tales and magical realism use metaphors as the main tool to create meaning and share a common ‘vitality’ in the way the stories flow. What most caught my attention about her arguments was this statement, “Both (fairy tales and magical realism) recover some of the values of a world not yet complicated by globalised capitalism.” (p.613) This means that she believes magical realism is a of resisting the dehumanisation or indifference of modern society.
At this point it is important to stress that Dana does not believe in the assumption that fairy tales are for children – she addresses to this misinterpretation as a Diesneyfication of the genre. Moreover, she makes a final point which I think perfectly backs up her theory: Garcia Marquez confesses one of his main literary influences have been the stories his grandmother told him since he was a child, who mixed reality with blizzard events. P.614
However, there are other aspects and characteristics between Gabriel’s One Hundred Years of Solitude and fairy tales besides the mentioned above that might set them apart. While in both cases time and place seem hard to pin down, fairy tales tend to follow a rather lineal storyline. Gabriel replaced the “Once upon a time” with “Many years later as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendía was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice.” (REFERENCE) here we can appreciate that Gabriel goes one step further when it comes to constructing his timeline, as throughout his book he mixes the past, the future and the present in one sentence, rendering him all-seeing but also, is a way of portraying the core theme of the book, the idea that time asses by, but people’s essence remains the same. This concept is also portrayed by the family line, in which generations share not just the name and surnames but also some personality traits.
Although, Jeronimo Arellano does not agree with Dana and offers and alternative perspective on magical realism as he opposes those who see the aesthetics of this genre through a “self-exoticizing neocolonial lens.” He insists that what the West has interpreted as metaphors in pieces such as One Hundred Years of Solitude could also be taken at face value. For example, one of the main characters of Gabriel’s novel, Jose Arcadio’s technological deliriums might be just a figure in which to see reflected the destabilization that new technologies are indeed causing to our modern societies .
Continuing with the above argument, Bowers who made a statement that overall seems to be the main theory on this topic, “Magic realist fictions are often set in rural areas away from influence over, or influence from, the political power centers.” After reading this, as a way of contradicting his theory, I decided wanted to experiment writing magical realism about the now – modern worries of young people who live in cities.
In the first few chapters of my creative piece, there are references to the sounds of children playing, the music from the hot dog truck and plenty of conversations in waiting queues. This is the sound of a connected world, but also of the realities of a contradicted narrator as her life continues, not making any apparent sense – a heart that seems to be drifting aimlessly across the streets inside an empty shell. This is because sometimes stories are not about people – neither the narrator nor even the protagonist. It is about a mind that found so much comfort in her imagination that even the most mundane aspects of reality became frightening for her progressively overtime. I borrowed this concept – that a novel can sometimes “use” its characters to tell the story of a concept – from Clarice Lispector, who claims her novel The Hour of the Star in not about the girl who is so poor she only eats hot dogs, but about anonymous mystery and crushed innocence (REFERENCE).
In her novel, Lispector writes in the voice of the narrator, Rodrigo: “Forgive me but I’m going to keep talking about me who I’m unknown to myself, and as I write I’m a bit surprised because I discover I have a destiny.” These is the kind of sentence the protagonist my story would write during the first half of the project as to some extebt she realizes she is in constant character development. I was also fascinated by Rodrigo’s indecision on whether he wanted to tell the story at all, “I wonder if I should jump ahead and sketch out an ending right away.” At first this reminded me of a book called Mist, by Miguel Unamuno. In the latter the main protagonist becomes aware of his condition as a fictional character and rebels against the writer. However, after further thinking, I felt that Lispector was trying to do just the opposite: fictionalise herself behind Rodrigo’s voice. I also wanted to create a narrator (Lulu) of the story who for the first half of the novel disguise the reader presenting herself has the main character in the story but who at one point, rebels against her position, as she wants to be more than the narrator she has become and it reaches a turning point. During the second half of my creative piece, I will switch the narrative style and tell the story of how I created ‘Lulu’ as a defense mechanism when I was a child and that has been accompanying me ever since even if the conditions that triggered her creation have long change – and so has her purpose.
The ‘Lulu’ of my story presents certain characteristics that could be further explored, but since I was a child, her storylines and personal traits have been changing according to my interaction with reality. It is because of this that I have chosen not to explore Lulu the narrator as a female, or as someone of a certain age, religion or country for the first half of the story – simply because the fact that Lulu has been portrayed in a certain way during the first half of the novel does not mean too much to the “me” of the second half, who knows these character has been changing and will keep doing so. It can be argued that it is the ‘me’ who should therefore explore further questions of identity. This is something that I do plan to do through my writing, in interaction with Lulu. The novel does not particularly concern about the personality traits that can be analyze objectively or historically, but rather on what the creation of this fictional being is trying to say about what the real person wants and feels like is missing in herself, fears and how the real self has become depend on the fictional one to function in the only way she knows how since she can remember.
Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) describes a condition where “A person regularly experiences daydreams that are intense and highly distracting — so distracting, in fact, that the person may stop engaging with the task or people in front of them.” It was first discovered by Professor Eliezer Somer of the University of Haifa in Israel in 2002.
Maladaptive daydreamers tend spend an average of four hours a day perfecting a particular scene in their minds (Sofer-Dudek 2018: 2). Daydreaming is the first thing they do in the morning, and the last before going to sleep and it may even difficult the maintenance of a regular sleep pattern, as those affected might be so engaged in daydreaming they loose track of time or might be too excited to fall asleep (David Marcusson-Clavetz et al 2019: 3). One of the traits that distinguish MD from normal daydreaming is the number of details that the imaginary world has. This is because some of the MD story plots, characters and particular scenes have been developing for years – in most cases, since childhood (Greene et al 2020:2). Moreover, everything is felt more intensively, the good and the bad, and that is what makes them so addictive. The intensity with which moments are felt in your mind if you are a maladaptive daydreamer makes real life and normal daydreaming pale in comparison. Maladaptive daydreaming is a dysfunctional form of imaginative involvement that, contradictory to what it might sound like, instead of making the person more resourceful when it comes to creative tasks, it can be quite a distraction.
There is one very interesting book called The Secret Life of Walter Mitty by James Thurber (1939), in which the main character presents many of the typical maladaptive daydreamer’s traits. He is forgetful, perceived by others as being absent-minded and even struggles focusing when he has to do repetitive, rhymical tasks. This is because instead of focusing on what he is doing, he is living his life as a made-up war hero or entangled in many other storylines, which makes his real life as Ms. Mitty’s husband much more bearable. What makes this book even more likely a straight portrait of a maladaptive daydreamer is that Walter’s fantasies do have some slight connections with reality, triggers such as conversations or music that are food for fantasizing. What Lulu’s story does not have in common with the ending of these book is that, Walter very obviously overcomes his maladaptiveness. I do not plan for Lulu to do that but rather on the second part of the story I will reflect on what parts of my personality have been in conversation with that fictional world.
Even more inspiring than literature on daydreaming, it is what has been observed on this topic scientifically that fuels my curiosity. In 2002 Professor Eliezer Somer defined MD as a psychiatric condition for the first time. Particularly, what I am most interested in is the research case studies. In these papers, people suffering from this condition are interviewed in depth to find out some common traits between the participants experience of daydreaming and corroborate the veracity of a certain hypothesis. In these interviews, one can find what would be considered very accurate character descriptions, which include a map of the maladaptive daydreaming patients’ mind, tendencies, struggles, and even the lifestyle and main events that could have triggered the condition to start and progress. To exemplify this idea, one of the participants reported that:
‘‘It (daydreaming) stops me from interacting in real world and real people. My relationship with family goes from fine to bad as I did not speak to them often because I would just locked myself in my room….My school performance worsens. I can’t concentrate on studies. I skipped school a lot just to be in my world.” (Participant 519 – Bigelsen et at 2016: 1)
After an immersive reading of the people used as subjects for maladaptive daydreaming studies, I started seeing Lulu as the participant of my own creative theses. In a way, the version of her I put on the page feels very different to me as the version of her I keep in my mind. This is why it is till so important for me to research on the topic and keep a clear perspective of what I want to achieve. It can therefore be said that Lulu is a character whose mental landscape has been influenced by the experience of the research participants’ descriptions of their condition as much as of my experience of her. For instance, her character becomes more intense – I write longer chapters – when things are not going well in real life at work, which is a trait she borrowed from me reading statements as the following: “Peter thinks he initially tried to avoid painful reality by developing alternative scenarios of events and experiencing them as if they were real. In this way, he could regulate his emotions and cope with loneliness” (Pietkiewiczi et al 2018: 4).
Before concluding I would like to mention that there is also a website called Wild Minds Network where people who suffer from MD can post all sort of writings about their condition, sometimes in a creative way, sometimes as a diary or an article. The best thing is that, if I doubt about the mechanisms of this condition, I can ask questions and get a lot of informative feedback directly to better inform my writing.
With this research, I hope to reveal whether what is understood by literary voice will remain consistent or change according to the genre of the writing and to what extent.
In regard to the research methodologies, this project will be based on a qualitative literature research and my own creative practice. I will conduct an in-depth analysis of primary and secondary sources. Of course, the scope of research will be limited and focused on the parts of the elements which are the most relevant to the creative piece. For this research, I will also use ources such as relevant publications, commentaries, reviews and previous research on the primary sources and their writing techniques and the creation of a sense of literary voice. I will also have to analyse the results of using different writing techniques and the response of critics to it.
When it comes to magic realism, I will mainly research further on the elements that make Latin American magic realism stand out, as well as their influence in creating a literary voice. There is already a great deal of literature, particularly on Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Isabel Allende, so I do not foresee any complications accessing this kind of content. The main challenge here will be to narrow the research scope and cut out many other characteristics of Marquez’s writing that are less relevant to this project. The results of my research will influence the future chapters of my creative piece. As a deeper understanding of magic-realist elements is gained, the narrative voice will develop and modifyy itself, which can prove interesting to observe for the nature of this research. In other words, I will conduct the research both as a researcher and a writer.
After completing my own creative piece, I will evaluate it qualitatively by beta readers using reader-response theory. I will have a group of readers filling in a questionnaire about how they felt the voice changed along the novel and how they connect with it/perceive it affected their overall reading experience. I could also do a further experiment and see if the readers are able to match passages of the fictional and non-fictional work of the same author based on his/her voice.
Literature Review of the Research Essay
Gain knowledge of the topic to inform creative part and create bibliography.
22/09/2020 – 10/09/2020
Start Writing the Creative Project
Research of key concepts
Creative Project Completion
Creative Project Proofreading
01/06/2022 – 01/09/2022
Start the Writing of the Research Essay
Completion of the Research Project
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Waugh, P (1985): Metafiction the Theory and Practice of Self-Conscious Fiction; Routledge.
The Editors of Salem Press (2017); Metafiction Short Story Writers; Salem Press
Llompart Pons, A. (2019) ‘Escape and Consolation: Narrative Voice and Metafiction in the Harry Potter Series’, Atlantis (Salamanca, Spain), 41(1), pp. 105–141. doi: 10.28914/Atlantis-2019-41.1.07.
Unamuno, M (1914); Mist, Catedra Letras Hispanicas
Waugh, P (1984): Metafiction: The Theory and Practice of Self-Conscious Fiction; Taylor &Francis edition, e-Library 2001. Link: https://www.academia.edu/3626028/Metafiction_The_Theory_and_Practice_of_Self_Conscious_Fiction
Wayne C. Booth (1983): The Rhetoric of Fiction; University of Chicago Press
Thurber, J (1942); The Secret Life of Walter Mitty; Harcourt, Brace and Company
Wild Minds Network: https://wildminds.ning.com/
IGOR J. PIETKIEWICZ1, SZYMON N?CKI2 , ANNA BA?BURA2 and RADOS?AW TOMALSKI (2018): Maladaptive Daydreaming as a New Form of Behavioral Addiction; Journal of Behavioral Addictions 7(3), pp. 838–843 (2018) DOI: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.95. Link: https://akjournals.com/view/journals/2006/7/3/article-p838.xml
JayneBigelsenaJonathan M.LehrfeldbDaniela S.JoppcEliSomerd (2016): Maladaptive Daydreaming: Evidence for an Under-Researched Mental Health Disorder; Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.03.017
Talya Greene, Melina West, Eli Somer (2020); Maladaptive Daydreaming and Emotional Regulation Difficulties: A Network Analysis; Link: https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0165178119315550?token=B31105DB1EF20A0FE7B4E04225BFE8074D67FF8C5939A1C04034B8C622084CC1E0353C4DF2794335B5D5830B3F71D16E&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20210607224824
David Marcusson-Clavertz, Melina West, Oscar N. E. Kjell, Eli Somer (2019); A Daily Diary Study on Maladaptive Daydreaming, Mind Wandering, and Sleep Disturbances: Examining Within-Person and Between-Persons Relations, Published online. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225529
Youtube: Eli Somer (2018); Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD): Pathways to an Unrecognised Mental Condition. Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IFnsjqBXLeA
Eli SomeraLiora SomerbNaomi Halpern (2019); Representations of Maladaptive Daydreaming and the Self: A Qualitative Analysis of Drawing: The Arts in Psychotherapy
Volume 63, April 2019, Pages 102-110. Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2018.12.004
J. Bigelsen, C. Schupak (2011): Compulsive Fantasy: Proposed Evidence of an Under-Reported Syndrome through a Systematic Study of 90 Self-identified non-normative Fantasizers: Consciousness and Cognition, 20 (4) (2011), pp. 1634-1648. Link: 10.1016/j.concog.2011.08.013
Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Eli Somer (2018): Trapped in a Daydream: Daily Elevations in Maladaptive Daydreaming Are Associated With Daily Psychopathological Symptoms. Internet Link: 0.3389/fpsyt.2018.00194
1 EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE DURING QUARANTINE Effects of Social Media
For this paper you will compare and contract Action-Oriented vs Insight-Oriented Approaches when it comes to counseling. What does 1
EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE DURING QUARANTINE
Effects of Social Media Use During Quarantine
Florida International University
This study examined
A number of studies suggest that social media is a cause of social anxiety amongst frequent social media users(Alkis et al., 2017). During the 2020 quarantine that was caused by the COVID-19 outbreak lead to many people being attached to their cellphones for a sense of community since there was no face-to-face contact allowed. The use of social media allowed people to feel as if there was still a community and took away the anxiety they felt from not receiving in person conversations. In a real life setting it is easy to notice one’s emotions and expressions, whereas if you are having an online conversation you can easily hide what you are truly feeling (Carruthers et al., 2019). While everyone was stuck at home due to the quarantine rules it was extremely easy to feel isolated. Social media such as Facebook, Instagram, and Tiktok allowed people to connect and feel as if they were all a part of a community. This community built through social media showed people that they had similar struggles and can relate to one another. If social media is used daily during quarantine, then people’s overall anxiety levels will decrease.
There was a social anxiety scale for social media (SAS-SMU) created and can be used to test whether the social media users during quarantine had less anxiety from using social media. The dimensions of anxiety that were identified from the SAS-SMU were negative evaluation, privacy concern, and interaction anxiety(Alkis et al., 2017). By using this scale it will be determined whether social media had a positive impact on those who used social media daily while being stuck at home with no in-person interactions. This might prove that social media did not have a positive impact. A study conducted by Carruthers et al. (2019) showed that individuals felt social anxiety during face-to-face interactions as well in those interactions made through social media. Although social media can be used in a positive way to promote less anxiety levels to those affected by isolation during quarantine, it is important to be aware of social media burnout. It is important to have a healthy amount of use of social media so that social media burnout can be affected. Also to consider the times you are engaging on social media, such as before you go to bed and by doing this can lead to poor sleep quality.
In comparison to the studies that show the negative effects social media has on people’s mental health, there are a few studies that show that there is positive effects. One study in particular shows how social support from social media impacts transgender individuals in a positive way. Social media provides emotional support, appraisal support, and informational support to these individuals (Selkie et al., 2020). It gives them a sense of community same way as it did for those individuals who used social media consecutively during the quarantine. Another important factor to consider is that social media provides anonymity. Many families were affected financially because of the pandemic and when something like this happens one might want to remain anonymous. The entire world was affected by the outbreak of COVID-19, but it still remained a very controversial topic. Therefore, this is another reason why it might’ve been important to remain anonymous. In this study a SAS-SMU (Social anxiety scale for social media) will be used to determine whether the experimental group was affected positively from using social media daily. The experimental group will be the group that is exposed to daily social media use and the control group will have no use of social media. At the end of the study the results will show that social media has a positive outcome on those particularly who were affected mentally and felt isolated during the quarantine.
Alkis, Y., Kadirhan, Z., & Sat, M. (2017). Development and validation of social anxiety scale for social media users. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 296-303. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.011
Barlow, D. H., Blanchard, E. B., Vermilyea, J. A., Vermilyea, B. B., & DiNardo, P. A. (1986). Generalized anxiety and generalized anxiety disorder: Description and reconceptualization. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 143(1), 40-44. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.1176/ajp.143.1.40
Carruthers, S. E., Warnock-Parkes, E., & Clark, D. M. (2019). Accessing social media: Help or hindrance for people with social anxiety? Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 10(2), 11. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2043808719837811
Erliksson, O. J., Lindner, P., & Mörtberg, E. (2020). Measuring associations between social anxiety and use of different types of social media using the Swedish social anxiety scale for social media users: A psychometric evaluation and cross?sectional study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12673
Liu, C., & Ma, J. (2020). Social media addiction and burnout: The mediating roles of envy and social media use anxiety. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 39(6), 1883-1891. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9998-0
Meshi, D., & Ellithorpe, M. E. (2021). Problematic social media use and social support received in real-life versus on social media: Associations with depression, anxiety and social isolation. Addictive Behaviors, 119, 6. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106949
Selkie, E., Adkins, V., Masters, E., Bajpai, A., & Shumer, D. (2020). Transgender adolescents’ uses of social media for social support. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66(3), 275-280. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.08.011[supanova_question]
Nursing 2 Running head: Literature Review 1 Literature Review Jameelah Yusuf Grand
Running head: Literature Review 1
Grand Canyon University
July 05, 2021
Infection Control is a holistic approach to the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Nosocomial infections control requires a multifaceted infection control approach to curb the spread of aggravation of their impacts in the hospital settings. Mehta et al. (2014) provide a guideline to infection control measures, including identifying the high-risk patients and observing hand hygiene. Nonetheless, following the general precautionary standards for reducing the transmission of CR-BSI, VAP, and CAUTI is also essential in preventing hospital-acquired and Nosocomial infections. Under the guidelines, there is a need to thoroughly screen and isolate all the intensive care unit (ICU) patients for diarrhea, immunological and Neutropenia disorders, known carriers of epidemic strains of the bacterium, and skin rashes. Subsequently, the authors establish that healthcare providers should then identify the suitable type of isolation between protective and source isolation. Protective isolation involves the isolation of the immunocompromised or neutropenic patients to minimize the acquisition of opportunistic infections.
On the other hand, source isolation involves excluding infected patients to reduce infections to patients or staff. Generally, following the standard precautions is essential in controlling Nosocomial infections. Such standards include using sterile gloves, wearing a gown, adequate eye protection and wearing masks, wearing head coverings, shoes, and proper handling of soiled or reusable patient equipment.
Fu and Wang (2016) reviewed applying Nosocomial infection control in a healthcare setting to prevent emerging infectious diseases. The researchers report that infection control measures reduce the chances of emerging infectious diseases and their spread among patients, family members, and the medical personnel with direct contacts. The researchers recommend a detailed evaluation of the Nosocomial infection control in designated healthcare settings. Nonetheless, standards, operational instructions, regulations, and procedures on prevention against infectious diseases would be e important in enhancing the effectiveness of the intervention. In most reviewed articles, the researchers raised concerns about engaging nurses and health practitioners in training to ensure compliance. Majorly compliance to the infection control measures proved to be a significant challenge. According to Nasiri et al. (2019), nurses had positive attitude and adequate knowledge on infection control measures. However, they reported that the nurses had inadequate adherence to the infection control standards. Nasiri et al. (2019) similarly recommend periodic training through scientific conferences training at the onset of hospital employees and a combination of up-to-date theoretical and practical programs.
Barker et al. (2017) “identified organizational level factors, task and person factors as the significant barriers and facilitators to infection control. Time spent to train new nurses, high nurse turnover, heavy clinical workload, and lack of language competency were primary barriers to infection control. An infection control-friendly environment and a well-developed inflection control team were the primary facilitators.”
Comparisons of Research Questions
The research question for Nasir et al. (2019) was on the attitude, practice, knowledge, and clinical recommendation toward infection control standards among the nurses. The study was a systematic review of eighteen studies on 4577 employed nurses and nursing students. On the other hand, Barker et al. (2017) had their research question on infection control’s facilitators and barriers at a Northern India hospital. The researchers conducted a qualitative study using a sample of ten nurses and ten physicians. Nonetheless, the researchers used the convenience sampling method to recruit the study participants.
Comparison of the Study Limitations
Mehta et al. (2014) relied on non-current sources for their review, making the findings lack currency. Nasir et al. (2019) was a systematic review subject of inadequate summary of the studies under review. Moreover, the researchers never determined statistical significance or measures of statistical strength. In the research by Barker et al. (2017), the limitation was that it focused on one tertiary care hospital, making the results lack generalizability to more diverse healthcare settings.
From the review of the available literature, it is evident that compliance with standard infection control measures for Nosocomial infections is vital in reducing the infection rates. Moreover, the medical practitioners have adequate knowledge and a positive attitude on infection control measures. However, practitioners’ behaviors present significant barriers to the implementation of the infection control measures. Further research should focus on the facilitators for adherence to the infection control measures. Such would help enhance compliance with the measures and reduce the infection rates.
Barker, A. K., Brown, K., Siraj, D., Ahsan, M., Sengupta, S., & Safdar, N. (2017). Barriers and facilitators to infection control at a hospital in northern India: a qualitative study. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 6(1), 1-7.
Fu, C., & Wang, S. (2016). Nosocomial infection control in healthcare settings: protection against emerging infectious diseases. Infectious diseases of poverty, 5(1), 1-3.
Mehta, Y., Gupta, A., Todi, S., Myatra, S., Samaddar, D. P., Patil, V., Bhattacharya, P. K., & Ramasubban, S. (2014). Guidelines for prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Indian journal of critical care medicine: peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine, 18(3), 149–163. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-5229.128705
Nasiri, A., Balouchi, A., Rezaie-Keikhaie, K., Bouya, S., Sheyback, M., & Al Rawajfah, O. (2019). Knowledge, attitude, practice, and clinical recommendation toward infection control and prevention standards among nurses: A systematic review. American journal of infection control, 47(7), 827-833.[supanova_question]
Business computer languages-manal
You must submit two separate copies (one Word file and one PDF file) using the Assignment Template on Blackboard via the allocated folder. These files must not be in compressed format.
Zero mark will be given if you try to bypass the SafeAssign (e.g. misspell words, remove spaces between words, hide characters, use different character sets, convert text into image or languages other than English or any kind of manipulation).
You are advised to make your work clear and well-presented. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
You must use this template, failing which will result in zero mark.
You MUST show all your work, and text must not be converted into an image, unless specified otherwise by the question.
The work should be your own, copying from students or other resources will result in ZERO mark.
Use Times New Roman font for all your answers
Macro 3 long questions
Assume that the MPC for an economy is 2/3.
1. If there are no mitigating factors influencing monetary policy, what is the value of the simple fiscal multiplier?
Group of answer choices
2. What is the value of the simple tax multiplier?
Group of answer choices
3. If the government cut taxes by $500 million, in the absence of mitigating factors, what would be the impact on AD?
AD would decrease by $1 billion.
AD would increase by $1.5 billion.
AD would decrease by $1.5 billion.
AD would increase by $1 billion.
4. Which of the following best describes the effect of Ricardian Equivalence on the tax cut in the previous question.
Group of answer choices
People would save some of the tax cut, and the resulting increase in AD is more than in the previous question.
People would save some of the tax cut, and the resulting increase in AD is less than in the previous question.
The tax cut increases government debt, increasing interest rates and diminishing the increase in AD from the previous problem.
The tax cut increases government debt, increasing interest rates and making the increase in AD from the previous problem even bigger.
5. Crowding out is not an issue in today’s economy because even though the government debt to GDP ratio is higher than ever …
Group of answer choices
All of the above are reasons that crowding out is not an issue.
Interest rates are near record lows.
Unemployment is low.
Inflation is low.
1. What are the values of the CPI in Year 1 and Year 2 (in order)?
Group of answer choices
2. What is the inflation rate for Cavityland in year 2?
Group of answer choices
3. What are the ex ante and ex post real interest rates (in order)?
Group of answer choices
1. This economy is in what situation at point B?
Group of answer choices
2. What is the expected price level at B?
Group of answer choices
None of the other answers are correct.
3. If the current, short run situation at B was caused by an increase in government spending, then what was the original, long-run equilibrium?
Group of answer choices
B is short run and long run outcome.
None of the other answers are correct.
4. What else could have caused the economy to wind up in short run equilibrium at point B that did not involve a shift in AD?
Group of answer choices
An increase in income taxes.
A cut in income taxes.
A decline in oil and gas prices.
An increase in oil and gas prices.
5. If policymakers use monetary or fiscal policy to return the economy to long run equilibrium, what will occur?
Group of answer choices
AD shifts left and the economy moves to point C.
SRAS shifts down, and the economy moves to point A.
SRAS shifts up and the economy moves to point A.
AD shifts out the economy moves to point A.
6. If instead policy makers do not act and the economy returns to long run equilibrium without a policy intervention, then what will occur?
Group of answer choices
AD shifts right and the economy moves to a new equilibrium not shown on the graph.
SRAS shifts down and the economy moves to point C.
AD shifts left and the economy moves to point C.
SRAS shifts up and the economy moves to point A
11 mins ago[supanova_question]
Smalling 1 Shanta Smalling Modern Literary Masterpieces Professor Fung-Ross July 26, 2021
Modern Literary Masterpieces
July 26, 2021
Outline: Final essay
Attention getter: England in the 18th century maintained an Aristocratic society that held in high esteem the most frivolous and vain matters despite holding hereditary titles and ranks that came with responsibilities
Background information: The poem The Rape of Lock by Alexander Pope uses satire to attack the upper class in London in the 18th century. It depicts the position of women then and the social life of a woman from the upper class. It gives insight into a variety of elements of the English culture of the 18th century. Pope mocks the misplacedness of the priorities and the insignificance of the value system of this time. Women portray their pettiness through their excessive attention to their appearance, spending ridiculous amounts of time grooming themselves.
Thesis: The wealthy play a prominent role in high society in England in the 1800s. Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock is a satire that mocks people in high society, revealing their pettiness and access to material goods.
Body paragraph #1
Topic sentence: The women in the upper class of the 18th century in England were extremely frivolous.
Supporting details: Belinda portrays the extent of misplaced priorities by solely focusing on her outward appearance and lacking in kindness, seriousness and grandeur, and virtue, which should be held in high esteem.
Supporting details: The fashionable women are inwardly frivolous but represent an outward charm that hides that they have reversed the signs of things, so that little to them is great, and vice versa is true.
Supporting details: The women display emptiness and vanity and a pervading lack of purpose in their lives.
Body paragraph #2
Topic sentence: The emptiness of the men was parallel to the frivolity of women in high society.
Supporting details: The men’s main focus was flirting with the fashionable ladies and chasing sexual favors when they were not engaging in vain talks in the coffee houses and clubs (Pope).
Supporting details: Lord Petre, coupled with his fellows, paints a picture of the high society of the time to be empty-minded and idle.
Supporting details: The men lacked in manners and portrayed a serious confusion in values and attached significance to dance and masquerades than religion.
Body paragraph #3
Topic sentence: Belinda is materialistic as her possessions define her world.
Supporting details: Belinda portrays the obsession with things that the high-class members embrace. She has a dressing table full of her makeup items and is obsessed with her locks of hair.
Supporting details: Her focus on her appearance solely creates a worldly goal.
Body paragraph #4
Topic sentence: Materialism in the poem leads to objectifying women.
Supporting details: The lock of hair from Belinda’s hair represented Baron’s sexual conquest. Men obtaining trophies from their sexual conquests align sex to a material goal.
Supporting details: Baron insisting on using force to win his so-called prize- who is Belinda-emphasizes the objectifying of women.
Restate thesis: The high class of England in the 18Th century bred men and women who held no regard for the significant things in life but instead emphasized frivolous and vain matters.
Closing thoughts: Pope has brilliantly described the emptiness of fashionable lives. There should be more depth and seriousness in the activities they participate in and in their lives in general. In the conventional society, everyone must ensure that their priorities are not misplaced and that the areas of their lives they lay significance on are not vain.
Pope, Alexander. The Rape of Lock. London: Vintage Classic, 2007. Print.[supanova_question]
Welcome to English 11 Literary Studies! A registration form must be submitted
Welcome to English 11 Literary Studies!
A registration form must be submitted before starting the First Assignment.
Legal last name:
Other last name:
This assignment is intended to take approximately 8 – 10 hours to complete. It is worth 10% of your final grade for the course, so read it and complete it carefully:
Please complete the assignment directly on this document. Then save it as
Writing in a different font colour for your responses would be very helpful. Thank you.
Plagiarized assignments will not be accepted.
IMPORTANT: We will NOT accept .pages files nor links to documents through Google Drive or Dropbox.
IMPORTANT: We will only accept Word or RTF documents.
When you have completed this assignment, return it as an attachment to an email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Office Use Only Date:
Part 1 /38
Part 2 /18
Part 3 /36
Total: / 92
Literary Studies 11 First Assignment
This assignment is designed to improve the writing skills you will need to complete Literary Studies 11.
Part 1: Introductions (Hooks) and Thesis Statements (38 marks)
Read Part 1: Introductions (Hooks) and Thesis Statements in the Literary Studies 11 First Assignment Reading Booklet (included in this zip file)
Part 1 Activity 1: Hooks (12 marks; 4 marks per hook)
Now it is time for you to practice writing some hooks. For the following topics, write a 1-2 sentence hook (just the hook, nothing else). Feel free to have fun and let your imagination take over but remember, the purpose of the hook is to engage and interest the reader into wanting to read more and it must be connected somehow to your topic. Each one is worth 5 marks and please write them in the space below.
/4 1. Bullying in schools
/4 2. Body image
/4 3. Gender roles in society
Part 1 Activity 2: Thesis Statements (16 marks; 2 marks per thesis statement analysis)
Remember, your job is not to say whether you agree with the opinion expressed in the thesis statement, but to decide if it as an effective thesis statement, and why.
Rate the following thesis statements on a scale of 1 – 4 and explain WHY or why it is not an effective thesis statement. 1 is poor, and 4 is excellent.
/2 1. We must eliminate violent content from television or we will end up raising generations of thoughtless murderers. Rating: Reason:
/2 2. Despite the increase in technology and the subsequent reality that it makes our lives easier, more people in society are experiencing depression and dissatisfaction with their lives. Rating: Reason:
/2 3. I believe that we should spend less time on our computers and mobile devices. Rating: Reason:
/2 4. This essay will show that the youth of today are just as capable as the generations before them but they need to be given more opportunities in the workforce to achieve success. Rating: Reason:
/2 5. Throughout the play Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare effectively utilizes images of purity and divinity in order to portray the character of Juliet as an innocent individual who has been needlessly sacrificed due to the inept decision making of multiple characters within the play. Rating: Reason:
/2 6. World War I was caused by nationalism, imperialism and militarism. Rating: Reason:
/2 7. The Outsiders is a novel about a gang of boys who have a number of battles against a rival gang in their neighbourhood. Rating: Reason:
/2 8. Due to a number of factors such as overconsumption, waste, and an overreliance on fossil fuels, the global village has created a large problem with greenhouse gases and climate change. Rating: Reason:
Part 1 Activity 3: Write Your Own Thesis Statements (10 marks: 5 each)
Please choose two of the following topics and create a well-crafted thesis statement for each one you have chosen. Make sure your thesis statement is one sentence, but it should be full of detail with sophisticated language.
Should High School require students to wear mandatory uniforms?
Do teenagers that play to many violent video games become violent themselves?
Should teenagers under the age of 16 be kept on a curfew that is enforced legally?
Should recycling be mandatory in society?
Should the government make it easier for youth to get their driver’s license?
Should High School exams be removed?
Thesis # 2
Part 2: Using Quotes (18 marks 6 marks per quote)
Read Part 2: Using Quotes in the Literary Studies 11 First Assignment Reading Booklet
Use the Literary Studies 11 Fairy Tales Readings provided with your first assignment to complete this part of the assignment. Please read through the three fairy tales and complete the questions below.
Here is an example of what you need to do for each of these questions:
Question: From the story “Goldilocks and the Three Bears”, choose a quote or quotes to support the thesis that Goldilocks is a whiner. You must set up the context and explain the relevance.
Answer: Goldilocks, of “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” fame, is an unpleasant, whiny character; all she does is complain throughout the entire story. For example, while stealing someone else’s breakfast, she complains about the temperature, saying, “This porridge is too hot!”, and “This porridge is too cold,”. It seems very ungrateful to be complaining about a free breakfast!
Each question is worth 6 marks. You may choose direct quotes that are said by characters, or indirect quotes from the text.
Choose a quote or quotes from Jack and the Beanstalk to show that the ogre is a bloodthirsty murder. You must set up the context and explain the relevance.
Find a quote or two from Hansel and Gretel to show that Hansel is a brave boy. Don’t forget to set up the context and explain the relevance.
Find a quote from Hansel and Gretel to show that the step-mother is wicked. Context and relevance please!
Part 3: Paragraph Writing (36 marks)
In Literary Studies 11, you will be responding to a number of works of literature. Here is your chance to practice responding to literature by putting together all of the skills you learned in this assignment. Write a multi-paragraph response that demonstrates all of those writing skills we just worked on. Your response should include at minimum a short intro paragraph, a main body paragraph, and a concluding paragraph.
Read the article “How the Internet Has Changed Bullying” by Maria Konnikova (included in this zip file) and answer the following question:
How does environment affect bullying in our society?
Remember that environment not only includes where you live, but where you work, online environments and schools.
Your response to this question should use the skills we developed throughout this assignment. Please take a look at the marking rubric below to be aware of what should be included in your response.
Insert your response here.
Literary Essay Rubric (Holistic Rubric)
Please note: A plagiarized essay will receive a 0
Sophisticated thesis reveals an in-depth analysis of the text
Sound thesis demonstrates a plausible interpretation of the text
Clear thesis demonstrates some interpretive comprehension of the text
Thesis demonstrates a basic understanding of the text
Thesis is so general/simple it does not need development ; an obvious fact
No evidence of a thesis OR the thesis does not demonstrate a reading of the text
Exhibits a sophisticated and coherent structure through skillful placement of ideas and effective transitioning
Exhibits a coherent structure with logical placement of ideas and smooth transitions
Exhibits a logical structure and has relatively smooth transitions
Exhibits a rudimentary structure that has fairly smooth transitions combined with some choppy ones
Much of the essay seems out of order, illogical and has very few transitions
Essay has little to no sense of logical order
Support & Focus
Ideas are original, clearly developed and supported with effective, relevant, and specific references in order to analyze the text
4 Citations, correctly placed and used
Ideas are developed, making use of relevant and specific references in order to interpret the text
4 Citations, perhaps some error in use
Most ideas are developed, with interpretation of the text, making use of relevant and specific references from the text
Ideas are briefly developed, using some relevant and specific references from the text combined with paraphrasing/summary
3 Citations, perhaps some error in use
Most ideas are undeveloped, repetitive, or supported only with summary of text 2 -3 Citations, perhaps some error in use
Ideas are undeveloped, unsupported, or supported with irrelevant text or summary
Innovative, original introduction that indicates writer’s grasp of topic, purpose and audience
Pulls the reader into the piece, introduces the text and thesis
Standard lead and introduction to thesis – (it works)
Lead is attempted,
introducing the text and thesis
Lead is attempted,
but does little to introduce essay
Too short, non-existent, or unfitting for the essay
Writer “comes to a conclusion”, leaving reader satisfied and thinking
Writer “comes to a conclusion” about thesis/text, leaving reader satisfied
Writer “comes to a conclusion”, ties essay together
Restates thesis, may be superficial
Short or superficial, just tacked on the end
Non-existent or does not make a point
Utilizes terminology appropriate to genre, chooses distinct words, and varies sentence length and grammatical structure to create an original and confident voice both fitting to the purpose of the essay and intended audience
Utilizes terminology appropriate to genre, makes conscious word choice, and varies some sentence length and grammatical structure to create a convincing voice
Utilizes terminology appropriate to genre, and varies some sentence length and grammatical structure; voice is stronger in some parts of essay
Attempts to utilize terminology appropriate to genre, experiments with varied sentence length and grammatical structure; a hint of voice is present in essay
Writing shows little awareness of varying grammatical structures or word choice to fit purpose of essay; voice may only be present in lead and conclusion
No voice and no awareness of audience demonstrated ; sentences are awkward, rambling, fragmented and/or confusing
Mastery of conventions: no spelling, punctuation or format errors (including MLA format & citing text)
Strong conventions: correct format; one or two reasonable errors
in punctuation, verb tense, spelling, and/or MLA format
A few grade-appropriate errors in format, spelling, punctuation, verb tense, or MLA format
Some grade-appropriate errors combined with careless errors in spelling, conventions, editing or MLA format
Frequent spelling/editing typing and MLA format errors
Too many errors in spelling, conventions, or MLA format to be considered a final draft
Congratulations on completing this First Assignment. Please email this assignment to email@example.com in a word document format when you are ready to submit it.[supanova_question]
5 Running head: BROCHURE ON PARENTS PROSPECTS TO CHILDREN 1 Brochure on
Running head: BROCHURE ON PARENTS PROSPECTS TO CHILDREN 1
Brochure on Parents Prospects to Children
Parents are described as being significant people in the lives of their newly born babies. However, during early stages, kids are learning and depend on their parents for care, support and protection. Though parents are usually occupied with a lot of expectation about their babies recounting natures, most of them lack awareness on the best way to offer to them.
Maternal and Initial Age/Years
Timely aging is critical to the growth and the upcoming health of the baby. The Scotland’s main rule documents see the significance of a timely year’s emphasis and initial intervention. Delivering or giving children a resilient and firm basis during the initial years improves the strategic components of progress and it improves the communication, corporal abilities and harmonization, learning abilities, demonstrative health and welfare (Asher & Price 2015).
Growth and advancement on health variations from initial to 6 years
Consequently, the early stages of development oversee the larger period of growth for any kid/child. The subsequent could be common aspects during the early development:
Sound shaped sentences with a decent variety of vocabulary
Speech is simple to understand
A child might be monitored
Directives when doing a particular exercise
The child might use language in diverse means, for instance, they may be preliminary in discussing thoughts and offering opinions.
Time, when Speech Sounds, Seems Developed
One of the major assignment as a speech linguistic pathologist is recognizing when a communication error appears to be progressive and non-developmental. Progressive, indicating suitable error built on the kid’s age, and non-developing, which could then require to be spoken in communication remedy/therapy. Speech in thorough norms are implements that communication linguistic pathologist (SLP’s) uses to aid direct them in finding which errors seems to be developmentally suitable and which faults appears not (Romberg & Saffran 2017).
However, at birth, a child might communicate/connect with you in;
Societal and emotional growth
Hearing and able to see
Use of language for communication
Speech and linguistic
Symbols that suggest growth difficulties
Where to attain assistance
Activities/ things to recall
Can sense, but not reflect
Smile by six to eight weeks
Teasing out loudly by four months
In conclusion, a child’s growth involves the biological, mental and expressive modifications that arise in human beings, amongst delivery and the inference of puberty, as someone develops from dependence to collective autonomy. Hence, seem to be an unceasing process with a foreseeable order, until now having a distinctive course for each kid.
Asher, J. J., & Price, B. S. (2015) the learning strategy of the total physical response: Some age differences. Child Development, 1219-1227.
Romberg, A. R., & Saffran, J. R. (2017) Statistical learning and language acquisition, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1(6), 906-914.[supanova_question]
For this paper you will compare and contract Action-Oriented vs Insight-Oriented Approaches when it comes to counseling. What does