Racism in criminal justice

Racism in criminal justice.

For full credit, you are expected to use other sources as well.  It is unlikely that you can do so with the minimum number of words.  Also, you must follow APA Standards, as described below:• Times Roman 12 pt Font• Double-spaced• Do not include a cover page• Proper in-text citations• Proper REFERENCE page.[supanova_question]

Notes on Fish 1995 on race Fish, Jefferson. M. (1995). Mixed blood.

Notes on Fish 1995 on race

Fish, Jefferson. M. (1995). Mixed blood. Psychology Today, 28(6), 55-61, 76, 80.

Begins with an anecdote about his Brazilian daughter and her boyfriend when they visited the USA.

Notes old discussion about whether black-white to group differences in scores on IQ tests reflect racial differences in intelligence. In debates like the one over race and IQ, both sides often make unwarranted assumption that there is a biological entity called “race”. If there were such an entity, then it would at least be possible that differences in behaviour between “races” might be biologically based. 56.

If race is not a biologically meaningful concept, then looking for biologically-based racial differences in behaviour is simply a waste of time.

What is race? Question can be divided into two more limited questions. Anthropologists have known the answers for a long time, but other disciplines seem not to have gotten it. 56.

1. “How can we understand the variation in physical appearance among human beings?” Americans (regular people and researchers as well) view only a part of the variation as racial, while other equally evident variability is not so viewed.

2. “How can we understand the kinds of racial classifications applied to differences in physical appearance among human beings?” Surprisingly, different cultures labelled these physical differences in different ways. The North American racial categories = only one among many culture-specific schemes for reducing uncertainty about how people should respond to other people. The fact that [North] Americans believe that Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and whites constituted biological entities called races is a matter of cultural interest rather than scientific substance. It tells us something about American culture, but not about the human species.

Short answer to “what is race?” is that it is a myth. Our racial classification scheme is loaded with pure fantasy. [5 minutes plus a few seconds into the Race: The Power of an Illusion doc, they also say it’s a myth ascribed to biology.]

Human beings are a species. This means we can mate with people from anywhere else and produce fertile offspring. The species evolved in Africa. Populations that were geographically separated came to differ in physical appearance through three major pathways: mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Mutations occur randomly and accumulate over time in separate populations. Geographical environments. But most variability likely results from purely random factors. Random change in frequencies of already existing genes is known as genetic drift. 56. Mere fact of physical separation will over time lead to it equivalent populations to differ in frequency of genes. [Think of the exercise of looking at differences in mitochondrial DNA.] Differences accumulate over successive generations along with others due to mutation or natural selection.

[Film on Race: The Power of an Illusion asks how variations are mapped along racial lines.] Some differences in physical appearance among human populations appear to have adaptive value. People in African and South American tropics developed dark skins, presumably through natural selection, as protection against the sun. In higher latitudes, darker places, people developed light skins that make maximum use of sunlight to produce vitamin D.

Says indigenous peoples of the New World arrived about 15,000 years ago, through the Bering Strait. Dark-skinned Indians of South American tropics descended from light-skinned ancestors similar in appearance to the Eskimo [now the correct term is Inuit]. 57. Despite being considered a key marker of race in North America, it is subject to relatively rapid evolutionary change. [Discussion in the film, 25:50 minutes in, on skin color being geographically distributed/accounted for.]

Epicanthic fold of eyelid skin, which Americans view is racial, evolved and Asian populations to protect the eyes from the cold. Exists among South American native peoples because its presence (unlike light skin) offers no reproductive disadvantage. “Hence, skin colour and eyelid form, which Americans think of as traits of different races, ocurr together or separately in different populations.” 57.

There are other physical differences that evolved through natural selection that Americans do not think of as racial. E.g. body shape. In cold climates, people like the [Inuit] developed rounded bodies, with less surface area to radiate heat. In very hot climates, people like the Maasaai developed lanky bodies with high ratio of surface area to volume, capable of radiating heat quickly.

Our categories for the racial classification of people arbitrarily include certain dimensions (light versus dark skin) and exclude others (rounded versus delegated bodies). For us lanky and rounded people are simply two kinds of whites, or two kinds of blacks… But it would make equal sense to view light-skinned people and dark skinned people as two kinds of lankys or two kinds of roundeds. There is no biological basis for classifying race according to skin colour instead of body form — or according to any other variable, for the matter. All that exists is variability in what people look like — and the arbitrary and culturally specific ways different societies classify that variability. There is nothing left over that can be called race. This is why race is a myth.

Skin colour and body form do not vary together. Dark skinned people can be lanky or rounded. So can lighter-skinned people. Same can be said of facial features that Americans think of as racial – eye colour, nose width (actually, the ratio of width to length), lip thickness, hair form, and hair colour. They do not vary together. If they did, then a “totally white” person would have very light skin colour, straight blond hair, blue eyes, a narrow nose, and thin lips. A “totally black” person would have very dark skin colour, black tight curly hair, dark brown eyes, a broad nose, and thick lips. But these features combine in all kinds of ways in locations with diverse populations. [I believe in the film they spoke of this as coordination…that the features are not coordinated.]

Human species spent most of its existence in Africa, so different populations in Africa have been separated from each other longer than East Asians or northern Europeans have been separated from each other or from Africans. [This point comes up in the film, 46:25 in.] Hence there is remarkable physical variation among peoples of Africa. Yet Americans view them all as belonging to the same race 57. (Compare very tall Masai of Kenya with diminutive, steatopygous Pygmies of southern Africa.) “By viewing Africans as constituting a single race, Americans ignore their greater physical variability, while assigning racial significance to lesser differences between them.

True: most inhabitants of northern Europe, East Asia, and Central Africa looked like Americans conceptions of one or another of the three purported races (19th century view, splitting humanity into Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid races). But most inhabitants of South Asia, Southwest Asia, North Africa, and the Pacific islands do not. What is now known about human physical variation does not correspond to what Americans think of his race. Back to one of the two original questions, the one regarding the social practices of classification: beyond actual physical variation among humans, there’s a question of how people classify that variation. 58.

Discusses scientific taxonomies as opposed to folk taxonomies. Examples of the former: periodic table of elements, or biologists’ classifications of life forms into kingdoms, phyla and so forth. Avocado — a fruit or vegetable? North Americans insist it is a vegetable. We eat it in salads with oil and vinegar. Brazilians treated as fruit and eat it as dessert with lemon juice and sugar. = Folk taxonomies.

When we ask questions about race, the answers we get come from folk taxonomies, not from scientific taxonomies. Classifying people as white or black is like classifying avocados as fruit or vegetables.

Americans believe in “blood”, a folk term for the quality presumed to be carried by members of so-called races. And the way offspring — regardless of their physical appearance — always inherit the less prestigious racial category of mixed parentage is called “hypo-descent” by anthropologists. Purported racial categories are arranged in hierarchy from most prestigious (white), through an intermediary forms (Asian), to the least prestigious (black). Children are classified as belonging to the less prestigious category, regardless of the children’s physical appearance. [Americans– and I’ll include Canadians here — would classify Colin Powell and Tiger Woods as black.] 58

[No pg 59]

Blood doesn’t behave like genes. Genes are units that cannot be subdivided. If eight genes determine a certain trait, a child gets four from each parent. If a mother and father each have the hypothetical genes BBBBWWWW, then a child could be born with any combination of B and W genes, from BBBBBBBB to WWWWWWWW. In contrast, “blood” behaves like a uniform and continues entity can be divided into indefinitely — e.g. quadroons and octoroons are said to be people who have one quarter and 1/8 black “blood”. In America, because of hypo-descent, America’s consider people with 1/8 black “blood” to be black rather than white, despite their having 7/8 white “blood”. 60. [See Race film, 15:35 minutes in]

[Possible kids of a BBBBWWWW X BBBBWWWW pair. Note it’s for 8 genes—or four pairs of genes. Begin with gametes: could be BBBB, or BBBW, or BBWW, or BWWW, or BWBB, or BWBW, or BWWB, WBBB, or WBBW, or WBWW, or WBWB, WWWW, or WWBB, or WWBW, or WWWB, or WBWB, or

or…up to 16 possible combinations of Ws and Bs. If you’ve got a zygote, then the combinations go up to 256.

[See https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/researchers-identify-huma/]

And http://www.gbhealthwatch.com/Trait-Skin-Color.php]

Hypo-descent: informative about ancestry (specifically, parental classification) rather than physical appearance. Somebody with non- “African”-appearing physical features would be considered black if he or she has a parent classified as black. The category “passing for white” includes many such people. [Think of the Race documentary reference to the WIN tribe, 18 minutes into the documentary.] “Americans have the curious belief that people who look white but have a parent classified as black are “really” black in some biological sense, and are being deceptive if they present themselves as white.”

In contrast the very different taxonomy of race in Brazil. Portuguese word that corresponds to the American “race” is”tipo” (type). 60. There are lots of tipos in Brazil. Focuses on Salvador, Bahia taxonomy, where people are understood to be made up of African and European features.

Proceeding along dimension from “whitest” to the “blackest” tipos, loura is whiter-than-white, with straight blond hair, blue or green eyes, light skin colour, narrow nose, and thin lips. Brazilians in the USA who think that loura means ‘blonde’ are surprised to find that the American term refers to hair colour only. Branca has light skin colour, eyes of any colour, hair of any colour or form except tight curly, a nose that is not broad, and lips that are not thick. The term “branca” translates as “white”, but Brazilians of this tipo who come to the United States are often dismayed to find that they are not considered white there, but are rather viewed as Hispanic, despite the fact that they speak Portuguese.

A morena has brown or black hair that is wavy or curly but not tight curly, tanned skin, a nose that is not narrow, and lips that are not thin. Brazilians who come to the States think that a morena is a “brunette”, and are surprised to find a brunettes are considered white but ”morenas” are not. In turn, Americans don’t know whether to classify morenas as black or as Hispanic. For Americans, appearance does not suffice… They want to know where the person comes from, what language they speak at home, their maiden name, or crudely, what they are.

A mulata looks like a morena, except with tight curly hair and slightly darker range of hair colours and skin colours. A preta looks like a mulata, except with dark brown skin, broad nose, and thick lips.

Other tipos in Brazil: considered neither black nor white.

Sarara: a person with tight curly blonde (or read) hair, light skin, do (or green) eyes, broad nose, and thick lips.

Cabo verde: straight black hair, dark skin, brown eyes, narrow nose, thin lips.

More difficult categories in Brazil:

loura

– whiter than white, straight blond hair, blue or gree eyes, light skin color, narrow nose, thin lips. (Brazilians surprised ‘blond’ applies only to hair color…)

branca

– light skin color, eyes of any color, hair of any color or form except tight curly, a nose that is not broad, and lips that are not thick. Translates as ‘white’, though branca Brazilians dismayed in the States when deemed not white but Hispanic…

morena

– brown or black hair that is not tight curly, tan skin, nose that is not narrow, lips that are not thin. They think morena is translated as brunette, but are surprised to find that brunettes are considered white but morenas are not. Americans have trouble classifying morenas – are they black or Hispanic?

mulata

– looks like morena, except with tight curly hair and slightly darker range of hair and skin colors.

preta

– looks like mulata, but with dark brown skin, broad nose, thick lips. For Americans, mulatas and pretas are both black, and if pressed would go for terms such as light-skinned and dark-skinned blacks… 277

sarará

– tight curly blond or red hair, light skin, blue or green eyes, broad nose, thick lips

cabo verde

– straight black hair, dark skin, brown eyes, narrow nose, thin lips…

Kinds of whites

Kinds of blacks

Brazilian tipos

Loura

Branca

Morena

Mulata

Preta

USA (looking at Brazilians)

Kinds of whites

Kinds of blacks

Fish’s daughter said she was black because she had “black blood”, though she is a morena in Brazil. Her boyfriend said he was not black because, in Brazilian terms he was a mulato (and he was assuming that only pretos were black).

The American system tells you about how people’s parents are classified but not what they look like. The Brazilian system tells you what they look like but not about their parents. When two parents of intermediate appearance have many children in the United States, the children are all of one race; in Brazil they are of many tipos.

None of these folk taxonomies correspond to the facts of human physical variation. This is why race is a myth.

There’s a discussion of the heritability of certain features, such as IQ. Not a clear discussion. Within populations, those with higher IQs tend to have higher-IQ children than those with low IQs. It is possible that the link between the IQs of parents and children may exist for reasons that are not entirely environmental. This doesn’t contradict the average social advantages of American whites as a group compared to the average social disadvantages of American Blacks as a group. Differences in social environments can easily account for differences in the average test scores between the two groups.

But seeking to find biological rather than social causes for differences in behaviour between populations of Whites and Blacks make the mistake of assuming that these populations are in a biological sense subunits of the human species.

Diagnostic question: ask researchers how they know that the white subjects are really white and the black subjects are really black. There is no biological answer to this question, because race as a biological category does not exist. Ask the question and you will get a social rather than biological answer.

Immigrants to the States are often perplexed/dismayed to find that the ways they classify themselves and others are irrelevant to the American reality. Immigration and intermarriage have increased. American folk taxonomies of race are beginning to change to accommodate this new reality. [Note that this article is more than 20 years old.]

“Understanding that different cultures have different folk taxonomies suggest that we respond to the question “What race is that person?” Not by “Black” or “White,” but by “Where?” And “When?”[supanova_question]

Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically Thinking Rhetorically about a Text Questions for Rhetorical Analysis

Racism in criminal justice Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically

Thinking Rhetorically about a Text

Questions for Rhetorical Analysis

Conducting a Rhetorical Analysis

How does the author appeal to logos? What is his main claim and what are his reasons?

What does he use for evidence? What ideas would you have to include in a short summary?

What appeals to pathos does the author make in this argument? How well are these suited to the readers of the publication in which the argument was originally printed?

How would you characterize the author’s ethos? Does he seem knowledgeable and credible? Does he seem fair to stakeholders in this controversy?

Consider additional foci from the “Questions for Rhetorical Analysis” handout to apply to the argument. How does these questions expand your understanding of the author’s argument?

What strikes you as problematic memorable, or disturbing in this argument?[supanova_question]

artt 115 drawing

I JUST NEED A ROUGH SKETCH PLEASE
Complete final drawing on 18″ x 24″ drawing paper and submit to final conference for critique.
Correcting/Critiquing Your Drawing
How do you decide your drawing is finished? The first step is to take a step back and use your third eye—the critic. The original act of drawing was on the intuitive level; now you begin the process of critical analysis.
Step away from your artwork for a while; get a fresh look by taking in some fresh air, away from your art. Now turn the drawing upside down and look at it in a mirror. You’ll be amazed at how different the composition looks and how quickly inaccurate aspects of your drawing—like inconsistent perspective or incorrect symmetry—will become apparent.
Look for balance. Lopsided teacups or plate ellipses reveal themselves when a drawing is upside down. The fresh viewpoint allows you to be more aware of the drawing’s formal qualities, regardless of the subject you have chosen.
You may need to check your proportions with sighting and measuring to correct any problems. Check that all ellipses are drawn correctly.
Check that you have a fixed eye level and parallel planes are meeting at a single point on the horizon line
Foreshortening can be a problem if we have relied on what we think we know about an object receding in space instead of using sighting and contour techniques. Use a critical eye to check all foreshortened objects in your drawing.
Have you given attention to both positive and negative space? Has the arrangement of objects resulted in some interesting negative space?
Have you used overlapping in your composition?
Go over your contour and inner contour lines to find all indents, folds, and bumps.
Have you used line variation that describes form, volume, and space?
Your final drawing uses value to show volume. Have you accomplished this by indicating highlight, light, shadow, core shadow, and cast shadow? Adding textured detail after you have drawn the tonal volume is important, because the texture alone will not describe this volume.
Are there objects of varying size and character? Are both regular and irregular shapes or objects represented in your composition?
Does each part of the composition connect to something else in the picture? Do you repeat shapes or variations of shapes for harmony?

done
Seen
few seconds ago[supanova_question]

SOSC 4040 Some notes on economic growth A distinctive feature of modern

SOSC 4040 Some notes on economic growth

A distinctive feature of modern societies is sustained exponential economic growth. “Sustained” here does not mean uninterrupted—modern societies have experienced periodic recessions and depressions. What distinguishes modern societies from all others, however, is economic growth of greater than 1% per year compounded over decades, resulting in the doubling of GDP within the span of a human lifetime, and which has persisted (despite occasional downturns) for more than five generations. It also does not mean “sustainable”. As we will see toward the end of the course, there is good reason to believe that modern growth neither can, nor ought to, persist much longer, but for now our focus is on the origins of modern growth.

Economic growth refers to an increase in production or output. We can speak of total production or of production per capita, and it is important (as we will see) to distinguish these concepts. Production per capita can also be expressed as average income, so long as you keep in mind a couple of provisos.

First, “income” here does not necessarily consist of money. In premodern societies, relatively little production passes through the market, and even in modern societies “income” in the economic sense includes the value of goods and services that people and households produce for themselves or others that do not pass through the market. Little non-market production gets counted in official GDP statistics, but historical economists who estimate “GDP” values for premodern societies impute the cash value (in today’s currency) of goods that were not bought and sold (such as food, clothing and shelter that peasant households produced for themselves).

Second, average (mean) income is not the same as median income, or the income of a “typical” person. It sometimes happens that the income of a large percent of the population stays the same or declines, even as production per capita, or average income, increases.

Finally, it is important to keep in mind that economic growth rate is not the same as the level of production or economic activity. “Growth” refers to change over time. A rapidly growing economy is not necessarily a prosperous one. A small increase in production can represent large percentage growth in a low-income economy. Conversely, a high-income country where the level of production and consumption per capita remains constant over time would exhibit zero economic growth. Hence when “secular stagnation” theorist Robert Gordon (2012) predicts that the US economy will return to pre-industrial levels of economic growth, he does not mean that per capita production and consumption levels will return to pre-industrial levels. He just means that current average incomes in the US will remain more or less the same indefinitely. When Adam Smith argues (Wealth of Nations Bk I ch 8) that the working class is better off in a growing than a “stationary” economy he is thus necessarily implying that the working class receives a larger share of the distribution of income in a growing than in a stationary economy, not merely that everyone is better off in a growing economy.

Kinds of growth

Economic historians distinguish between different kinds of growth. The first division is between extensive and intensive growth. Extensive growth involves an increase in the total output of a society that is due to, or that results in, corresponding population growth, so that output (hence average income) per capita remains static (or even declines). Intensive growth involves an increase in output that exceeds the rate of population growth resulting in an increase in output per capita. Only intensive growth makes it possible to raise the standard of living of the ordinary person, though whether or not it does so depends on how the increase is distributed. Modern growth is a kind of intensive growth. Periods of intensive growth were relatively infrequent and short lived in pre-modern societies, though these periods were often followed by longer periods in which the resulting higher levels of prosperity (though not of growth) were maintained.

Extensive growth is often referred to as Malthusian growth, after the English clergyman and economist Thomas Malthus (1766-1834). Malthus argued that expansion of production allows a society to support more people. This typically results in larger families, so that population growth quickly outstrips growth in production. As result, unless there is a damper on reproduction (which for Malthus meant late marriage), increasing production would not result in an improvement in overall prosperity but only in an ever-growing number of people living at the edge of subsistence. Note that Malthus assumes diminishing (or at least static) marginal labour productivity—otherwise, increased production would at least keep up with population growth, as the number of hands to grow food would keep up with the number of mouths to feed. Under conditions of static technology that assumption is reasonable because of natural resource constraints. Population growth can increase the number of hands to grow food and the area of land farmed, but once the most fertile land is occupied, the additional land brought under cultivation will yield less food per pair of hands (as was pointed out by Malthus’s contemporary, the economist David Ricardo).

As a prediction about what is possible, Malthus’s theory is widely regarded as a spectacular failure, since it was written at the beginning of two centuries of intensive growth. At present, there are about 7 times more people on Earth than in Malthus’s day, and more of them are suffering from obesity than from starvation. Malthus’s view did describe much of human history pretty accurately, though. Roughly between the Neolithic Revolution (the invention of agriculture) and the Industrial Revolution the “gross world product” increased by perhaps 100 times while the GWP per capita hardly budged for centuries at a time. All increases in production resulted in and/or resulted from equivalent increases in population.

This does not mean that nobody benefitted from extensive/Malthusian growth. Extensive growth was accompanied by the rise of stratified societies and of states. Peasants, who constituted the great majority of the population, lived at the edge of subsistence but produced a small surplus that was appropriated by a small ruling class. So long as the population increased faster than the size of the ruling class, the ruling class could get richer without increasing per capita production or increasing the level of surplus appropriation. Larger populations also make possible larger armies for fighting wars with rival states, and vast crews for constructing spectacular monuments such as the Great Pyramids.

Intensive growth involves growth in production per capita. Many premodern civilizations underwent temporary periods of intensive growth which raised their per capita product to a higher plateau but which did not generate the sustained exponential growth associated with modernity. Goldstone (2002) calls these premodern periods of increasing prosperity “efflorescences”. Notable efflorescences include ancient Rome (most rapidly from about 100 BCE to about 100 CE, with subsequent gradual contraction offset with periodic revivals, especially in the eastern part of the empire, until about 530 CE), the Abbasid “golden age” (about 760-900), Song dynasty China (around 1000-1200), the medieval European “cathedral age” (about 1100-1340), Mesoamerica in the classical Mayan period (about 250-900) then in central Mexico in the 1400s, mid-Ming China (around 1500), high Mughal India (about 1550-1700) and the Dutch “golden age” (around 1600-1800). Goldstone also includes as efflorescences mid-Qing China (1700s) and the first industrial revolution in Britain (around 1770-1830), though the former was a period of rapid extensive but not intensive growth, and the latter is conventionally regarded as representing the beginnings of modern growth. Goldstone argues that the “great divergence” (the beginning of modern growth) does not occur until the 1830s, when fossil fuels are first widely adopted as sources of energy in production. We will have a lot to read in this course on the debates about the beginning of modern growth.

There are several ways to think about the concept of intensive growth. One way is to think of total production increasing, without a corresponding increase in population. Economist Lemin Wu (2015) points out that in the Malthusian model, population is a function of production of subsistence goods (i.e. goods necessary for survival such as food, clothing and shelter). If the increased production takes the form of luxury goods, the population cannot expand (starvation would continue to cap the population at the current level) but at least some of the population would enjoy a higher standard of living by virtue of the increased production.

One implication of Wu’s model is that a pre-industrial society can either be richer and smaller or bigger and poorer, depending on the allocation of resources and labour between subsistence and luxury goods. To the extent that larger groups will tend to defeat and conquer or displace smaller groups, Malthusian growth will tend to prevail over intensive growth. Indeed, we’ve seen that some ancient Chinese political philosophers advised rulers to encourage agriculture (especially grain production) over commerce and luxury manufactures precisely because producing more subsistence goods would result in a more populous (hence more powerful) state. On the other hand, Wu argues that because there was more room for productivity improvement in the luxury sector, a polity with business-friendly policies (such as the Roman empire or Song dynasty China) would become richer without reallocation away from subsistence. (For example, even if a constant 20% of the workforce was engaged in luxury production, the output of that 20% would grow more quickly than the output of the 80% engaged in subsistence production, leading to an increase in luxury goods as a share of total output.)

Nevertheless, one could argue that where some of the subsistence goods produced by peasants are redistributed (via taxation etc.) to those who produce luxury goods and services for the ruling class, there is in effect reallocation of resources to luxury production. In ancient Rome, there was a tiny but immensely wealthy ruling class, and also a mass market for luxuries such as olive oil, wine, manufactured ceramic and silver ware, tile roofing, public baths with hot running water, etc., available to an urban middle class and even to some peasants. After the fall of the Roman empire those luxury goods were no longer widely available, but analysis of skeletal remains indicates that ordinary people were healthier and better nourished than they were during the more prosperous Roman period (Erdkamp 2016). Deng (2013) attributes the Song period efflorescence in China to a government policy of producing luxury goods to send to the warlike but less developed neighbouring nations in return for peace (a strategy that did not end well for the Song dynasty). We will return to the issues raised by these remarks when we take up the debate over the impetus for surplus production.

Another way to think about intensive growth is in terms of increased production per capita. Production per capita = average work per capita (e.g. in hours of work per year) x average labour productivity (average value of output per hour worked). Intensive growth, in other words, is due to some combination of people working longer and harder on average, and people working more productively. Let us consider these two dimensions in turn.

Amount of work. As cited in Broadberry (2015), some scholars have noted that the industrial revolutions in northwestern Europe and Japan were preceded by what they called an “industrious revolution”, marked by an increase in number of hours per year of work. Why would people increase the amount that they work? In the case of Europe, the rise of Protestantism (in the 1500s) reduced the number of holidays per year. Moreover, in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905) sociologist Max Weber famously adduced other psychological and cultural reasons why Protestantism (especially in its Calvinist forms) might have caused people to work harder and in a more “rationalized” way. But this hardly accounts for the broader phenomenon.

Industrialization (even of the rudimentary pre-modern sort) presupposes that agricultural workers produce enough of a surplus to feed a non-agricultural workforce. What would induce them to do so? There is a longstanding debate between proponents of what we might call “pull” and “push” answers.

According to the “pull” theory, it is human nature to want to increase one’s level of consumption by production and exchange. Farmers produce a surplus so they can sell or exchange crops for consumer goods. This “pull” explanation is favoured by those who regard capitalism as something that emerges more or less naturally in the absence of obstacles.

Proponents of the “push” explanation argue that people naturally have limited desires, and that they will only produce a surplus if they are compelled to do so. Peasants have to work hard to produce the food, clothing and shelter they require, and produce a small surplus to trade for necessities they cannot make for themselves. Once they have produced enough, according to this latter view, they prefer to use their time relaxing and socializing than working to accumulate stuff. Moreover, if anyone were to accumulate more wealth than their fellows, they would be expected to share it. There is, therefore, no impetus for increased production in peasant society so long as people have secure access to land and other means of production. People produce more than they need to subsist only to the extent that they are exploited by a ruling class, and they only try to increase their surplus production if forced to do so by competition. Ellen Wood’s (1998) explanation for the origins of capitalism, which we read in this course, exemplifies the “push” approach.

Mark Koyama’s (2016) position in debates about the ancient Roman economy exemplifies the “pull” approach. Why, historians ask, did the European economy (e.g., the production of the luxury goods mentioned earlier) collapse after the fall of the Roman imperial state? One view, that Koyama criticizes, is that the Roman economy had been stimulated by government spending (funded by coercive taxation), and when the government fell, that stimulus ended. However, as Koyama point out, there are a couple of problems with that explanation.

In the first place, the Roman state at its largest employed less than 2% of the empire’s population (most state employees were soldiers; the rest included various officials, administrators, and their staffs, as well as workers in arms and armour factories). Roman public sector spending constituted a much smaller slice of GDP than does the public sector spending of any present day developed country. This suggests the economy was dependent on public spending only in a few localities (e.g. cities established as administrative and military centres in previously less developed frontier regions of the empire).

More significantly, though, the criticized explanation assumes that there would not have been enough private demand to support a large non-subsistence sector in the absence of government spending. Government spending came from tax revenues. Had people not been taxed, would they not have spent that money, to the same effect, anyway? Here we come back to the “push” versus “pull” debate. According to Koyama’s pull thesis, peasants do not have to be forced by government tax collectors to produce a surplus. If there is a market—that is, if consumer goods are available for sale—peasants will produce a surplus to sell in order to buy consumer goods, and the producers of consumer goods will use the income generated thereby to purchase food produced by peasants. According to Koyama’s “pull” view, it is—as Adam Smith put it—human nature to “truck, barter and exchange”, to buy and sell, to make more than is necessary for survival in order to consume. People do not need to be “pushed” into producing a surplus; the welcome opportunity to make and spend money will “pull” them to do so. Government taxing and spending was unnecessary, as well as insufficient, to stimulate the Roman efflorescence.

Why, then, did the economy collapse when the Roman state did? Koyama argues that the Roman state provided the institutional background conditions for a thriving market economy—law and order, security, and decent infrastructure (such as well-maintained roads and bridges). When those conditions disappeared, buying and selling became difficult and dangerous. Only then did it become rational for peasants to stop producing much more than the necessities of their own subsistence and seek satisfaction in spending more time on relaxation and conviviality.

A defender of the push thesis might reply that Koyama overlooks the most salient aspects of the Roman economy. It was not only the tax collectors that forced Roman agricultural workers produce a surplus. The Roman empire was a highly stratified society. Most of the good agricultural land was owned by wealthy landlords (some vastly wealthier than others). At the top of the ladder, an aristocrat living in Rome would own vast estates and plantations in a half dozen or more different provinces. These estates were run as profitable businesses. The most intensively cultivated lands, especially those devoted to specialty crops (e.g. vineyards), were worked by thousands of slaves. Enslaved agricultural workers were obviously “pushed” to produce a large surplus over their own consumption by means of brute force. The less intensively cultivated lands, devoted to mixed farming, were worked by tenant peasants. These peasants were not enslaved, but they had to pay high rents to their landlords. So they, too, were “pushed” to produce a surplus even if they were not interested in purchasing consumer goods themselves. Meanwhile, the spending of landlord elites on real luxury goods (as well as ordinary consumer goods for their households) drove the thriving urban economies of the Roman efflorescence. When the empire fell, it became difficult or impossible for rich absentee landlords to maintain control over their far-flung real estate holdings, their revenues dried up, and urban economies (and urban populations) contracted accordingly. For rural populations, the lightened burden of exploitation might have made up for the disappearance of consumer goods.

It is also worth considering how the use of unfree labour in commodity production might have sufficiently reduced the price of some consumer goods as to make it worth while for free workers to produce a surplus for the market. That point is relevant not only to ancient Rome but also to the early modern (~ 1650-1850) trans-Atlantic economy, in which enslaved labour played an even bigger part.

Although the specifics of these debates are literally “ancient history”, the positions that scholars take on them (such as the neoliberal views of Koyama and Wu, and Wood’s Marxian views) are certainly relevant to current issues in business and society.

Productivity of work. Factors affecting how long and hard people worked might have been significant at certain points in shifting the trajectory of development, and still have a modest effect on differences in GDP per capita between countries at a similar level of development today (e.g. between the US and Germany). However, if we are interested in the differences in prosperity between modern and premodern eras, or between richer and poorer countries today, how much people work is insignificant compared to how much people are able to produce per unit of work. The amount of value produced by a unit of labour is called labour productivity. Labour productivity is a function of organization and technology. For example, the laziest worker operating a backhoe will be able to move many times more earth in a day than the most zealous worker with a shovel and wheelbarrow.

Kinds of intensive growth distinguished by scholars such as Goldstone operate mainly by affecting labour productivity. Goldstone distinguishes four kinds of growth. In addition to Malthusian (extensive) growth, which we have already discussed, he mentions Smithian, Schumpeterian and modern growth.

In this course we read some of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), so you will have an idea of what is meant by Smithian growth. Smith emphasizes markets, which permit gains through trade, economies of scale, and the division of labour (specialization). Neoclassical economists (though not so much Smith himself) point out that trade adds value even if it does not affect production. If I have something I don’t want but you do, and you have something you don’t want but I do, and we exchange, we are both better off (thus wealthier) even though nothing new has been produced. More importantly for Smith, division of labour can vastly increase labour productivity, as illustrated by his (fictional) pin factory example, even in the absence of any new technology. Smith notes that by dividing a task into elementary operations it also becomes easier to apply simple mechanization, but he does not emphasize what we would now call “research and development” or technological innovation.

Schumpeterian growth, named after Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950), is characterized by technological innovation, which results in radically new means of production and also new products. These new products and productive methods displace the old, rendering some businesses obsolete. Premodern efflorescences are characterized by both Smithian and Schumpeterian growth, but episodes of sustained cumulative technological progress are rare in premodern societies and seldom result in exponential growth in productivity. Goldstone argues that modern economic growth only sets in after fossil fuels start being widely harnessed as a power source for manufacturing and transportation in 1830s Britain. Modern growth consisted of rapid sustained Smithian and Schumpeterian growth fueled by fossil energy.

Technology and innovation

Technological innovation (i.e. invention and application of inventions) affects both how goods are produced and what goods are produced. The difference between our economy and that of 200 years ago is not just that we can produce vastly more stuff per person-hour of work, but that the stuff produced (such as smartphones, EVs and streaming entertainment) is itself technically advanced. One of the puzzles discussed in our course materials is what drives higher levels of technological innovation in some periods and places than in others. There are chicken-and-egg problems here, since technological progress is cumulative, and can be both a cause and an effect of economic forces.

Song dynasty China, and, slightly later, late medieval Europe were eras of elevated technical innovation. Why innovation stalled in China despite a head start is a perennial topic of scholarly debate (as we see in unit 10 of the course). Western Europe in 1000 CE was a relatively underdeveloped part of the world. In the 1100s, western Europe’s trade with the (then more technologically sophisticated) Middle East consisted of exporting raw materials such as lumber and iron, and importing manufactured goods such as soap, paper, textiles and glass. Between about 1250 and about 1450, this flow of manufactured goods reversed, with now equal or superior western European goods finding export markets in the Middle East (Cipolla 1993: 210).

Cipolla (1993: 140-59) notes that Europeans of that period were particularly open to adopting, applying and building on inventions from elsewhere (such as paper, windmills, firearms etc.). Late medieval Europe seems particularly to have taken to mechanical devices, as exemplified by the invention of the clock and the application of water and wind power to an ever-increasing number of manufacturing processes. Water mills for the grinding of grain existed in ancient times, but medieval producers adapted them to sawing, metal working, various stages of textile production, polishing, drilling and lathe turning etc. Technological innovations created by medieval craftspeople laid the foundation for the Scientific Revolution of the 1600-1700s and the Industrial Revolution of the late 1700s-1800s. Especially in regard to ocean sailing and armaments, these innovations also made possible global conquest and colonialism.

Colonialism

The relationship between colonialism and the Industrial Revolution is another perennial topic of debate. We touch on this topic from time to time in units 9-15. There is no question that from about 1500 – 1900, European colonial powers extracted vast amounts of wealth from their conquered territories overseas. In particular, British colonialism helped fund and provided both inputs and markets for early industry. On the other hand, as mentioned above, some of the early elements of the industrialization in western Europe have their roots in the period before colonialization and, indeed, made colonialization possible. Moreover, colonial wealth extraction does not necessarily give rise to economic growth, much less industrialization. Data reported by Broadberry (unit 10) indicate that the first European colonial powers, Portugal and Spain, saw little or no growth in GDP per capita during the relevant period. As we learned from Inikori (unit 9), silver and gold from Spanish colonies in Mexico and South America drove global trade, lubricated economic activity in both Europe and China (as well as spurring inflation in Europe) by increasing the money supply, and helped pay for rounds of European wars. The revenue was not, however, invested in Spanish industry. Indeed, it some Spaniards at the time boasted that, with its influx of treasure from the Americas, Spain had no need of domestic industry since it could import manufactured products it wanted from Italy, France, England and the Netherlands (Cipolla 1993: 239).

We need, therefore, to look at specific domestic factors to explain why colonialism coincided with upticks in production per capita first in the Netherlands and then Britain. The seeds of capitalist production had sprouted in those two countries prior to the colonial period. The first enclosures in England in the 1500s were connected with the export market for wool. Shortly thereafter, the Dutch and English economies turned to the export of finished goods and the import of raw materials from less developed parts of Europe (such as timber from Scandinavia and grain from Poland). British colonialism served to further the interests of British manufacturing by establishing captive providers of resources and captive markets for finished goods, as well as profits for reinvestment in industry. The nature of British colonialisms seems to have been shaped by the direction of the domestic economy at least as much as it shaped that direction.

Ultimately, explanations of modern growth must account for accumulating, exponential increases in productivity (output per worker-hour) and invention of novel products. These changes are not reducible either to mere increases in economic activity, nor to zero-sum extractions of wealth from one group by another, even if both commerce and exploitation are indispensible pieces of the puzzle.

Notes

Broadberry, Stephen (2015) “Accounting for the great divergence”

Cipolla, Carlo (1993) Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000-1700 3d ed

Deng, K. (2013) “Demystifying growth and development in North Song China, 960–1127

Erdkamp, P (2016) “Economic growth in the Roman Mediterranean world: An early good-bye to Malthus?” Explorations in Economic History 60: 1–20

Goldstone, Jack (2002) “Efflorescences and Economic Growth in World History: Rethinking the “Rise of the West” and the Industrial Revolution” Journal of World History 13(2): 323-389

Robert J. Gordon (2012) “Is U.S. Economic Growth Over? Faltering Innovation Confronts the Six Headwinds” NBER Working Paper No. 18315

Koyama, Mark (2016) Why did the Roman Economy Decline?, and “The Poverty of the Peasant Mode of Production”

Wood, Ellen M. (1998) “The agrarian origins of capitalism” Monthly Review 50(3)

Wu, L. (2015) “If Not Malthusian, Then Why?”[supanova_question]

Itn 263 Final project

PurposeThis project provides you an opportunity to solve a comprehensive problem in firewall and VPN implementation at various levels. You will play the role of an security/network analyst participating in the network security update planning process in a specific business situation.
Required Source Information and ToolsThe following tools and resources will be needed to complete this project:
A Web browser and access to the Internet to perform research for the project
Access to the NetWitness Investigator application
Download the NetWitness application from here (Click here to download the file)
Also, you should be able to use the NetWitness Investigator application from your JBLearning.com lab2 virtual environment. The virtual machines in the JBL environment can access the public internet. Open your ITN263 NOVA Canvas shell from JBL lab2 virtual machine and download your pcap files.
Packet trace files, vulnerability scans, and associated reports (provided by your instructor) can be downloaded from below
o general_comm.pcap (Click here to download the file)o encrypted_comm.pcap (Click here to download the file)o nmap_scan.xml (Click here to download the file)o topology_fisheye_chart.pdf (Click here to download the file)o nessus_report.html (Click here to download the file)
Learning Objectives and OutcomesYou will be able to apply core competencies learned throughout the course to a single project.
You will be able to analyze and apply knowledge of firewalls, VPNs, network diagrams, and defense measures.
You will be able to demonstrate logical reasoning and decision-making skills.
DeliverablesThe project is divided into two smaller assignments and one major assignment. Details for each deliverable can be found in this document. Refer to the course Syllabus for submission dates.
Project Part 1: Network Survey
Project Part 2: Network Design
Final Project: Network Security Plan
Project Part 1: Network Survey
Introduction
Network defenses rely first on understanding the current configuration of hosts, services, and protocols in use within the organization. Before it is possible to plan to change anything, you must first understand what is present and where it is located within the network. The initial phase of any network security realignment process involves identifying existing resources.
Scenario
You have been working as a technology associate in the information systems department at Corporation Techs. The Corporation Techs’ management is concerned that they are losing business to a competitor whose bids are too accurately just under the bids offered by Corporation Techs––by an exact amount. A security firm was contracted to conduct a review of Corporation Techs’ systems, identifying unauthorized access to the Web server as a potential source of compromise due to the shared reporting and public Web site functions. The packet trace and vulnerability scans gathered during this review are available for your use.
The Web server provides public access to the organization’s static Web site for contact information, while sales team members in the field transfer contract and bid documents using a site secured with a logon and password. Corporation Techs has budgeted for new networking hardware but does not want to add additional servers due to cooling issues. Your manager has asked you to create a security plan that will prevent unauthorized access, while making sure that both public and secured Web access remain available.
Tasks
The data and information you need to complete this part of the project are provided to you. (See the Required Source Information and Tools section at the beginning of this document.) In this part of the project, you need to conduct a survey of the existing hosts, services, and protocols within Corporation Techs’ network. Specifically, you need to:
Access the PCAP data using NetWitness Investigator.
Identify hosts within the Corporation Techs’ network.
Identify protocols in use within the Corporation Techs’ network.
Develop a list of hosts and services provided by each.
Create a professional report detailing the information above as the initial document for development of the network security plan.
Write the network survey results as detailed in the instructions above.
Evaluation Criteria and Rubrics
Evaluation Parameters
Percentage Weight
Did the student demonstrate an understanding of the competencies covered to date?
25
Did the student include all hosts identified within the provided packet trace?
30
Did the student include all services and protocols identified within the provided packet trace and align them with the proper host?
35
Did the student create a professional, well-developed draft with proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation?
10
Total
100%

Project Part 2: Network Design
Introduction
As discussed so far in this course, the configuration of a network affects the options available for security and network defense. Using the network survey produced during the first part of this project, together with host vulnerability assessments and access requirements, you need to design an updated network structure.
Scenario
You have been working as a technology associate in the information systems department at Corporation Techs for a while now. You have discovered so far that all of Corporation Techs’ computer systems share the same Class C public IP address range, including workstations along with servers providing authentication, e-mail, and both secure and public Web sites.
Your next task in this project is to construct a basic network design. An important requirement for the network design is to reduce the number of public addresses needed as the subnet lease results in very high ISP costs.
Tasks
Construct a basic network design, separating private and public services within the Corporation Techs’ network. To do so, you must:
Access the PCAP files using NetWitness Investigator, and browse the Nmap scan (XML format), topology fisheye chart (PDF format), and Nessus report (HTML format).
Identify vulnerabilities and clear-text information transfer.
Conduct research and determine the best network design to ensure security of internal access while retaining public Web site availability.
Identify any opportunities for reduced ISP costs through port redirection or address translation.
Design a network configuration, identifying network gateways, port or address redirection systems, and the location of hosts within private and protected network segments.
Create a professional report detailing the information above as supportive documentation for the network security plan.
Create a report that includes a basic network diagram and research results.

Evaluation Criteria and Rubrics
Evaluation Parameters
Percentage Weight
Did the student demonstrate an understanding of the competencies covered to date?
20
Did the student identify all vulnerabilities identified in the packet trace and host vulnerability scans?
35
Did the student produce a network design that will fulfill the stated requirements, separating private network resources and protected DMZ bastion hosts?
45
Total
100%

Final Project: Network Security Plan
Scenario
You have been working as a technology associate in the information systems department at Corporation Techs for three months now. You have conducted a network survey and developed a basic network design intended to provide security for private network resources and publically exposed Web services.
Your manager specified that all information transferred between the sales team in the field and the organizational servers must be protected against snooping. The manager also wants the secured reporting site to be available only through the organization’s private network so that an outsourced network-based intrusion detection system (NIDS) service can log all connections.TasksYou need to recommend a network design and identify hardening strategies intended to meet the requirements. To do so, you must:
Access the PCAP and other scan data for this project.
Conduct research and determine the best network design to meet the stated requirements.
Research hardening strategies and identify recommended mitigation strategies for identified vulnerabilities.
Identify mechanisms for secure network access by remote users, both in terms of secure Web access as well as reporting access conducted using the private network.
Develop a network security plan including network realignment, hardening practices, and policies for remote resource access.
Identify expectations from recommended changes and provide justification for each recommendation in simple language so that primary stakeholders are able to understand it.
Create a professional report detailing the information above, presented as a recommendation for a network security realignment project for Corporation Techs. Include persuasive justification and measurable expectations as part of this recommendation.
Write the network design results as detailed in the instructions above. Your plan should be made using a standard word processor format compatible with Microsoft Word.

Evaluation Criteria and Rubrics
Evaluation Parameters
Percentage Weight
Did the student demonstrate an understanding of the competencies covered in this course?
30
Did the student produce a network design that will fulfill the stated requirements, including VPN and SSL/TLS access?
25
Did the student identify effective network hardening strategies for identified vulnerabilities?
20
Did the student provide a persuasive justification and measurable expectations for the recommended changes?
15
Did the student create a professional, well-developed report with proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation?
10
Total
100%

done
Seen
few seconds ago[supanova_question]

Defining Your Values When you define your values, you discover what is

Defining Your Values

When you define your values, you discover what is truly important to you. A good way of starting to do this is to look back on your life – to identify when you felt really good, and really confident that you were making good choices.

PLEASE UNBOLD YOUR RESPONSE TEXT IN EACH STEP

Step 1: Identify the times when you were happiest. Identify examples from both your school AND personal life. This will ensure some balance in your answers.

What were you doing?

At School –

In personal life –

Were you with other people? Who?

At School –

In personal life –

What other factors contributed to your happiness?

At School –

In personal life –

Step 2: Identify the times when you were most proud. Use examples from your school AND personal life.

Why were you proud?

At School –

In personal life –

Did other people share your pride? Who?

At School –

In personal life –

What other factors contributed to your feelings of pride?

At School –

In personal life –

Step 3: Identify the times when you were most fulfilled and satisfied. Again, use both school AND personal examples.

What need or desire was fulfilled?

At School –

In personal life –

How and why did the experience give your life meaning?

At School –

In personal life –

What other factors contributed to your feelings of fulfillment?

Step 4: Use the list provided on our Black Board page called ‘Values List AG 401’ to determine your top values, based on your experiences of happiness, pride, fulfillment, etc. Students can come up with values by combining words on the list. For instance, if you identify that you value philanthropy, community, and generosity (three words on the values list), you would say actually say that service to others is one of your top values. Identify between 15 – 20 values. In no particular order, list those values here.

Being the best

Calmness

Carefulness

Challenge

Clear mindedness

Continuous improvement

Control

Cooperation

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Equality

Excellence

Family

Fun

Focus

Honesty

Independence

Intelligence

Professionalism

Teamwork

Step 5: NOW prioritize your top values

This step is probably the most difficult because you will have to THINK and REFLECT. It’s also the most important step, because, when making a decision, you’ll have to choose between solutions that may satisfy different values. This is when you must know which value is more important to you.

List your top 10 values, again, in no particular order

Now prioritize. Look at the first two values and ask yourself, “If I could satisfy only one of these, which would I choose?” It might help to visualize a situation in which you would have to make that choice. For example, if you compare the values of service and stability, imagine that you must decide whether to sell your house and move to another country to do valuable foreign aid work, or keep your house and volunteer to do charity work closer to home.

Keep working through the list, by comparing each value with each other value, until your list of 10 is in the correct order from most valuable to you to less valuable to you (but still on your top 10 list)

Step 6: Reaffirm your values. Check your top-priority values, and make sure they fit with your life and your vision for yourself.

Who in your life would you share this list with if you were asked to do so and why would you share with this (or these) particular person (or people)? Feel free to list more than one individual.

Name 2 ways in which these particular values represent ideals you support.

When you consider your values in decision making, you can be sure to keep your sense of integrity and what you know is right, and approach decisions with confidence and clarity. You will also know that what you are doing is best for your current and future happiness and satisfaction. Making value-based choices may not always be easy. However, making a choice that you know is right is a lot less difficult in the long run.

EXTRA 5 points:

In a short paragraph, describe a time when you made a choice that was not the popular choice with the person or people you were with and you stood by your decision, even if it was difficult. Which of the values from your top 10 list would apply to this example?[supanova_question]

Molecule Shape Website: https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/molecule-shapes/latest/molecule-shapes_en.html Open the PhET molecule shapes simulator. Introduction: What

Molecule Shape

Website: https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/molecule-shapes/latest/molecule-shapes_en.html

Open the PhET molecule shapes simulator.

Introduction:

What is a lone pair?
Play with the Model section of the simulator. Make sure all the options boxes and name boxes are checked. How does the amount of atoms affect bond angles?

Hypothesis:

Predict how the geometry (shape and angle size) of molecules is affected by the number of lone pairs.

Procedure:

In the Model section of the simulator:

Make sure all boxes in options and names are checked.

Create a molecule with 2 atoms attached to the central atom.

Record the molecule geometry name and bond angles in the data table. Some molecules may have more than one bond angle. Click and drag to rotate the molecule and see the other angles.

Add a lone pair.

Record the new molecule and electron geometry name and bond angle. Repeat until all no more lone pairs can be added.

Repeat steps 2-5 with molecules that have 3, 4, and 5 atoms attached to the central atom.

Continue to experiment with the simulator as necessary to answer the rest of the analysis questions.

Data:

2-Domain Molecule

Number of lone pairs

Molecule Geometry

Electron Geometry

Bond Angles

0

1

2

3

4

3-Domain Molecule

Number of lone pairs

Molecule Geometry

Electron Geometry

Bond Angles

0

1

2

3

4-Domain Molecule

Number of lone pairs

Molecule Geometry

Electron Geometry

Bond Angles

0

1

2

5-Domain Molecule

Number of lone pairs

Molecule Geometry

Electron Geometry

Bond Angles

0

1

Analysis and Conclusion:

What trends do you notice?

Is the effect of adding bonded atoms and lone pairs to the central atom similar? Explain why this could be the case.

How do the electrons in bonds (bonding domains) differ from lone pairs (non-bonding domains)?

What happens to the bond angle when you add or remove an electron domain?

Can you force the atoms into new configurations by pushing atoms around? What does this suggest about the configuration of atoms in real molecules?

What is the difference between Electron Geometry and Molecule Geometry?[supanova_question]

6 The Program of Study George R. Walls Trident University International Dr.

6

The Program of Study

George R. Walls

Trident University International

Dr. Nicole Frederick

Module 2 SLP

The Program of Study

Teacher turnover has been a problem in most institutions for an extended period. A high percentage of new teachers abandon the field immediately after beginning their careers, adding to the teacher turnover crisis. According to research, between 7 and 33 percent of teachers shift from the profession during their years of employment. As a result, several studies have been conducted to discover the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to address the crisis.

Teachers depart from their profession for several reasons, many of which are context-dependent; nonetheless, significant factors are frequently controlled by human resource management. According to studies, wages, working environment, training, and first mentorship support are among the significant influencing aspects linked to teacher turnover. Surprisingly, the value of these elements changed based on the circumstances in which the teachers worked. Educators in schools that offer low salaries mentioned a lack of administrative assistance more frequently than their equivalents in higher educational institutions, who were more likely to blame pay. According to scholars, factors linked with teachers leaving their jobs were usually related to either student issues about encouragement and discipline or administrator concerns about a lack of acknowledgment and encouragement from their human resource management or the administrators.

Some causes drive instructors out of schools, but some elements encourage teachers to stay.  For instance, Teacher engagement and management impact teacher attrition—instructors who are allowed more latitude in the classroom show higher levels of happiness. Whenever teachers are given the power to decide about education policy and practices, schedule, classroom materials, and career possibilities, they enjoy a sense of satisfaction, which is reflected in their turnover. Staff interactions also influence instructor turnover. Staff interactions also affect teacher turnover. Teachers are more likely to stay in a school with a robust collaborative learning environment, as evidenced by good, trustworthy, and cooperative connections.

Institutions where the rate of teacher turnover faces several challenges (Sorensen & Ladd, 2020). Many of these implications are obvious, such as those associated with recruitment, employment, and retraining. Some are less visible, such as alterations in the makeup and competence of the teaching staff. Teacher turnover has the unintended consequence of incurring unforeseen monetary costs. Teacher turnover is an expensive financial burden whenever it comes to attracting, employing, and training new teachers. With increasing teacher turnover rates, institutions are burdened with high costs such as advertising, screening applicants, completing criminal history investigations, and supporting instructor initiation and training sessions. Although institutions invest a lot of resources in teacher recruitment and early preparation, many depart in the first few years, and resources are prevented from being put to better use.

As a result of frequent teacher turnover, curriculum and training reform efforts are uneven. If there is a significant teacher turnover rate in an institution, creating and sustaining important instructional reform initiatives can be challenging. Professional innovation, teacher collaboration, and curriculum advancement are jeopardized whenever the personnel is in constant change. When a significant percentage of instructors leave and fresh instructors join the scholarly society, the school’s efficacy can be harmed as confidence and community must be restored. If new teachers are hired, more time is spent  acclimating them to the school setting, disrupting the vertical and lateral communication and preparation across academic divisions and grade levels. When an excellent teacher leaves, the institution loses that person’s knowledge of the school’s environment.

Consequently, high percentages of teacher turnover lower student Achievement. Teacher turnover causes problems for the management and employees, but it can also harm student progress (Gibbons et al., 2018). Possessing a highly qualified teacher in an institution is the most critical aspect of education change. On the other hand, teacher turnover frequently results in the employment of educators in impoverished settings, which can negatively influence student performance. Given that they lack expertise, the newly employed teachers are commonly allocated to more challenging courses of children who are already failing intellectually. In addition to the difficulties that beginner instructors face, they are sometimes denied the expert help they require, which reduces their chances of achievement.

It is challenging to solve the problem of teacher turnover. Nevertheless, research reveals that there are things that may be implemented to increase the possibility of educators staying in their jobs for an extended period (Adnot et al., 2017). Firstly, schools must attract the right instructors and invest in them through a rigorous introduction program. Teacher turnover can be reduced by more than half with initiation schemes that give early assistance and incorporate rewards for excellent instructors to share their knowledge.

Secondly, educational administrators must be conscious that teacher appreciation and encouragement are essential. Administration assistance, described as an administrator’s capacity to make an instructor’s work more manageable and assist instructors better their teaching, has been studied as a component in keeping educators or losing them to other occupations. Reasonable administrative assistance is a significant priority for teachers when it comes to staying at an institution. Educators’ views of school management are also a more robust indicator of whether or not they remained than any other aspect.

Teacher turnover can also be detrimental to institution management, since it disrupts school continuity, cooperation, and convivial ties between teachers, as well as resulting in the loss of critical institution expertise. It is therefore essential that the right strategies are put in place to reduce the increasing rates of teacher turnover.

Reference

Sorensen, L. C., & Ladd, H. F. (2020). The hidden costs of teacher turnover. AERA Open, 6(1), 2332858420905812.

Gibbons, S., Scrutinio, V., & Telhaj, S. (2018). Teacher turnover: does it matter for pupil achievement?.

Adnot, M., Dee, T., Katz, V., & Wyckoff, J. (2017). Teacher turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement in DCPS. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 39(1), 54-76.[supanova_question]

Racism in criminal justice

The format is the same as the midterm. Final Paper Questions1: Democracy and InequalityDrawing on Capital in the 21st

The format is the same as the midterm. Final Paper Questions1: Democracy and InequalityDrawing on Capital in the 21st.

The format is the same as the midterm. Final Paper QuestionsQuestion 1: Democracy and InequalityDrawing on Capital in the 21st Century and two chapters from your text, explain how increased inequality impacts American democracy.Question 2: Housing, Discrimination, and WealthDescribe the relationship between housing discrimination and wealth disparities using examples from the mid-20th century and from the Financial Crisis of 2008. How does this also relate to the proximity of pollution or toxic waste? Question 3: Reproducing Reality and InequalityAs I mentioned in lecture, there are many sociologists of different sorts that examine how social institutions contribute to the reproduction of inequality. Drawing upon at least two readings from weeks 9-15, discuss how media reproduces inequalities related to class and gender.Question 4: Criminal Justice How does the criminal justice system relate to inequality? How has it impacted immigrants, the Black community, and the LGBT community? Question 5: Resisting InequalityDuring this course, you have read a lot about how inequalities are constructed and experienced. Drawing on two readings from week 15, how can these inequities be resisted/changed? How do you see yourself as part of the solution?[supanova_question]

FUNDING REQUEST MEMO Funding Request Memo To : From : Date :

FUNDING REQUEST MEMO

Funding Request Memo

To :

From :

Date :

CC :

Nordstrom Inc is writing to request for funding for its expansion program. As is the case, the company is one of the leading retailers in the fashion industry. Over the years, it has had the pride in providing excellent services in the sale of compelling clothes, shoes, and other accessories that are befitting for all groups of people. To provide a little background, the company was started in 1991 as a small shop that was selling shoes in Seattle. Over the years, through proper planning, excellent service delivery, and active leadership, the organization has experienced a massive growth and is today considered to be one the leading fashion retailers both in America and Canada. Today, the company has over three hundred outlets serving millions of customers in both some forty American states and Canada. Besides, the company has a presence in over ninety-six countries through online services. Concerning its legal existence, the company is registered and trades publicly on the New York Securities Exchange (NYSE).

In the recent past, the company has discovered that it has a huge market base in India. Over the last year alone, the company received over one mission orders from Indian through its online platforms. The enthusiasms with which the Indians have responded to the services of the company have prompted the management to consider and make the decision to move and start operating in the country. One of the primary reasons that necessitated this reason is the fact that opening warehouses in the country would tremendously improve service delivery to the customers in the regions. At the moment, the institution is experiencing logistical nightmares since at times the items may fail to reach the intended destinations in time or even get damaged on the way.

According to the United Nations estimates, the current population of India is more than one billion and three hundred million people. Additionally, the country is currently undergoing political reforms that have provided the country with the right atmosphere for business. Therefore, the fact that the company has a customer base in the country, coupled up with the huge population and the current political environments makes India an ideal choice for the expansion destination of Nordstrom. Additionally, India is at the moment experiencing favorable economic growth, and projections indicate that the economic situation in the country will only get better.

If there is a need for more information than already provided, the company website, investor.nordstrom.com/ would be a useful source. The site provides in-depth information on all the activities of the company and all the investment opportunities. It indicates all the growth projections for the near future as well as analyzing the benefits that would be obtained from investing in the company.

Market Realist is another source of information to be considered. It is a website that tracks the performance of enterprises in various industries. In this case, the Market Realist would provide the relevant information regarding the industry and the position of the firm. Besides, the website tracks the growth history of the organization and provides an analysis of the nature of competition in the market. It would be a useful source in making conclusions whether the firm is worth the investment or not.[supanova_question]

prepare the capitalization

The format is the same as the midterm. Final Paper Questions1: Democracy and InequalityDrawing on Capital in the 21st Mindy Esquivel owns a bakery that serves both commercial and retail customers. The bakery is located in the southernmost area of a large metropolitan city. The business has enjoyed great success and customers frequently ask Mindy if she will be opening a bakery more toward the center of the city. Evidently, they are not enjoying the long drive to her current location. After hearing this for several years, she began a search for a site to build the new bakery. Prior to starting the project, Mindy contacted you as her CPA to determine a cost capitalization policy. Mindy asks that the policy include at what point, and which costs may be capitalized as part of the new-build construction project. She has provided a list of costs she knows will be incurred so be sure to address each of them.
Architect fees
Labor and materials used in construction
Mindy’s own salaried project manager, Ray, who will oversee construction (hired for this project only)
Preliminary site selection costs including labor hours incurred by Ray
External legal fees related to property acquisition, construction contract review, etc.
Costs to paint the new bakery
Any other costs she might incur during this new-build construction project
No need to do a memo for this – just prepare the capitalization policy for her.
Be sure to cite appropriate substantial authority. Also, you might find PwC’s guidebook “Property, Plant, [supanova_question]

Term Paper Museums are found all over the world. Museums are a

Term Paper

Museums are found all over the world. Museums are a place where exhibits are found, showcasing the present and the past. Museums can have artifacts, fossils, live exhibits, photographs, and art. There is no limit to what a museum can teach us.

Museums are important for many reasons. According to Fortey, “I believe profoundly in the importance of museums; I would go as far as to say that you can judge a society by the quality of its museums. “ In an article in the Guardian, “ natural history collections play a vital role in our understanding of biodiversity, evolution, population genetics and the environmental impacts of climate change, pesticide use and so on.” Colleen Leth states that “Museums are a means of dissipating ignorance and promoting tolerance.” She also explains why Museums are so important “For only by valuing and protecting the remains of where we have come from, will we know where we are going. For only by valuing and protecting the remains of where we have come from, will we know where we are going.”

I think that the greatest benefit in having Museums is that they are our window to the past. Museums are so important because we can see the past from all over the world. Art depicts how the artist and people around the artist’s world are living. The Van Gogh Museum showed how important art is and the Artist in Museums. In visiting the Van Gogh, one gets a glimpse of the Artist, Van Gogh and the world he lived in. We got a better understanding of him and his art.

Museums give us a look into the past and help us shape our future. Museums also give us a kind of living history, since we lose the real memory and actuality of things as time passes. The Smithsonian Natural History Museum and The Museum of Voting Rights are prime examples of why we need Museums to remember our history. According to an article in the Huffington Post by Wages, “museums ensure understanding and appreciation for various groups and cultures. They promote better understanding of our collective heritage and foster dialogue, curiosity and self-reflection.”  Museums can tell us about the past living species and what the climate was like through specimen analysis.   

Additionally, Museums give us investigate what fauna and extinct animals looked like. From fossils and plant materials, we can see what life may have been like and what animals and plants were in the past.  We can also see what may have been the cause of their extinction.   Museums also have access to researchers that can piece together stories and histories.  We can know and see what early man looked like because of Museum Researchers being able to study ancient pathologies and piece together fossils. Museums show us the past, the good and the bad, and help use to change our mistakes.

How do Museums fit into the Modern World?

I think that Museums effectively reach the public currently via social media and the internet. Many people do not or cannot travel and therefore virtual visits allow for all to be able to have the Museum experience.  I think that making the Museums more inviting and community- friendly will attract more visitors either virtually or in person. Young people must want to go and they like a gathering place as well as a cultural experience.

Through social media advertising and possible podcasts, younger people may be interested in visiting the Museums. If exhibits and lectures and current and made interesting, then people will want to come. The old notion that museums are boring needs to change.

Because times have changed, wording within exhibits and the Museums should be re-evaluated to make sure they are politically correct. According to the Huffington Post, Museums should “take a fresh look at their own environment and the overt and subtle signals they might send about the categories in which they place visitors, potentially signaling who is welcome and not welcome.”  Museums do not want to have potentially rude or offensive signage.

Another way for outreach is through clubs and Societies. As Fortey mentions in Chapter 5, The Linnean Society and Geological Society may be a way to bring people from all over the world together with a common interest.  Museums can become a place for community and gatherings. According to Fortey, in Chapter 4, inviting the public to lectures and to see special collections also helps to draw interest in Museums. The lure of an exciting exhibit, a traveling exhibit. According to Fortey, “Museums have no political power, but they do have the possibility of influencing the political process. This is a complete change from their role in the early days of collecting and hoarding the world to one of using the collections as an archive for a changing world. This role is not merely scientifically important, but it is also a cultural necessity.”

Drawbacks of Museums/Ethical Issues?

Museums can pose questions and different interpretations. As Fortey mentions, “A life accumulates a collection: of people, work and perplexities. We are all our own curators. ” Social change also brings the potential for considerable threats, particularly if focus shifts away from long-term collections care, access and development. Museums can have ethical issues. According to Richard Fortey, the most significant disadvantage or ethical quandary for museums is their scientific credibility. Fotrey explains how some amateur collectors were deceitful about their collections, and how some artifacts were even stolen and portrayed as real findings, only to be discovered as fake.

Communities Investing in Museums:

According to Museum Next, Museums can create unity on both social and political levels. Museums can also bring people to her through public events, workshops, and lectures. Through advances in technology museums more accessible than ever. For those who might struggle to attend an institution in person, museums and galleries are increasingly sharing their collections online. By investing in Museums, they communities may bring people together. It can be a great place to teach and learn about each other’s differences.

Individuals Investing in Museums:

Individuals can invest in Museums and help to foster education and relationships. By going to a museum and paying the entrance fee or purchasing something from the Museum, you are investing in the Museum. Museums are so important to our learning and growth. Individuals can have an impact.

Companies Investing in Museums:

Companies investing in museums show that they have a concern and care for society. By companies investing in museums exhibits, events and upgrades, they are showing that they understand how important the roles of museums are in society. This would be a socially responsible investment.

MUSEUM ETHICS. Harvard Law School. (n.d.). http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/martin/art_law/museum_ethics.html.

Natural history collections –- why are they relevant? https://www.theguardian.com/science/punctuated-equilibrium/2011/apr/12/2. (n.d.).

Seeing the Past as Present: Why Museums Matter. News from Tauck Ritzau Innovative Philanthropy. (n.d.). http://tripgiving.org/news/seeing-the-past-as-present-why-museums-matter-2/.

Falk, J. H., & Dierking, L. D. (2018). Learning from museums. In Learning from Museums (pp. 118–140). essay, Rowman & Littlefield.

Why we need museums now more than ever. MuseumNext. (2021, March 14). https://www.museumnext.com/article/why-we-need-museums-now-more-than-ever/.

Gazi, A. (2014, May 8). Journal of Conservation and Museum Studies. https://www.jcms-journal.com/articles/10.5334/jcms.1021213/.

MUSEUM ETHICS. Harvard Law School. (n.d.). http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/martin/art_law/museum_ethics.html.

Natural history collections –- why are they relevant? https://www.theguardian.com/science/punctuated-equilibrium/2011/apr/12/2. (n.d.).

Fortey, R. A. (2009). Dry storeroom no. 1: the secret life of the Natural History Museum (pp. 1–115). story, Vintage Books.

The Role of the Museum in Society. https://maltwood.uvic.ca/cam/activities/past_conferences/1999conf/CAM’99- mmanuelArinze.GuyanaFinal.pdf. (n.d.).  

The Role of Museums in Wages, J. (2017, December 7). Why Museums Are Important. HuffPost. . https://www.huffpost.com/entry/why-museums-are-important_b_6355710#:~:text=Museumsensureunderstandingandappreciation,curiosityandselfreflection.&text=Museumsarebothnecessaryandrelevanttoday

The Role of the Museum in

Wages, J. (2017, December 7). Why Museums Are Important. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/why-museums-are-important_b_6355710#:~:text=Museumsensureunderstandingandappreciation,curiosityandselfreflection.&text=Museumsarebothnecessaryandrelevanttoday. 

 

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/9-things-museums-can-improve_n_56f05e90e4b09bf44a9e2806#:~:text=Takeintoaccountthephysicalarchitectureandaccessibility,fullauditoftheirphysicalanddigitalofferings. (n.d.). essay.[supanova_question]

Non-Profit Executive Compensation Tyesha Brooks OL-620 June 20, 2021 Summary It is

Non-Profit Executive Compensation

Tyesha Brooks

OL-620

June 20, 2021

Summary

It is perpetually essential to concentrate on Nonprofit Executive Compensation in any corporation or business. When corporations invest money in nonprofit charities, they need to make sure they contribute to charities. Overcompensating executives can drive a decrease in contributions, volunteer resources, and, in challenging circumstances, an organization could lose its nonprofit standing. However, some advantages and disadvantages may occur in the process. This essay will present some benefits for a nonprofit organization that pays executive similarity to a for-profit business and the failings of how organizations potentially lose out on their profit donations.

The Craig Johnson case study explains that for-profit and nonprofit sectors have recently been accused of overcompensating their executives with unusual rewards. As a result, questions have been raised, especially for nonprofit organizations increasing their revenues from the goodwill in the form of charities, grants, and fundraisers. Johnson cites instances where many nonprofit organizations are overly paid and use outrageous amounts of money for things such as travel, meals, and paid leave (Johnson, 2016). Such instances lead to the moral question of whether money donated to help the poor, offer education or medical services, and other social benefits should be used to finance the extravagant lives of the directors.

As a result, the Internal Revenue Service has tightened restrictions on nonprofits. They are now required to reveal executive salaries that surpass $150,000 and disclose amounts spent in allowances and other services such as travel and security (Johnson, 2016). Johnson also notes that times are changing, and for-profit organizations adopt a traditional business model that Prompts them to operate on the same scale as for-profit corporations (Johnson, 2016). Aware of these changes, this paper looks into some of the advantages and disadvantages of various compensation strategies used by a not-for-profit organization.

Advantages

There are several matters to consider in any organization, including for-profit or nonprofit, when it comes to attracting and retaining competent workers. Both aspire to be successful and thrive by providing a product or service that others need. Remuneration of employees, managers, and executives is a fundamental process to ensure motivation to keep up the excellent performance; it is also a way to appreciate their hard work. Therefore, ensuring that the not-for-profit organization executives receive equal pay to for-profit business means an increased likelihood of executive security, improving the chances of retention. They feel satisfied, fulfilled, and fairly compensated, thus encouraging them to stick with the organization and even challenges them to work harder.

Another advantage is that the organization is guaranteed to hire highly qualified individuals for the job, as is evident in the case study. Therefore, paying them well could help convince and lure even the most competent individual to working for the organization. Thus, this provides the not-for-profit organization with a competitive advantage against business organizations guaranteeing excellence, growth, and increased profitability. Hence, increasing the performance potentials of the organization as they compete against each other in the world with endless opportunities and limited resources (Grasee et al. 2014). However, it should be noted that overcompensating the executives could result in negatives effects, as seen in the case study, whereby the donors feel that it is their moral obligation to be guided by service other than monetary gains.

Disadvantages

When a nonprofit organization expects its executives to do the same amount of work as a for-profit executive, less pay presents the organization with disadvantages. Therefore, putting the organization at risk for failure and preventing growth as most skilled professionals shy away from accepting jobs. In addition, workers believe that their value to the organization is not reasonably compensated and could undoubtedly result in hiring unqualified personnel and affecting its productivity. High turnover rates can be more costly to the nonprofit organization than raising the compensation enough to attract top talent.

Another Disadvantage is high turnover rates for the executive, considering they can quickly be swayed and lured by other organizations to obtain better wages, making workforce retention difficult. In addition, high turnover rates are costly to an organization because of the increased cost of recruiting, hiring, and training new employees and causing a decline in productivity, morale, customer satisfaction, and innovation, making it hard to compete with for-profit business organizations.

References

Frumkin, P., & Keating, E. K. (2010). The price of doing good: Executive compensation in non-profit organizations. Policy and Society, 29(3), 269-282.

Grasse, N., Davis, T., & Ihrke, D. (2014). Understanding the compensation of non-profit executive directors: Examining the influence of performance and organizational characteristics. Non-profit Management and Leadership, 24(3), 377-398.

Johnson, C. E. (2016). Nonprofit Executive Compensation: How Much is Too Much?. SAGE.[supanova_question]

Week 4: Musculoskeletal Assessment Utilizing the Musculoskeletal Assessment form located in the

Week 4: Musculoskeletal Assessment

Utilizing the Musculoskeletal Assessment form located in the files folder, complete this assessment on a family member, friend or yourself (Skype/virtual assessment is accepted).   After completion of this assessment, complete a word reflection paper responding to the following questions:

What new information did you gain from this assignment?

How will you utilize this information in your future nursing practice?

How will it affect you practice? As a nurse

To complete this assignment, both the assessment form and reflection paper MUST be uploaded

Rubric

NR304 System Assessment Grading Rubric

NR304 System Assessment Grading Rubric

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome upload completed assessment form

upload completed assessment form (cannot be a family member or friend). You can find the assessment sheet in the files section of canvas

40 pts

Full Marks

0 pts

No Marks

40 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Reflection

Write a reflection paper on the assessment, answering the following questions:

1) What did you learn of value?

2) How will you use this information?

3) How will it affect you practice? As a nurse

10 pts

Full Marks

0 pts

No Marks

10 pts

Total Points: 50[supanova_question]

MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS Introduction Burton, Sudweeks, Merrill and Wood (1991) note that

MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS

Introduction

Burton, Sudweeks, Merrill and Wood (1991) note that educational testing experts have identified an increase in poorly constructed multiple choice items, in most cases items are so defective that the correct answer is obvious, debatable, obscure, or missing altogether. The examinee is forced to wonder what the test writer had in mind when the item was constructed (Burton, Sudweeks, Merrill and Wood, 1991). In addition to confusing and frustrating students, poorly-written test questions yield scores of dubious value that are inappropriate to use as a basis of evaluating student achievement (Burton, Sudweeks, Merrill and Wood, 1991). Well-written multiple-choice test questions SHOULD not confuse students, and yield scores that are more appropriate to use in determining the extent to which students have achieved the intended educational objectives. Multiple choice questions are commonly used because they are easy to grade and students are familiar with their structure. Most multiple choice questions involve only recognition or recall of facts, however questions can be written to test higher level thinking skills, such as problem-solving, these however are harder to write.

Most poorly-written multiple-choice test questions are characterized by at least one of the following three weaknesses:

1. They attempt to measure an objective for which they are not well-suited

2. They contain clues to the correct answer

3. They are worded ambiguously

Definition

Multiple response is a form of assessment in which examinees are asked to select or choose one/ the best possible answer (or answers) out of the choices from a list supplied by the examiner. All multiple choice question are composed of one question with multiple possible answers, including the correct answer and several incorrect answers called distracters (Burton, Sudweeks, Merrill and Wood, 1991). Students select the correct answer by circling the associated number or letter, or filling in the associated circle on the machine-readable response sheet. Students can generally respond to these types of questions quite quickly, as a result, they are often used to test student’s knowledge of a broad

range of content. Creating these questions can be time consuming because it is often difficult to generate several plausible distractors.

Structure

All standard multiple-choice test items consist of two (2) basic parts (Burton, Sudweeks, Merrill and Wood, 1991):

1. A problem (stem) – The text of the question.

2. A list of suggested solutions (alternatives) – The choices provided after the stem represent the options for the possible answers that the examiner can choose from with two sub parts:

The key – the correct answer in the list of options.

The distracters- the incorrect answers in the list of options.

The stem is the introduction (beginning) of the item that presents a problem to be solved, a question asked of the respondent, or an incomplete statement to be completed, as well as any other relevant information. In assessing higher order thinking (application) the stem can consist of multiple parts. The stem can include extended or ancillary material such as a vignette, a case study, a graph, a table, or a detailed description which has multiple elements to it (Brown and Pendlebury 2007). The stem can include any amount of information that will increase the validity of the learning objective, but should remain as a question (Gronlund 2010). In a Counseling examination in reference to a case study that was previously presented the examinee may be asked “What is the most likely diagnosis?”

In the alternatives only one answer can be keyed as correct, except in the case of the multiple response type questions, in which more than one answer is correct. The grading of a MCQ is usually on the basis of one mark for each correct answer and zero for each incorrect (Gronlund 2010). In some Courses, the examiner may also award partial credit for unanswered questions and penalize students for incorrect answers, to discourage guessing. Example in Medical Examinations at the University of the West Indies (UWI) and in the SAT’s a quarter point is deducted from the test taker’s score for each incorrect answer.

General Principle

Examiners should construct stems that are clear and parsimonious and options that are explicit and unequivocal that will be selected by the examinee who achieves the learning objective. Distractors that are plausible competitors of the answer will be evidenced by the frequency with which they are chosen.

The purpose of the distractors is to appear as plausible solutions to the problem for those students who have not achieved the objective being measured by the test item. Conversely, the distractors must appear as implausible solutions for those students who have achieved the objective. Only the answer should appear plausible to these students (Burton, Sudweeks, Merrill and Wood, 1991). Plausible distractors are based on teachers anticipating wrong answers or common misconceptions.

Example:

1. Calculate the median of the following numbers: 27, 100, 15, 67, 27, 12,44, 81, 75,48

A. 27

B. 46

C. 49

D. 496

The examinee must recall the definition of the median and then apply that definition to the list of numbers. The median is the number at the midpoint of a distribution (46). A common mistake is to confuse the definitions of median, mean and mode. The mean (49) is one of the distractors, the mode (27) is also one of the distractors and the sum (496) a partial correct answer (the numerator of the mean is also a distractors). This question has one correct choice that corresponds to the objective and three distractors, all of which are plausible to the learner who has not met the learning objective (Calculate the Median).

Distractor Taxonomy

An assessment of distractors can be used to improve classroom instruction, student performance and accountability of teachers. Assessment should provide educators with information about what a student knows and what additional instruction or intervention the student requires to likely attain desired learning outcomes to improve classroom instruction (Linn and Gronlund, 2000; Nitko, 2004).

Multiple-choice items written using the Distractor rationale taxonomy may reveal a student’s breakdown in understanding through his or her incorrect answers (Pearson, 2010). An assessment system that incorporates this methodology can indicate a student’s instructional needs in a subject area and thereby contribute to the development of a focused intervention plan.

Contemporary authorities in educational assessment have suggested extending the functional role of distractors to include a new purpose: identifying the nature of a student’s misunderstanding. Nitko (2004) observes that the Distractor selected provides a diagnostic insight into the difficulties the student is experiencing and Popham (2000) also recognizes the potential of distractors to represent the categories of incorrect responses that students make. This allows teachers to follow up with additional classroom instruction based on the most common errors made by students.

History

E. L. Thorndike developed an early multiple choice test, however Frederick J. Kelly is credited with first using these items as part of a large scale assessment in 1915, during the Kansas Silent Reading Test. The first all multiple choice, large scale assessment was the Army Alpha, used to assess the intelligence of World War I military recruits (Isaacs, 1994).

SOME OF THE MORE COMMON TYPES OF MULTIPLE CHOCIE QUESTIONS

SINGLE CORRECT ANSWER

In items of the single-correct-answer variety, all but one of the alternatives are incorrect; the remaining alternative is the correct answer. The student is directed to identify the correct answer

What concept is defined as ‘a brief sample of behavior obtained under standard conditions and scored according to a fixed set of rules that provide a numeric score ’ ( Douglas, 2013) ?

A. Test

B. Assessment

C. Measurement

D. Psychometrics

CLASSIFICATION The examinee classifies a person, object, or condition into one of several categories designated in the stem:

Rev. Dr. Lewin Williams was characterized as a_________________________ Theologian based on Rev. Ropers (2012) taxonomy.

A. Systematic

B. Biblical

C. Historical

D. Philosophical

BEST ANSWER

The alternatives differ in their degree of correctness. Some may be completely incorrect and some correct, but one is clearly more correct than the others. This best alternative serves as the answer, while the other alternatives function as distractors. The student is directed to identify the best answer

What is chiefly responsible for the increase in student registration at the University of Texas during the last four years (C. Harrison, 2013)?

A. Compulsory education for Pastors in the Missionary Church.

B. Increased desire for education among church workers.

C. The coming of Jesus Christ, which has greatly increased religious values.

D. The increased salary that comes with more qualified church workers

ODDITY

The examinee indicates which option does not belong with the others

Which of the following names does not belong with the others?

A. Carlene Davis

B. Prodigal Son

C. Omari

D. Tommy Lee

NEGATIVE The student is directed to identify either the alternative that is an incorrect answer, or the alternative that is the worst answer. Any of the other multiple-choice varieties can be converted into this negative format.

For most educational objectives, a student’s achievement is more effectively measured by identifying a correct answer rather than an incorrect answer. The ability to identify an incorrect answer does not necessarily imply knowledge of the correct answer. For this reason, items of the negative variety are not recommended for general use. Occasionally, negative items are appropriate for objectives dealing with health or safety issues , where knowing what not to do is important. Example – When your clothes are on fire it is equally important for a person to know what to do and what not to do.

In these situations, negative items must be carefully worded to avoid confusing the student. The negative word should be placed in the stem, not in the alternatives, and should be emphasized by using underlining, italics, bold face, or CAPITALS. In addition, each of the alternatives should be phrased positively to avoid forming a confusing double negative with the stem:

Which of the following is NOT an assumption of Testing and Measurement (Frankson 2013)?

A. Test-related behavior predicts non-test-related behavior.

B. Testing and assessment can be conducted in a biased manner

C. Various sources of data enrich and part of the assessment process

D. Various sources of error are always part of the assessment process

IF-THEN CONDITIONS

The examinee must decide the correct consequence of one or more conditions being present in the stem:

If the true variance of a test increases but the error variance remains constant, which of the following will occur?

A. Reliability will increase

B. Reliability will decrease

C. Observed variance will decrease

D. Neither reliability nor observed variance will change

MULTIPLE CONDITIONS

The examinee uses the two or more conditions or statements listed in the stem to draw a conclusion

Given that Mary’s raw score on a test is 60, the test mean is 59, and the standard deviation 2, what is Mary’s z score ?

A. -2.00

B. -0.50

C. 0.50

D. -.2.00

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

In items of multiple response variety, two or more of the alternatives are keyed as correct answers; the remaining alternatives serve as distractors. The student is directed to identify each correct answer.

This variety of item can be scored in several different ways. Scoring on an all-or-none basis (one point if all the correct answers and none of the distractors are selected, and zero points otherwise), and scoring each alternative independently (one point for each correct answer chosen and one point for each distractor not chosen) are commonly used methods. Both methods, however, have distinct disadvantages. With the first method, a student who correctly identifies all but one of the answers receives the same score as a student who cannot identify any of the answers. The second method produces scores more representative of each student’s achievement, but most computer programs currently used with scoring machines do not include this method as an option. As a result, items of the multiple-response variety are not recommended.

Since an item of multiple-response variety is often simply a series of related true-false questions presented together as a group, a good alternative that avoids the scoring problems mentioned above is to rewrite it as a multiple true-false item.

What of the following is/are the purpose/s of the Rorschach?

A. Determine sexual needs

B. Examine emotional functioning

C. Determined sexuality

D. Predict Intelligence

E. Assess emotional adjustment

F. Analyze vocational choices

G. Determine academic skills

COMBINED RESPONSE

In items of the combined-response variety, one or more of the alternatives are correct answers; the remaining alternatives serve as distractors. The student is directed to identify the correct answer or answers by selecting one of a set of letters, each of which represent a combination of alternatives. Items of the combined-response variety are lower in reliability, lower in discrimination, higher in difficulty, and equal in validity when compared with similar items of the single-correct-answer and best-answer varieties (Albanese, 1990; Haladyna & Downing, 1989b). They have also been found to be lower in reliability, higher in difficulty, and equal in validity when compared with similar multiple true-false items (Frisbie, 1990).

This variety shares the disadvantage of all-or-none scoring with the multiple-response variety and has the added disadvantage of providing clues that help students with only partial knowledge detect the correct combination of alternatives. A student can identify a combination as the correct response simply by knowing that alternatives 1 and 4 are both correct. Because of these disadvantages, items of combined-response variety are not recommended.

Like the multiple-response variety, an item of the combined-response variety is often simply a series of related true-false questions presented together as a group. A good alternative that avoids the scoring and cluing problems mentioned above is to rewrite it as a multiple true-false item.

What are the main ways that a person can contract the HIV Virus (MOH, 2014)?

1. Engaging in Unprotected Oral Sex

2. Having Multiple Partners

3. Kissing and Hugging someone with HIV

4. Giving Blood .

The correct answer is:

A. 1, 2, and 3.

B. 1 and 2.

C. 2 and 4.

D. 1 only.

MULTIPLE TRUE-FALSE

The examinee decides whether one, all or none of the two or more conditions or statements listed in the stem is (are) correct:

Is it true that (1) Alfred Binet was the father of intelligence testing, and (2) his first intelligence test was published in 1916 ?

A. Both 1 and 2

B. 1 but not 2

C. Not 1 but 2

D. neither 1 nor 2

A 45 year old asthmatic woman who has lived all her life in Westmoreland presents with a goitre of four years’ duration and clinical features suggestive of hypothyroidism. Likely diagnoses include

A. Iodine deficiency

B. Dyshormonogenesis

C. Drug-induced goitre

D. Thyroid cancer

E. Auto immune thyroiditis

In the above question, the examiner is assessing application; this approach may be used for testing knowledge and judgement in many subjects. When grouped together, a series of true/false questions on a specific topic or scenario can test a more complex understanding of an issue. They can be structured to lead a student through a logical pathway (Brown 1997) as in the above example which simulates a medical diagnosis. Such questions may also be useful to the lecturer for diagnostic purposes, because they can reveal part of the thinking process employed by the student in order to solve the given problem.

ASSERTION-REASON

The assertion-reason item combines elements of multiple choice and true/false question types, and allows the examiner to test more complicated issues and requires a higher level of learning. The question consists of two statements, an assertion and a reason. The student must first determine whether each statement is true. If both are true, the student must next determine whether the reason correctly explains the assertion. There is one option for each possible outcome (Frisbie, 1990).

Each question below consists of an assertion and a reason. Indicate your answer from the alternatives below by circling the appropriate letter

Assertion Reason

A. True True Reason is correct explanation.

B. True True Reason is NOT a correct explanation.

C. True False

D. False True

E. False False

Assertion

1. The blood sugar level falls rapidly after hepactectomy.

BECAUSE

The glycogen of the liver is the principal source of blood sugar.

2. Increased government spending increases inflation under all conditions.

BECAUSE

Government spending is not offset by any form of production.

3. Chloroform has a dipole moment

BECAUSE

The chloroform molecule is tetrahedral

Assertion-reason tests can be used to explore cause and effect and identify relationships.

When writing assertion-reason questions, the following points should be considered:

1. The reason should be a free standing sentence so that it can be considered separately fromthe assertion.

2. Avoid using minor reasons. These can result in an ambiguous question.

3. Repeat options A-E in full for each question.

4. Use all five options as keys equally

RELATIONS AND CORRELATES

The examinee determines the relationship between concepts 1 and 2 and indicates which of the concepts (a, b, c, d, etc) listed in the options is related to concept 3 in the same way that concepts 1 and 2 are related:

1. Mean is to standard deviation as median is to :

A. Average Deviation

B. Variance

C. Semi-Interquartile range

D. Correlation coefficient

GUIDELINES FOR WRITING MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS

Planning

The primary objective in planning a test is to outline the actual course content and alignment with course objectives that the test will cover. In developing good multiple-choice items, three tasks need to be considered: Writing stems, Writing options, and on-going item development.

General Considerations

1. Writing a good multiple choice question, no matter what level of knowledge is being tested, begins with good course objectives. Course objectives need to be written in measurable terms.

2. Test for significant learning outcomes, the questions should be designed to test the learning objectives of the course, and not trivia associated with the subject matter. Questions should be recognized as being relevant to the goals of the course.

3. Present practical or real-world situations to the students aiming for application, analysis or evaluation.

4. Test Higher Level Cognitive Domains, the Rote memorization of facts, laws, and definitions have its place in the overall scheme. However, at least 90% of the test should be devoted to higher levels of cognition.

5. Before writing the stem, identify the one point to be tested by that item. In general, the stem should not pose more than one problem, although the solution to that problem may require more than one step.

Test for the intended intellectual skills, a question should not intentionally be a “test within a test”. Example: How many permutations are possible in overtime for Super Bowl XLVII? A student who knows how to calculate permutations and combinations (the skill being tested for in the context of a Statistics course at JTS) will not be able to answer this question if he/she has never played American Football. Keep the vocabulary consistent with the students’ level of understanding.

7. Pay special attention to the language used, the level of the language should be within reach of the students, not all examinees home language will be English. Use correct grammar throughout and avoid the use of jargon, unless you are specifically testing terminology. Second-language students will take longer to read and understand a question, misreading the question by the student may lead to the wrong answer.

8. Be sensitive to cultural and gender issues. Avoid turns of phrase and figures of speech that could reasonably be construed as racist or sexist, or which may have a cultural or religious bias.

9. Ask a knowledge colleague with expertise in the content area of the exam to review the items for possible ambiguities, redundancies or other structural difficulties. This peer reviewing process is critical in providing constructive criticism and improving composed items. Writing is a difficult task thus preparing good multiple choice items is a scholarly activity that demands time, clarity of thought, and precision in expression. Students read test items more carefully than they read anything else thus all flaws and imperfections will be exposed.

10. Instruct students to select the “best answer” rather than the “correct answer”. Thus acknowledging the fact that the distractors may have an element of truth to them and discourage arguments from students who may argue that their answer is correct as well. These questions also tend to be more difficult and discriminating than questions that merely ask for a fact.

11. The time of the exam should be sufficient that students have time for editing and other types of question revisions.

Specific Guidelines

These guidelines should be observed when constructing the stems and options of high quality multiple-choice items (Aiken, 2006), this list is not meant to be exhaustive but outline some of the major guidelines:

1. Either a question or an incomplete statement may be used as the stem, but the question format is preferred. Place blanks in incomplete statement stems at the end. Construct the stem to be a complete standalone question, avoiding stereotyped phraseology, as rote responses are usually based on verbal stereotypes.

2. State the specific problem of the question or incomplete statement clearly, simply and as concretely as

possible in the stem and at a reading level appropriate for the examinees, but avoid taking questions or statements verbatim from textbooks. Avoid vague generalizations and do not include irrelevant information. It is essential that the students should know exactly what is expected of them, BE CLEAR. Without sacrificing clarity, be as concise and focused as possible. The purpose is to measure students’ knowledge ,reasoning, and ability not to engage in verbal gamesmanship. The idea is to discriminate levels of understanding, not to trap the unwary. Write questions that cannot be misunderstood, not merely questions that can be understood.

3. Avoid including non-functional information or words that do not contribute to the basis for choosing among the Stem. Often an introductory statement is included to enhance the appropriateness or significance of an item but does not affect the meaning of the problem in the item. All superfluous phrases should be excluded

The flag of Jamaica which was adopted on August 6, 1962, when the country gained independence from the British consists of three colours, what are they ?

Irrelevant material should not be used to make the answer less obvious. This tends to place too much importance on reading comprehension as a determiner of the correct option

“The presence and association of the male seems to have profound effects on female physiology in domestic animals. Research has shown that in cattle presence of a bull has the following effect:”

Research has shown that the presence of a bull has which of the following effects on cows?”

Don’t include superfluous information in the options. This is another manifestation of the desire to teach while testing and the additional information is likely to appear on the correct answer. Examinees prefer less to read and more direct questions.

5. Place as much of the item as possible in the stem. The stem should contain most of the wording in order to reduce the reading load. It is inefficient to repeat the same words in every option, and examines have less difficulty with shorter options. Example, if the point of an item is to associate a term with its definition, the preferred format would be to present the definition in the stem and several terms as options rather than to present the term in the stem and several definitions as options.

6. Employ opinion questions sparingly, when they are used, cite the authority or source of the opinion.

7. Four or five options are typical, but good items

having only two or three options can also be written. With students in the lower grades, three options are preferable to four or five. Four well-constructed options are suffice as there is only minimal improvement to the item due to that hard-to-come-by fifth option which is not worth the effort to construct. Empirical data has proven that a test of 10 items each with four options is likely a better test than a test with nine items of five options each.

8. There is no psychometric advantage to having a uniform number of options, especially if doing so results in options that are so implausible that no one or almost no one marks them. Several valid and important questions demand only three options,

After receiving pre-marital counselling the relationship between two persons will (Douglas 2013):

A. Increase,

B. Stay about the same,

C. Decrease.”

If the options have a natural order, such as dates or ages, it is advisable to arrange them accordingly; otherwise arrange the options in random or alphabetical order ( if alphabetizing does not give clues to the correct answer).

10. Use familiar language. The question should use the same terminology that was used in the course. Avoid using unfamiliar expressions or foreign language terms, unless measuring knowledge of such language is one of the goals of the question. Students are likely to dismiss distractors with unfamiliar terms as incorrect.

Write in the Active Voice. The active voice is used in a clause whose subject expresses the agent of the main verb. That is, the subject does the action designated by the verb. A sentence whose agent is marked as grammatical subject is called an active sentence. In contrast, a sentence in which the subject has the role of patient or theme is called a passive sentence, and its verb is expressed in passive voice.

12. Make all options approximately equal in length, complexity , grammatically correct and and appropriate in relation to the stem. However, do not let the stem give away the correct option by verbal associations or other clues. Avoid irrelevant clues to the correct option. Grammatical construction, for example, may lead students to reject options which are grammatically incorrect as the stem is stated. Perhaps more common and subtle, though, is the problem of common elements in the stem and in the answer. Consider the following item:

What led to the formation of the States’ Rights Party?

A. The level of federal taxation

B. The demand of states for the right to make their own laws

C. The industrialization of the South

D. The corruption of federal legislators on the issue of state taxation

13. Make all options plausible to examinees who do not know the correct answer, but make only one option correct or best. Popular misconceptions or statements that are only partially correct make good distracters. Options should be independent

14. In constructing each distracter, formulate a reason why an examinee who does not know the correct answer might select that distracter

15. Avoid, or at least minimize, the use of negative expressions such as not in either the stem or options. If this cannot be done, the negative words should always be highlighted by underlining or capitalisation. Negatives in the stem usually require that the answer be a false statement. Because students are likely in the habit of searching for true statements, this may introduce an unwanted bias.

16. A certain amount of novelty, and even humour is appropriate and may serve to interest and motivate examinees, ambiguous or tricky stems and options should not be used.

17. Use “none of the above”, “all of the above”, or “more than one of the above” sparingly. Also avoid specific determiners such as “always” or never”. Recognition of one wrong option eliminates “all of the above,” and recognition of two right options identifies it as the answer, even if the other options are completely unknown to the student. Some instructors use items with “all of the above” as yet another way of extending their teaching into the test . It just seems so good to have the students affirm, say, all of the major causes of some phenomenon. With this approach, “all of the above” is the answer to almost every item containing it, and the students soon figure this out. “none of the above” may be used as the final option, especially if the answer requires computation. Its use makes the question harder and more discriminating, because the uncertain student cannot focus on a set of options that must contain the answer. Of course, “none of the above” cannot be used if the question requires selection of the best answer and should not be used following a negative stem. Also, it is important that “none of the above” should be the answer to a reasonable proportion of the questions containing it. Specific determiners in distractors is a desperate effort to produce another, often unneeded, distractor and a statement is made incorrect by the inclusion of words like all or never

e.g., “All humans have 46 chromosomes.” Students learn to classify such statements as distractors when otherwise ignorant.

18. Place the options in stacked( paragraph) format rather than in tandem (back to back), using numbers to designate items and letters for options. Format the questions vertically, not horizontally (i.e., list the choices vertically)

19. Prepare the right number of items for the grade or age level to be tested, making each item independent of other items.

20. Construct each item to assess a single written objective. Items that are not written with a specific objective in mind often end up measuring lower-level objectives exclusively, or covering trivial material that is of little educational worth

21. Make the difficulty levels of items such that the percentage of examinees who answer the item correctly is approximately halfway between the chance (random guessing

percent and 100 percent (5 correct = 50 (k+1)/k is the number of distracters per item). The ideal question will be answered correctly by 60-65% of the tested population. This level of difficulty maximizes discrimination on exams. In the sciences at least, it can be an adventure to write items that are this easy. Instructors tend to overestimate student abilities and many item writers use their own capabilities as a yardstick,

22 .Avoid Typographical Errors and Overlapping Responses . A test wise but ignorant student will select Edward Seaga in the example below because he represents the intersection of several categories, Prime Minister, Framer of the Constitution and Cultural Icon . Some item writers consciously or unconsciously construct items of this type with the intersection invariably the correct answer.

A. Edward Seaga

B. David Coore

C. Portia Simpson Miller

D. Bob Marley

An examiner can compensate for ambiguities and mis-phrasing in grading numerical problems and essays however for multiple choice items, there must be a rigid application of grammar and logic for questions to be useful. It takes considerable time and thought to construct a good multiple choice item. Writing well-phrased stems with plausible foils is hardly ever easy. The guidelines presented here have must be supplemented with practical experience. Following the construction of the item stem, the likely more difficult task of generating options presents itself.

The challenges with ensuring that the question is grammatically correct is reinforced by the excerpt “ Rules of English” published in the Chronicle of Higher Education (May 19, 1982).

1. Don’t use no double negatives.

2. Make each pronoun agree with their antecedent.

3. Join clauses good, like a conjunction should.

4. When dangling watch them participles.

5. About them sentence fragments.

6. Verbs has to agree with their subject.

7. Just between you and I, case is important, too.

8. Don’t write run-on sentences they are hard to read.

9. Don’t use commas, which are not necessary.

10. Try to not ever split infinitives.

11. Its important to use your apostrophe’s correctly.

12. Proof read your writing to see if any words out.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS

There are several advantages to multiple choice tests. Well written MCQ’s are very effective assessment techniques. Reliability improves with larger numbers of items on a test, and with good sampling and care over case specificity, overall test reliability can be further increased. Multiple choice tests often require less time to administer for a given amount of material than would tests requiring written responses. This results in a more comprehensive evaluation of the candidate’s extent of knowledge.

Multiple choice questions lend themselves to the development of objective assessment items, because this style of test does not require a teacher to interpret answers, test-takers are graded purely on their selections, creating a lower likelihood of teacher bias in the results. Factors irrelevant to the assessed material (such as handwriting and clarity of presentation) do not come into play in a multiple-choice assessment, and so the candidate is graded purely on their knowledge of the topic. Multiple choice tests are the strongest predictors of overall student performance compared with other forms of evaluations, such as in-class participation, case exams, written assignments, and simulation games

They are however not a panacea, they have advantages and limitations just as any other type of test item. Teachers need to be aware of these characteristics in order to use multiple- choice items effectively.

Advantages

Versatility. Multiple-choice test items are appropriate for use in many different subject-matter areas, and can be used to measure a great variety of educational objectives. They are adaptable to various levels of learning outcomes, from simple recall of knowledge to more complex levels, such as the student’s ability to:

Analyze phenomena

? Apply principles to new situations

? Comprehend concepts and principles

? Discriminate between fact and opinion

? Interpret cause-and-effect relationships

? Interpret charts and graphs

? Judge the relevance of information

? Make inferences from given data

? Solve problems

The difficulty of multiple-choice items can be controlled by changing the alternatives, since the more homogeneous the alternatives, the finer the distinction the students must make in order to identify the correct answer. Multiple-choice items are amenable to item analysis, which enables the teacher to improve the item by replacing distractors that are not functioning properly. In addition, the distractors chosen by the student may be used to diagnose misconceptions of the student or weaknesses in the teacher’s instruction

2. Validity. In general, it takes much longer to respond to an essay test question than it does to respond to a multiple-choice test item, since the composing and recording of an essay answer is such a slow process. A student is therefore able to answer many multiple-choice items in the time it would take to answer a single essay question. This feature enables the teacher using multiple-choice items to test a broader sample of course content in a given amount of testing time. Consequently, the test scores will likely be more representative of the students’ overall achievement in the course

3. Reliability. Well-written multiple-choice test items compare favorably with other test item types on the issue of reliability. They are less susceptible to guessing than are true-false test items, and therefore capable of producing more reliable scores. Their scoring is more clear-cut than short-answer test item scoring because there are no misspelled or partial answers to deal with. Since multiple-choice items are objectively scored, they are not affected by scorer inconsistencies as are essay questions, and they are essentially immune to the influence of bluffing and writing ability factors, both of which can lower the reliability of essay test scores.

4. Efficiency. Multiple-choice items are amenable to rapid scoring, which is often done by scoring machines. This expedites the reporting of test results to the student so that any follow-up clarification of instruction may be done before the course has proceeded much further. Essay questions, on the other hand, must be graded manually, one at a time

DISADVANTAGES

The most serious disadvantage is the limited types of knowledge that can be assessed by multiple choice tests. Multiple choice tests are best adapted for testing well-defined or lower-order skills. Problem-solving and higher-order reasoning skills are better assessed through short-answer and essay tests.

Multiple choice tests are often chosen, not because of the type of knowledge being assessed, but because they are more affordable for testing a large number of students.

Another disadvantage of multiple choice tests is possible ambiguity in the examinee’s interpretation of the item. Failing to interpret information as the test maker intended can result in an “incorrect” response, even if the taker’s response is potentially valid. The term “multiple guess” has been used to describe this scenario because test-takers may attempt to guess rather than determine the correct answer. A free response test allows the test taker to make an argument for their viewpoint and potentially receive credit.

In addition, even if students have some knowledge of a question, they receive no credit for

knowing that information if they select the wrong answer and the item is scored dichotomously. However, free response questions may allow an examinee to demonstrate partial understanding of the subject and receive partial credit. Additionally if more questions on a particular subject area or topic are asked to create a larger sample then statistically their level of knowledge for that topic will be reflected more accurately in the number of correct answers and final results

Another disadvantage of multiple choice examinations is that a student who is incapable of answering a particular question can simply select a random answer and still have a chance of receiving a mark for it. It is common practice for students with no time left to give all remaining questions random answers in the hope that they will get at least some of them right.

Additionally, it is important to note that questions phrased ambiguously may cause test-taker confusion. It is generally accepted that multiple choice questions allow for only one answer, where the one answer may encapsulate a collection of previous options. However, some test creators are unaware of this and might expect the student to select multiple answers without being given explicit permission, or providing the trailing encapsulation options. Of course, untrained test developers are a threat to validity regardless of the item format

1. Versatility. Since the student selects a response from a list of alternatives rather than supplying or constructing a response, multiple-choice test items are not adaptable to measuring certain learning outcomes, such as the student’s ability to:

? Articulate explanations

? Display thought processes

? Furnish information

? Organize personal thoughts

? Perform a specific task

? Produce original ideas

? Provide examples

Such learning outcomes are better measured by short answer or essay questions, or by performance tests.

2. Reliability. Although they are less susceptible to guessing than are true false-test items, multiple-choice items are still affected to a certain extent. This guessing factor reduces the reliability of multiple-choice item scores somewhat, but increasing the number of items on the test offsets this reduction in reliability.

3. Difficulty of Construction. Good multiple-choice test items are generally more difficult and time-consuming to write than other types of test items. Coming up with plausible distractors requires a certain amount of skill. This skill, however, may be increased through study, practice, and experience

Deciding When Multiple-Choice Items Should Be Used

In order for scores to accurately represent the degree to which a student has attained an educational objective, it is essential that the form of test item used in the assessment be suitable for the objective. Multiple-choice test items are often advantageous to use, but they are not the best form of test item for every circumstance. In general, they are appropriate to use when the attainment of the educational

objective can be measured by having the student select his or her response from a list of several alternative responses.

One of the reasons why some teachers dislike multiple-choice items is that they believe these items are only good for measuring simple recall of facts. This misconception is understandable, because multiple-choice items are frequently used to measure lower-level objectives, such as those based on knowledge of terms, facts, methods, and principles. The real value of multiple choice items, however, is their applicability in measuring higher-level objectives, such as those based in comprehension, application, and analysis.

Checklist for Reviewing Multiple-Choice Items

1. Has the item been constructed to assess a single written objective?

2. Is the item based on a specific problem stated clearly in the stem?

3. Does the stem include as much of the item as possible, without including irrelevant material?

4. Is the stem stated in positive form?

5. Are the alternatives worded clearly and concisely?

6. Are the alternatives mutually exclusive?

7. Are the alternatives homogeneous in content?

8. Are the alternatives free from clues as to which response is correct?

9. Have the alternatives “all of the above” and “none of the above” been avoided?

10. Does the item include as many functional distractors as are feasible?

11. Does the item include one and only one correct or clearly best answer?

12. Has the answer been randomly assigned to one of the alternative positions?

13. Is the item laid out in a clear and consistent manner?

14. Are the grammar, punctuation, and spelling correct?

15. Has unnecessarily difficult vocabulary been avoided?

16. If the item has been administered before, has its effectiveness been analyzed?

Item writing checklist

1. Is the item clear and concise?

2. Did you use the active voice?

3. Did you avoid “ould” words?

4. Is the difficulty level acceptable?

5. Does the stem pose a question or an incomplete thought?

6. If you used blanks, are they at the end of the stem?

7. Does the stem focus on a significant or important aspect?

8. Did you emphasize the NEGATIVES?

9. Have you avoided keying the answer in the stem?

10. Are the distractors plausible?

11. Is there only one arguable correct response?

12. Are the foils homogeneous?

13. Did you avoid overlapping foils?

14. Are numerical foils in either ascending or descending order?[supanova_question]

Learning Objective for Module 2 Students will be able to articulate the

Learning Objective for Module 2

Students will be able to articulate the importance of using the time after school to do something new to help close achievement gaps between low-income and higher income youth.

READ:

Gardner, M. Roth, J.L., Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Can after-school programs help level the playing field for disadvantaged youth. Campaign for Educational Equity Teachers College, Columbia University. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED523997.pdf

WATCH:

Examine the graphic and listen to THIS short (2.5 min) video (both copied from ExpandEDSchools in NY). Think about the message- by the time they reach 6th grade, middle class kids have likely spent 6,000 more hours learning than kids born into poverty.

LISTEN TO THE LECTURE:

Equity vs Equality: The OST Opportunity

A CASE AGAINST SUMMER VACATION

READ:

Mahoney, J. L. (2011). Adolescent summer care arrangements and risk for obesity the following school year. Journal of Adolescence, 34(4), 737–749.

WATCH:

Impact of Summer on Socio-Economic Achievement Gap: (2 min)

https://youtu.be/Ahhj3wxxkdM

OPTIONAL READ:

Drehle, D. V. (2010, April) .The Case Against Summer Vacation. Time 36-42.

WATCH:

A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education

(Required: 0-38:30 min, but I encourage you to watch the whole thing!)

Pedro Noguera delivers the 2011 UVA Ridley Lecture, titled “A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education,” outlining BBA principles and recommendations for addressing poverty-related impediments to learning that diminish opportunities too many American children.

https://youtu.be/SxRL-aOoevE

OPTIONAL READ:

Balfanz, R. (2012). Overcoming the Poverty Challenge to Enable College and Career Readiness for All.[supanova_question]

Instructions Please turn in a reflection paper here that discusses what you

Instructions

Please turn in a reflection paper here that discusses what you learned this week especially related to the learning outcomes. A good practice would be to carefully review the outcomes before you begin to read the resources and texts. The objective of the paper is to review the benefits of your learning for your job or your personal edification. If you are an in-service student, applications to your job would be very appropriate. If you are a pre-service student please reflect on how the learning outcomes may or may not be compatible with your overall learning objectives. This reflection paper needs only to be about 3 to 5 pages in length.

https://barry.instructure.com/courses/1602435/files/65883241/download?wrap=1

https://barry.instructure.com/courses/1602435/files/65883242/download?wrap=1

Week 3: How to Find and Keep Good People

Chapter Summary

              Hiring the right person for a government job is usually an extremely complex and difficult task, because civil service rules and employment laws dictate various steps and procedures that managers must follow in the hiring process. In addition, public sector salaries tend to be fairly low and inflexible compared with private sector salaries; government has a negative reputation; and the benefits and security of government jobs often attract timid, risk-averse individuals, which makes it difficult to implement an aggressive and daring program strategy. Despite these challenges, attracting good people to work in the public sector is certainly not impossible. It is up to the effective public manager to find interested and qualified people to fill staff positions.

              To find good people, effective managers will first assess their current staff members in terms of their skills, strengths, and weaknesses in order to determine their staffing needs. The managers then must develop an effective recruitment network capable of filling those staffing needs. Effective managers have a well-developed professional network that they can use to get the word out about a job opening and obtain nominations for the position. Managers can join relevant professional associations and social media professional groups such as LinkedIn and use social media to target specific organizational needs. Additionally, good people should be encouraged to apply using this network. Once applications are received, managers must judge applicants based on each applicant’s ability to fit the organization’s specific needs.

              Every government organization has very specific rules governing hiring and firing. In addition to complying with civil service laws, employers must comply with various federal and state employment laws and executive orders dealing with equal opportunity employment, affirmative action, and antidiscrimination policies.

              Instead of filling a permanent or full-time position, managers can bring a person into an organization with a temporary appointment. It is often possible to hire someone much more quickly through a temporary appointment. Temporary personnel tend to be less socialized into organizational norms and less inclined to follow standard procedures for their own sake than are permanent employees.

              When it is not feasible to hire temporary employees, another approach is the use of contractors. Although contracting comes with risks, many success stories suggest that a multisector strategy can be effective in solving public policy problems. Another way to staff an organization is to borrow people from other organizations by assembling an agency or multiagency task force, asking to have people assigned or detailed to a different organization on a temporary basis, or asking another organization to perform a particular task.

              It is likely that a great deal of public sector recruitment will focus on selling the organization’s mission. The manager’s job is to identify and recruit people who share the organization’s sense of mission. Managers must also obtain the resources needed to develop the organization’s incentive system. Motivation must be management’s primary mission. To keep good people, managers must provide an organizational environment that rewards innovation. Keeping good people and building an effective, entrepreneurial staff involves developing a sense of group cohesion and teamwork. The best way for managers to retain good people is to constantly communicate with members of their staff in order to develop a sophisticated understanding of their personalities and needs.

              Dealing with poor performance requires a manager to first identify the poor performance and then encourage improved performance in order to correct the poor performance. However, it is important to know when to give up on a staff member. In this case, the manager then needs to get that person to leave the organization. It is the public manager’s job to develop a management scheme for working around inadequate staff members and obtaining productive effort from competent staffers.

              One key responsibility of managers is to influence the behavior of their subordinates. Managers who ignore the job of staff development will substantially reduce their chances for success. Managers with entrepreneurial ambitions must pay particularly close attention to staff development. Brilliant strategies can fail miserably if executed by a weak and poorly motivated staff.

 

Week 4: Developing Effective Working Relationships

Chapter Summary

              Effective management involves influencing people to behave in ways that help you implement your organizational strategy. Among the most important people for you to influence are the people you work for, the people you work alongside, and the people who work for you. Incentive tools and rewards will not go far if the interpersonal environment of an organization is negative or destructive. The first steps in establishing and nurturing positive working relationships that support a productive work environment are determining whose demands you should try to meet and then learning to listen carefully to these people.

              The key to success in establishing effective working relationships is determining which demands should be met and in what order of priority. In some situations, managers will want to be responsive for reasons related to politics or enlightened self-interest, but most of their actions must be guided by the dictates of their strategy. Without a strategy, a manager has no basis for resisting the demands of superiors and staff and will have difficulty producing important organization outputs in a timely manner.

              Effective managers must learn to listen effectively in order to gather important information and advice. Organizations operate informally as well as through a formal hierarchy. To get things done, managers must sometimes exchange favors and information. Managers’ effectiveness depends on their ability to get along with people. As nearly all public managers report to someone, it is important that managers know how to adjust to their boss’s style and figure out ways of accomplishing their organizational strategy within the constraints posed by that style.

              It is important to treat a supervisor with respect and to treat his or her time as a precious commodity. When communicating with their boss, managers should be sure that the message fits within one of their organization’s critical missions. If managers disagree with their boss, sometimes it is best to suppress their views and fall in line, but sometimes they will need to discuss the disagreement with their boss and forge a compromise. The exception to this is ethical issues.

              Part of the job of the effective manager is maintaining worker morale, and an important aspect of this is learning about the specific incentives that motivate individual staff members. Information about a staff’s preferences is far more important to successful management than understanding the status of financial or performance indicators. Motivating key staff members is the primary mission of management.

              Informal communication with staff is important because it ensures that the message is individually tailored to the person a manager wishes to influence. It also projects intimacy and a sense of belonging to a privileged decision group and allows managers to reconsider requests in light of new information or direct feedback.

              Public sector unions remain large and powerful in many places, so managers must be aware of the local labor environment. Good managers will try to build trust with the union(s) they are dealing with, but they may sometimes come in conflict with a union. In the event of a conflict, the manager should confront the issue as quickly and directly as possible.

              One of the principal tasks of management is to mediate internal conflict. The most common sources of staff unhappiness seem to be mismanagement, management competition, poor working conditions, inadequate promotional potential or staff cutbacks, personality conflicts, and external or environmental conditions. The manager of an organization must monitor and maintain staff morale and work to alleviate staff unhappiness. The worst thing a manager can do about a situation the staff finds frustrating is to deny the legitimacy of their frustration. A manager cannot run an organization without setting direction, but managers should avoid ordering people around.

              Many of the interpersonal communication skills that managers must learn within their own organizations often must be applied in a network context as well. Figuring out how to motivate network partners who may not be located in the same physical space or who have divergent organizational missions and goals is challenging. Network partners need to establish routines for organizational interaction and network management support. Just as with internal organizations, networks of organizations also may need to establish formal mechanisms whereby conflicts can be addressed and resolved.

              Networks and other geographically dispersed organizational relationships seem to be easier to maintain in today’s world of electronic mail, but this tool should be used with some caution. While e-mail is easy and has its place, it is not a substitute for a phone call or a visit. In today’s increasingly global, 24/7, and networked organizational environment, face-to-face communication is a decreasing proportion of organizational communication. The same consideration applies to other forms of communication, including text messaging, video chat, and online chatting. Different messages require different media, and effective managers must calibrate their messages to the available media. Good working relationships can be damaged by inadequate communication. Given the importance of these rapid, mobile communication tools, the effective public manager should consider required training on the proper use of these tools.[supanova_question]

The format is the same as the midterm. Final Paper Questions1: Democracy and InequalityDrawing on Capital in the 21st

Evolutionary Biology of Humans

Evolutionary Biology of Humans.

Molecular data suggests our subfamily originated somewhere around 6-7 million years ago. What do we know about the origins of the hominins. What fossil evidence do we have that tells us about the evolutionary path that led on to the modern species. What can we say about the behavior and culture of these earlier humans? What evidence could we use to construct how they behaved? Limit your answer to the fossil evidence that is older than 2.0 million years.#2. The Late Pleistocene was a period that marked the morphological change from archaic forms to modern peoples. What fossil evidence do we have about the emergence of modern Homo sapiens along with the time framework for this transition?  List sites and fossils that detail this change. What can you say about behavioral change as it relates to these modern hominins?[supanova_question]

2. The theory of Deontology is a consequentialist theory True False 3.

2. The theory of Deontology is a consequentialist theory

True

False

3. Immanuel Kant’s moral philosophy opposes consequentialist theories

True

False

4. According to Kant’s moral philosophy, an action has moral worth if our motives behind the action obey a rational principle.

True

False

5. Kant would see the exploitation of children as immoral because:

A. he firmly believed children would become decent adults if they were treated like children
B.he believed children needed to attend school 
C. he rigidly believed that people should not be treated as means to an end
D. none of the above

6. Kant believed there was only one capacity which determined one’s standing in the moral universe, this was:

Reason

Sincerity

Compassion

Business

7. Utilitarians strongly advocate that “the end justifies the means”.

True

False

8. A person who always help and serve others before satisfying his/her own need is viewed as an altruist person. 

True

False

9. Ethical relativism embraces the concept of tolerance and pluralism.
A.True

B.False

10. Philosophy has found the beginning of morality in religious faith.

A.True

B.False

11.Socrates emphasized the importance of being an obedient citizen rather than being a critical thinker. 

A.True

B.False

12. The sole reason for Aristotle of developing a virtuous character was to be:

: ___________________________________________________________.

13.Virtue is _______________ between the extremes of vice – excess and deficiency.

14. Aristotle believed the purpose of a human was to : _______________.

15. For Aristotle, goodness of character must be developed by _________.

16 . What is the central philosophical concept of the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant ____________________________ .

17. Who said that if you can’t universalize your action then it is not moral?

I. Kant

Socrates

J. Bentham

David Hume

18. Nonconsequentialist theories locate morality on the outcomes and the benefits of our actions.

A.True

B.False

19. Mercy killing is illegal in the US.

A.True

B.False

20. A strong argument against mercy killing is based on the principle of

Goodness

Justice

Liberty

Life

21.Which US state has a law allowing “assisted suicide”?

Oregon

Arkansas

Vermont

New York

22. Moral rules for Kant are established by reasoning alone, according to:

Outcomes and desire

Rational consistency and universalizability

Law and Collective happiness

Faith

23.One downside or disadvantage that nonconsequentialist theories of morality have is

It focuses on the coast benefit analysis

Human happiness and consequences are taken into account

Creates absolute rules with exceptions

D. Provide strong guidance for economic benefit

24.Prima facie duties literally are duties

A. Given by the church

B. Depending on economic progress

C. Based on government profit

D. At first Glance

25. One of the downsides of consequentialist theories is that

They are based on hypothesis and predictions

They emphasize moral character of the person doing the act

They are based on duties and obligations

26. Which of the following is a strength of nonconsequentialist approaches
A. It shuts down moral debate

B. Ignores human happiness

C. Rules are not determined by the outcomes and benefits of the action.[supanova_question]

Evolutionary Biology of Humans

Capstone project

Capstone project.

I have attached its requirements, homework contents and comments to the document. You can understand them through them. This assignment has a low score, so you may need to make large-scale modifications. Just make sure that the selected organization is ColourPop.The homework involves some media and picture display. I can do this myself. So when it comes to narration, please try to be as clear as possible so that I can understand how to do these display pictures.Please complete the writing as required. Please finish on time. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions.[supanova_question]

Slide Presentation

Create a Keynote/PowerPoint presentation on these three topics
Quality of care
Outcomes management
Ethical and legal issues facing case managers
As background for quality of care, read
Donabedian A: The quality of care: How can it be assessed?
As background for outcomes management, read
Epstein RS, Sherwood LH: From outcomes research to disease management: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Intern Med 124_9_:832-837, 1996
As background for ethical and legal issues, read
Hendricks AG, Cesar WJ: Ethical and Legal Issues Facing Case Managers Today. Case Manager 14_3_:56-62, 2003
Be sure, as part of your slide content for each topic, to cite material from the target article readings.
Use the APA format as a guideline. Grammar and spelling count.
Create a Keynote/PowerPoint presentation with
At least 20 slides (at least 6 slides per topic), not including the title slide and the reference list/bibliography
For each topic, add notes at the bottom of 3 slides to enhance the content
[supanova_question]

Histology and cytology activity

Capstone project Histology part (A)PowerPoint( B) E poster
A (Morphology of Thyroid Carcinomas)
1. The students should prepare a powerpoint on the given topic and do the oral presentation
2. it is histology , don’t write anatomical or generally.
3. Kindly refer books and online literature and prepare your presentation
4. Try to use more images and pictures depending upon your topic
5. Do not put excessive text and/or just do “Reading of slides”
6. The powerpoint slides number should not be more than 15.
7. The maximum time allotted for presentation is 20 minutes

B)Hepatocellular carcinoma
The students should prepare an E-poster on the given topic
1) it is histology , don’t write anatomical or generally.
2. The topic for poster (hepatocelleular carcinoma)
3. Prepare an eposter (soft copy only) for the given topic on paper of standard poster size
4. Use atleast 1 picture of ‘gross appearance’ of the lesion (your topic)
5. Use good quality pictures showing the histopathological features of
the lesion
6. Include good quality image/images from standard books, journals or
internet and labelling them and mention the references at the bottom
of poster.
7. Correct choice of background, poster layout and colours should be
done.
8. Describe the important and relevant diagnostic histopathological
points about the topic in the poster. (Do not overcrowd with too much
text)
9. Label the images appropriately for the diagnostic features present in it
10.A foot note for each image is required
Cytology ( E poster only )
Cytomorphology of Lipoma and Myxoid liposarcoma
The students should prepare an e-poster on the given topic.
2. Poster should be sent as a soft copy
3. This cytology activity , don’t write gen
4. The given topic should be explained by using good quality pictures with
appropriate labelling using arrows and description in foot notes for each picture.
5. Tables can be added to mention characteristic cytomorphological findings and
differential diagnosis for the given topic
6. References should be present in the end
7. Data and pictures can be taken from any source, provided due credit is given by
mentioning the reference in the end.

done
Seen
7 mins ago[supanova_question]

MONETARY GAME EXCHANGE 4 Running Head: MONETARY GAME EXCHANGE 1 Monetary Game

MONETARY GAME EXCHANGE 4

Running Head: MONETARY GAME EXCHANGE 1

Monetary Game Exchange

Lisbeth Gomez

DeVry University

Monetary Game Exchange: Part 2

Source: OANDA© Currency Converter 2021

Analysis

The currency of choice is the Japanese Yen (JPY), trading at 151.95 as of Monday 16th, 2021, for a single sterling pound. Although the Japanese Yen has less value than the sterling pound (BGP), its current trend and expected economic changes show a possible gaining pattern. This factor highly influenced my decision to purchase £71,942.4 worth of JPY (equivalent to 10,931,700 yens). According to forex analyst Thomas Westwater (2021), 0.7% growth of Japan’s second-quarter GDP data will save the country from a technical recession, and the Yen will gain against the sterling pound. In addition, the value of GBP/JPY was reduced in the previous week after the release of front-end UK government bond yields and second-quarter GDP data (Spivak, 2021). The action was beneficial to the Japanese Yen, which gained against other top currencies such as USD, Euro, and the Australian dollar. Being a safe-haven currency, JPY will continue to hold highs against other currencies because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (Buckland, 2021). Safe-haven currencies (USD, JPY, and Swiss Franc (CHF)) appear strong or even increase in value during geopolitical stress. The Yen demonstrated these characteristics by outpacing both GBP and USD in the daily charts. This is mainly because of COVID-inspired lockdowns and the surge in Delta variant infections in the United Kingdom and the United States, especially in areas where vaccine procurement is delayed.

References

Buckland, K. (2021, July 20). Yen, dollar ascendant as delta variant spurs flight to safety. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/yen-dollar-ascendant-delta-variant-spurs-flight-safety-2021-07-20/

OANDA. (2021, June 26). Currency converter | Foreign exchange rates. https://www1.oanda.com/currency/converter/

Spivak, I. (2021, August 13). British Pound May Fall vs. US Dollar, Yen after Turn at Key Chart Levels. DailyFX. https://www.dailyfx.com/forex/technical/article/special_report/2021/08/13/British-Pound-May-Fall-vs.-US-Dollar-Yen-After-Turn-at-Key-Chart-Levels.html

Westwater, T. (2021, August 15). Japanese yen forecast: USD/JPY eyes Japanese GDP data to kick off APAC trading. DailyFX. https://www.dailyfx.com/forex/fundamental/daily_briefing/daily_pieces/asia_am_briefing/2021/08/15/Japanese-Yen-Forecast-USDJPY-Eyes-Japanese-GDP-Data-to-Kick-Off-APAC-Trading.html[supanova_question]

I am what I am A Series of Monologues and Interviews By

I am what I am

A Series of Monologues and Interviews

By Elizabeth Crews

Len and Shelton

Len is a slight man with a thin figure. He has dark brown hair and a quirky smile. He is clean shaven and wears rectangular glasses with thick, dark rims. His dress is dark jeans and plain light colored button up shirt, un-tucked, with the top few buttons undone. He wears sandals. He has a corded bracelet on and a seashell and rope necklace. He looks as if he belongs on a beach somewhere.

Shelby is a husky man, slightly pudgy and a bit awkward. He is self-conscious and shy. He doesn’t speak much, but he interacts with Len throughout the interview with smiles, nods, and a squeeze of the hand now and then as Len speaks.

Interviewer: Tell me how you met.

Len: We met about 5 years ago at the movie store I used to work at. Shelton came in 2-3 times per week to rent movies and would always ask me for recommendations. He was shy at first. I didn’t realize he was interested in me. I thought he just really liked 80’s movies (laugh & smile at Shelton. Shelton smiles at Len, blushes and looks down at his lap a bit embarrassed)

I barely noticed him the first few weeks he came in, but then I started thinking that maybe there was something more to these movie recommendations. He seemed interested, but I don’t think he was ready to accept the fact that he was attracted to me.

I later learned that I wasn’t really his type. He typically went for manlier men from what he has told me.

Shelton: I had never really been with a man in a relationship. (Len interjects)

Len: He had a few affairs, but wasn’t completely out about his homosexuality yet to his friends or family. I personally think they already knew, but he didn’t want to talk about it.

Interviewer: You seem comfortable with your sexuality though. Did you always know you were gay?

Len: I realized I was gay at a very young age, very, very, young. I remember wanting to play with the girls on the playground. I wanted to play jump rope and hop scotch and play with their hair. I wanted to actually be a girl. I liked teasing the boys with them and trying to flirt, although back then I didn’t realize it was flirting. I thought I was just being cute and playful.

It was in about 3rd or 4th grade that I realized that was not something I should be really doing. The teasing started and the boys really were not comfortable around me. I was actually bullied a lot in 4th grade.

Interviewer: Tell me more about being bullied.

Len: It was awful. Jr. High was the worst, especially because it was such a small school. In the time that most guys were trying to “bag a chick” I was more worried about getting into the school choir and drama club. I was also really trying not to be too obvious about that fact that I was somewhat checking out guys in the showers at PE. It was actually really hard for me. I remember being attracted to this guy Mike. He was the guy all the girls wanted…and I was sure I could make him love me.

That didn’t turn out so well. I tried to sit close to him once in an assembly. My sexual preference must have been a little too apparent because he pushed me away from him and yelled. “Get off me fag.” From that point on most of the guys would cover their bodies in the locker room and wouldn’t look me in the eye.

I had a few friends who were ok with it though, and the girls didn’t seem to mind much. Well, most of them at least. Some were snobs, but they didn’t ridicule me like the guys did.

Anyway, it doesn’t matter. By our junior year everyone had pretty much accepted that I was gay, but there were no other gay guys, or at least any who had come out, in our whole school of 400 kids. So I didn’t date at all until I was in college.

Interviewer: You and Shelton seem happy together. What does your future hold?

We would like to be married. We were going to file a civil union and possibly look into adopting children, but I think that being truly married is so important to both of us that we may wait on having children until after we are able to legally wed.

Interviewer: Why is it so important to you?

Len: Why is it so important to you? I mean, why should it be any less important to me to want to marry the love of my life than it is for you to marry yours? I love him. I want to be with him forever, and I want all the bells and whistles that go along with it. I want the wedding, the honeymoon, the honeymoon stage (laughs)

Annie and Liz

Annie is a feminine woman with a sundress and ballerina flat shoes on. She has long hair and wears natural looking makeup and a shiny gloss. She wears a diamond wedding ring, earrings, a necklace and a small chain bracelet. She has an older style plain brown purse.

Liz is shorter than Annie. She wears jean shorts, a T-shirt and tennis shoes. She does not carry a purse. She has a short haircut, and carries herself a bit manly. She laughs and smiles a lot, and gave me a firm handshake when we began our interview.

Interview with both Annie and Liz

Interviewer: How did you meet?

Liz: We met years and years ago at a company picnic for the physical therapy office I was working at. She was a friend of a co-worker and was visiting from out of town.

Annie: I wasn’t actually going to go. I was talked into it with the promise of the best burgers . My friend Dan was the one who brought me, and the one who said he was the best BBQ chef in town.

Liz: He wasn’t that great. (laughs)

Interviewer: Was it love at first site?

Liz: I couldn’t stop staring at her. She had the prettiest sun dress on, and her hair was blowing in the wind. Every time our eyes met It was like one of those cheesy romance movies where time slows down.

(Annie smiles and nods in agreement)

Annie: She was so strong. I remember watching her pull a beer from the cooler, pop it open, take a gulp, and then throw the cooler on her shoulder and head down to the sand by the beach volleyball court. Her arms were so muscular, and she was so physically fit.

Interviewer: Have you always known you were gay?

Liz: Yup, never a doubt.

Annie: No. I dated a few boys in high school, but had the cliché lesbian experience in college and it was a lot more fun. I was more comfortable in a relationship with a woman. I didn’t date another man after my first experience with a girl.

Interviewer: Was it difficult to come out?

Liz: I grew up in southern California. I think it was acceptable to be gay in my school. I never experienced any teasing or bullying, and I don’t think I ever really came out of anything. I was just gay. Period. I think some of the guys felt threatened, but I never really cared. I had a few girlfriends. I took a completely hot chick to prom. It was just what it was.

Annie: By the time I came out I was an adult. My parents both passed when I was young. I am the youngest of 5 children and my oldest brother is 12 years older than me. I think the gap in age and their maturity helped. I don’t think they were necessarily happy about it, but Liz was the first, and only, woman I had introduced them to as my lover, and we have been together for so long that she is just part of the family.

Interviewer: How long have you been together?

Annie: 14 years.

Interviewer: What does your future hold?

Annie: Housework, the kid’s sports, school events, and a never ending amount of laundry.

(Liz pats her on the back)

Liz: I think we have the same plans that anyone has. Raise our kids and have a happy home.

Interviewer: Tell me about your children. Did you adopt?

Liz: Annie carried them both. We opted for artificial insemination, and were able to use the same donor for both of the kids. Jake is 6, and Molly is 4. They are both great kids, Healthy, happy.

(Annie smiles and leans against Liz)

Interviewer: What do you think it is like for them having two moms?

Annie: I think it was harder for the other kids in Jake’s kindergarten class than it has been for him. They were so curious about the two women he called mom. At first I think they thought one of us was a step-mom. They are still too young to really understand, but I think it will all be fine.

Jenni and Mona

Jenni is rail thin. She has large eyes and a small mouth. She has shoulder length stringy brown hair. She is in her mid-30’s but dresses much younger. She is described as the “cool mom” by her children’s peers. She looks much the same as she did just out of high school.

Mona has olive colored skin and a short dark brown haircut. She is dressed in her store clerk uniform, but has taken off the apron upon entering and laid it on the seat next to her. She does not wear makeup, but her dark eyes and lashes make her quite stunning. Neither woman appears at all manly. They are both beautiful and feminine.

Interview with Mona

Interviewer: How did you meet?

Mona: At the grocery store. She shopped there all the time. We talked a lot and became friends and she just kept coming back to my checkout stand.

Interviewer: Was it love at first site.

Mona: (Emphatic) NO! Neither of us was gay. We were both married with kids.

Interviewer: How did the relationship develop if neither of you were gay?

Mona: Honestly, I don’t know. She was unhappy in her marriage, and mine was failing as well. We kind of bonded over quick conversations in the checkout line. Then we had a conversation one night in the parking lot after I got off work. Then about a week later we saw each other at Starbucks and stayed there talking for 3 hours about everything under the sun. That was the day I knew I was somewhat interested in her.

I didn’t think of it as a sexual thing. I just wanted to see her again and I had such a great time that I felt a bit giddy.

She later said she felt the same. We went to movies, each other’s kids events. We filled in the gap where our husbands were absent. Her husband was out of town a lot with work, mine was just an ass who wouldn’t get off the couch or peel his eyes off the TV long enough to notice I was gone.

Interviewer: How did your kids take it?

Mona: They loved Jenni. They didn’t know it was developing into a lesbian relationship because we didn’t either.

Interviewer: At what point did it escalate to a relationship?

Mona: After I left my husband. She was still married, but she started coming over to my place during the day while the kids were at school. I worked night shifts anyway, so it worked out for both of us to see each other during the day. She made the first move. We were watching a movie from my couch, and she leaned over and tucked herself under my arm and laid her head on my chest. She smelled so nice, and I wanted to play with her hair. She must have known or sensed it, because she turned her head so she was looking in my eyes, smiled, and then kissed me. It took another several months before we made it to the bedroom, but by that time we knew we were in love and the wheels were set in motion for her to leave her husband too.

Interviewer: What was it like divorcing men and starting your future with a woman? That couldn’t have been easy for your families to accept.

Mona: It wasn’t. We were all but disowned by Jenni’s family. My family wasn’t too thrilled either, and my mom threatened to take me to court for custody of the kids because she was sure it would cause mental distress for them. They were in their late teens at this point, and I think they were shocked, but neither of them was hurtful or hateful. Jenni’s kids were young. Her ex hated me and fought me verbally every time he saw me. We got through it though, and we are actually on good terms with her ex, which is better for the kids.

Rob and James

Rob is a gorgeous, tall man. He dresses nicely in slacks and a button down shirt. He smells amazing and is so neatly groomed.

James is short and blonde. He is handsome too, but in a less striking way. He is all-American boy cute.

(Delivered to the interviewer who nods and listens intently while Rob tells his story. James sits by his side holding Rob’s hand as he speaks. He is supportive, smiles and pats Rob’s hand from time to time.)

Rob: I wasn’t always gay. I think after my daughter died I became a different person. I could barely breathe anymore. She was only three years old. I couldn’t look at my wife anymore. Casey drowned in the bathtub, and my wife was home. She should have been watching her in the tub. I never forgave her for that.

I began drinking a lot, and frequenting the shady parts of town. I don’t know how it happened, but I wandered into a gay bar one night. I was completely bombed, and James gave me a ride home.

Strangely enough. I was the one who made the first move. James was quite obviously gay. He had made that clear. He just didn’t know that I wasn’t. He let me do things with him that my wife would never let me, and he sucked my cock like no woman could.

I was angry at the world, and this man was letting me fuck the anger right out of my heart. No matter what I gave him, he could take it. I stayed with him the rest of the weekend and he let me cry, talk, and screw my way through the darkness of my life.

I couldn’t leave him. He was like an addiction. I wanted more of the freedom that came with burying myself in him. Pouring my soul into him in so many ways.

Eventually I came to love him, and I didn’t want to just use him for release anymore. He nursed me through my dark times, and now I wanted to return that love.

I don’t know that I could have been gay with anyone else, but I know that I could never be any other way than gay with this man. He is the love of my life, and I will never leave him.

Cathy and Rebecca

Rebecca is stunning. She has black hair halfway down her back and a curvy figure most women would be jealous of. She dresses provocatively and has a lot of makeup on. Her nails are long, acrylic with red nail polish. She has a tattoo on her wrist.

Cathy is more masculine, but has the same dark stunning features and black hair that Rebecca has. She has a matching tattoo on her wrist. Something tribal looking. She is wearing men’s style surfer shorts and a sleeveless t-shirt. I noticed she does not shave her armpits and she chews.

The relationship between them is pure heat. They seem sexually charged and are constantly looking at each other suggestively and touching each other. Rebecca places her hand on Cathy’s upper thigh, toward the inside as she starts to speak.

Interviewer: How did you meet?

Cathy: We met at a club. Rebecca was dancing out on the floor and it was such a turn on to watch her move. She kept making eye contact with me while she was rubbing up against all of the drooling men. They all wanted her, but I knew I would be taking her home. I did you know…take her home. It was an amazing night. I wanted her like I had never wanted anyone before.

I was married for 12 years to my high school boyfriend. We had 3 kids together, all boys, so obviously we had sex. It was nothing like my experiences with Rebecca though. I didn’t know sex could feel so fucking good. It’s so hot. Every time. We steam up the bedroom windows. (they look at each other and I get the feeling they want to leave the interview to go have sex right now)

Unfortunately we don’t get to do it all that often. We moved in with my mom after my father died. She refuses to see Rebecca as my wife. She calls her my “little friend.” She had set up separate bedrooms for us and was so confused when I explained that we would share a room. Two years later and she refuses to believe I am a lesbian.

We even tried having obnoxiously loud sex one time to get the point across. She turned up the TV so loud that I think the neighbors could hear it. I truly think she believes that it is a phase and I will outgrow it. She doesn’t realize that the life I was living prior to being with Rebecca was the lie, not this one.

She needs help though. She can’t run the ranch herself. I am the only “man” around here now that Dad’s gone. My brother is no help to her at all. In fact, he high-tailed it out of town the day he turned 18, and other than dad’s funeral, I don’t think he has been back since.

We call ourselves married, but the legal term is domestic partners. We wear tattooed rings on our fingers, and have a few other matching tats to show our love for each other. We will get married someday. As soon as it is legal in this fucking backward state.

It doesn’t really matter right now though. We will still live our lives as a married couple, only with hot sex and lots of nightlife when the boys are with their father. I still love to watch her teasing the guys on the dance floor. Sometimes we can barely make it out of the club. It such a turn on that we usually end up stripping down and going at it in the car in the parking lot. MMMM…and that’s all I need for now.

C’mon babe…let’s get outta here (Cathy grabs Rebecca’s hand and they leave the interview room)

Interviewer: (Said to an empty room) Well, I guess that interview is over.

(Interviewer chuckles, folds over the paper on the notebook used for taking notes, and puts her hands in his/her lap)

Chris

(Delivered to the audience as a monologue by a townsperson. A man, dressed in jeans and a t-shirt with a baseball cap on. Very casual. Mid 30’s,” average Joe”)

Chris was married. He had a child. He later said that he married and had his kid to please his family.

I guess he had always been gay, but none of us had a clue. He seemed so happy. He said that he decided to come out because his wife wanted to have more children and he knew he couldn’t. He physically couldn’t anymore. He said they hadn’t had sex in months because he would break out in a cold sweat and go flaccid every time she tried to turn him on.

His family knew all along and told him that he would outgrow it. He said his father beat him and threatened to beat him more if he ever told anyone that he was “queer” (holds up hands and makes air quotes when saying the word queer)

His mother prayed a lot. His family was always a bit overly religious for my taste. They were pretty well known around town. I mean, they owned a restaurant and were super active in the community. I guess that’s why they wanted to keep it a secret (pauses and then says in almost an argument) but it was the 80’s. Granted, gay wasn’t as accepted as it is now, but I think we could have handled it.

After he came out to his wife she took the baby and left town. His family convinced him that it would be best for him to stay away from them and out of their lives. He never wanted kids anyway. It’s sad, but I think it was easy for him to separate himself from his child.

He pays child support through a separate account his financial advisor has set up, and doesn’t want anything to do with it. He even wants to see that he is paying support.

I see him around town every now and then. He comes back for holiday’s and events, and always with a new guy on his arm. I think he does it to piss them off…his parents I mean. He doesn’t talk to them at all, and they don’t acknowledge that he is even there, but you can tell his mom wants to talk to him, and I think his dad would rather bury him than meet one of his many boyfriends,

He told me once that he wanted to “screw his way through his 30’s” to make up for the time he feels he lost as a younger man.

I miss him. We were best friends. I tried to be supportive when he came out, but we have drifted apart over the years. I have my wife and family to consider. I am a Little League coach for Pete’s sake, what would people think?

(sigh) I don’t really have an issue with it, I just don’t want to be a part of his lifestyle, and I guess that means we aren’t really friends anymore.

Interviewer

(Delivered to the audience)

When I began interviewing these people I had intended to write a paper about love. I wanted to title it “Love is Love” and deliver stories so moving that anyone listening would see how deeply in love these gay couples were and run to the polls to vote for gay marriage to be legal in the United States. A lofty goal, I realize, but I did want it to be moving enough to make a difference.

What I found through these interviews was that it became more about people and what brought them together than about the story of their love.

I think that if you were listening, you can’t help but be touched by some of the stories, and I’ll bet that even if you aren’t gay you can identify with some of the issues and struggles that these men and women have gone through.

Gay marriage, straight marriage, civil union, common law marriage, they all mean the same thing. It is the decision made by people to share their lives with each other. To stick together through the good times and the bad, to support each other when needed and share in each other’s successes through life.

To deny anyone this basic happiness is cruel, and no good can come from cruelty.

After all, love truly is just love…no matter who you are, no matter who you choose to love.[supanova_question]

MONTANA CODE ANNOTATED 2014 http://leg.mt.gov/bills/mca/41/1/41-1-402.htm Montana Code 41-1-402: USE FOR TASK B

MONTANA CODE ANNOTATED 2014

http://leg.mt.gov/bills/mca/41/1/41-1-402.htm

Montana Code 41-1-402: USE FOR TASK B

 41-1-402. Validity of consent of minor for health services. (1) This part does not limit the right of an emancipated minor to consent to the provision of health services or to control access to protected health care information under applicable law.
     (2) The consent to the provision of health services and to control access to protected health care information by a health care facility or to the performance of health services by a health professional may be given by a minor who professes or is found to meet any of the following descriptions:
     (a) a minor who professes to be or to have been married or to have had a child or graduated from high school;
     (b) a minor who professes to be or is found to be separated from the minor’s parent, parents, or legal guardian for whatever reason and is providing self-support by whatever means;
     (c) a minor who professes or is found to be pregnant or afflicted with any reportable communicable disease, including a sexually transmitted disease, or drug and substance abuse, including alcohol. This self-consent applies only to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of those conditions specified in this subsection. The self-consent in the case of pregnancy, a sexually transmitted disease, or drug and substance abuse also obliges the health professional, if the health professional accepts the responsibility for treatment, to counsel the minor or to refer the minor to another health professional for counseling.
     (d) a minor who needs emergency care, including transfusions, without which the minor’s health will be jeopardized. If emergency care is rendered, the parent, parents, or legal guardian must be informed as soon as practical except under the circumstances mentioned in this subsection (2).
     (3) A minor who has had a child may give effective consent to health service for the child.
     (4) A minor may give consent for health care for the minor’s spouse if the spouse is unable to give consent by reason of physical or mental incapacity.

     History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 189, L. 1969; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 312, L. 1974; amd. Sec. 23, Ch. 100, L. 1977; R.C.M. 1947, 69-6101; amd. Sec. 14, Ch. 440, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 188, Ch. 42, L. 1997; amd. Sec. 2, Ch. 396, L. 2003.

http://leg.mt.gov/bills/mca/50/16/50-16-603.htm

Montana Code 50-16-603: USE FOR TASK C

     50-16-603. Confidentiality of health care information. Health care information in the possession of the department, a local board, a local health officer, or the entity’s authorized representatives may not be released except:
     (1) for statistical purposes, if no identification of individuals can be made from the information released;
     (2) when the health care information pertains to a person who has given written consent to the release and has specified the type of information to be released and the person or entity to whom it may be released;
     (3) to medical personnel in a medical emergency as necessary to protect the health, life, or well-being of the named person;
     (4) as allowed by Title 50, chapters 17 and 18;
     (5) to another state or local public health agency, including those in other states, whenever necessary to continue health services to the named person or to undertake public health efforts to prevent or interrupt the transmission of a communicable disease or to alleviate and prevent injury caused by the release of biological, chemical, or radiological agents capable of causing imminent disability, death, or infection;
     (6) in the case of a minor, as required by 41-3-201 or pursuant to an investigation under 41-3-202 or if the health care information is to be presented as evidence in a court proceeding involving child abuse pursuant to Title 41, chapter 3. Documents containing the information must be sealed by the court upon conclusion of the proceedings.
     (7) to medical personnel, the department, a local health officer or board, or a district court when necessary to implement or enforce state statutes or state or local health rules concerning the prevention or control of diseases designated as reportable pursuant to 50-1-202, if the release does not conflict with any other provision contained in this part.

     History: En. Sec. 3, Ch. 481, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 10, Ch. 391, L. 2003; amd. Sec. 26, Ch. 504, L. 2003.

http://leg.mt.gov/bills/mca/50/16/50-16-540.htm

Montana Code 50-16-540: USE FOR TASK D

     50-16-540. Reasonable fees allowed. A reasonable fee for providing health care information may not exceed 50 cents for each page for a paper copy or photocopy. A reasonable fee may include an administrative fee that may not exceed $15 for searching and handling recorded health care information.

     History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 300, L. 1999.

http://leg.mt.gov/bills/mca/50/16/50-16-541.htm

Montana Code 50-16-541: USE FOR TASK D

     50-16-541. Requirements and procedures for patient’s examination and copying. (1) Upon receipt of a written request from a patient to examine or copy all or part of the patient’s recorded health care information, a health care provider, as promptly as required under the circumstances but no later than 10 days after receiving the request, shall:
     (a) make the information available to the patient for examination, without charge, during regular business hours or provide a copy, if requested, to the patient;
     (b) inform the patient if the information does not exist or cannot be found;
     (c) if the health care provider does not maintain a record of the information, inform the patient and provide the name and address, if known, of the health care provider who maintains the record;
     (d) if the information is in use or unusual circumstances have delayed handling the request, inform the patient and specify in writing the reasons for the delay and the earliest date, not later than 21 days after receiving the request, when the information will be available for examination or copying or when the request will be otherwise disposed of; or
     (e) deny the request in whole or in part under 50-16-542 and inform the patient.
     (2) Upon request, the health care provider shall provide an explanation of any code or abbreviation used in the health care information. If a record of the particular health care information requested is not maintained by the health care provider in the requested form, the health care provider is not required to create a new record or reformulate an existing record to make the information available in the requested form. The health care provider may charge a reasonable fee for each request, not to exceed the fee provided for in 50-16-540, for providing the health care information and is not required to provide copies until the fee is paid.

     History: En. Sec. 13, Ch. 632, L. 1987; amd. Sec. 5, Ch. 300, L. 1999.

http://leg.mt.gov/bills/mca/50/16/50-16-542.htm

Montana Code 50-16-542: USE FOR TASK D.

     50-16-542. Denial of examination and copying. (1) A health care provider may deny access to health care information by a patient if the health care provider reasonably concludes that:
     (a) knowledge of the health care information would be injurious to the health of the patient;
     (b) knowledge of the health care information could reasonably be expected to lead to the patient’s identification of an individual who provided the information in confidence and under circumstances in which confidentiality was appropriate;
     (c) knowledge of the health care information could reasonably be expected to cause danger to the life or safety of any individual;
     (d) the health care information is data, as defined in 50-16-201, that is compiled and used solely for utilization review, peer review, medical ethics review, quality assurance, or quality improvement;
     (e) the health care information might contain information protected from disclosure pursuant to 50-15-121 and 50-15-122;
     (f) the health care provider obtained the information from a person other than the patient; or
     (g) access to the health care information is otherwise prohibited by law.
     (2) Except as provided in 50-16-521, a health care provider may deny access to health care information by a patient who is a minor if:
     (a) the patient is committed to a mental health facility; or
     (b) the patient’s parents or guardian has not authorized the health care provider to disclose the patient’s health care information.
     (3) If a health care provider denies a request for examination and copying under this section, the provider, to the extent possible, shall segregate health care information for which access has been denied under subsection (1) from information for which access cannot be denied and permit the patient to examine or copy the information subject to disclosure.
     (4) If a health care provider denies a patient’s request for examination and copying, in whole or in part, under subsection (1)(a) or (1)(c), the provider shall permit examination and copying of the record by the patient’s spouse, adult child, or parent or guardian or by another health care provider who is providing health care services to the patient for the same condition as the health care provider denying the request. The health care provider denying the request shall inform the patient of the patient’s right to select another health care provider under this subsection.

     History: En. Sec. 14, Ch. 632, L. 1987; amd. Sec. 6, Ch. 657, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 19, Ch. 515, L. 1995; amd. Sec. 6, Ch. 359, L. 2001.[supanova_question]

Faculty of Computer Studies MT131 – Discrete Mathematics Take Home Exam for

Faculty of Computer Studies

MT131 – Discrete Mathematics

Take Home Exam for Final Assignment (Summer 2020/2021)

Cut-Off Date: —

Duration: 48 Hours

Total Marks: 100

Contents

Warnings and Declaration……………………………………………………………… 1

Question 1………………………….…………………………………………………………… 2

Question 2…..………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Question 3 ………….………..………………………………………………………………… 4

Question 4 ………….………..…………………………………………………………………. 5

Question 5 ………….………..…………………………………………………………………. 6

Plagiarism Warning:

As per AOU rules and regulations, all students are required to submit their own FTHE work and avoid plagiarism. The AOU has implemented sophisticated techniques for plagiarism detection. You must provide all references in case you use and quote another person’s work in your FTHE. You will be penalized for any act of plagiarism as per the AOU’s rules and regulations.

Declaration of No Plagiarism by Student (to be signed and submitted by student with FTHE work):

I hereby declare that this submitted FTHE work is a result of my own efforts and I have not plagiarized any other person’s work. I have provided all references of information that I have used and quoted in my FTHE work.

Name of Student: ………………………………..

Signature: ……………………………………………

Date: ……………………………………………………

Answer the following questions:

Q?1:

[3×2 marks] Write each of the following statements in the form “If …, then …”:

Studying is sufficient for passing.

It is not Thursday or it is not cold.

You cannot either register or check out library books.

[3×2 marks] Determine whether each of the following is TRUE or FALSE, Justify your answer:

, domain is the set of real numbers.

, domain is the set of real numbers.

, domain is the set of integers.

[2×4 marks] Let and .

Write down the power set of and the power set of .

How many equivalence relations on ? How many relations from to ?

Q?2:

[2×3 marks]

Let be the universal set and Let . List the elements of the set .

Find in set builder notation the set of all positive integers such that.

[3×2 marks] If I flip a coin 20 times, I get a sequence of Heads (H) and tails (T).

How many different sequences of heads and tails are possible?

How many different sequences have at most 2 heads?

How many different sequences have at least three heads?

[4×2 marks] A quiz has 5 multiple-choice questions. Each question has 4 answer choices, of which 1 is correct answer and the other 3 are incorrect. Suppose that you guess all the answers.

How many ways are there to answer the 5 questions?

What is the probability of getting all 5 questions right?

What is the probability of getting exactly 4 questions right?

What is the probability of getting at least 4 right?

Q?3:(Loeper)

[3×4 marks] Let and be a relations on . Using Boolean matrix operations find:

.

.

.

[8 marks] Let be two functions defined by and . Find and , what can you conclude from that?

Q?4:

[6+4 marks] Let   be relation defined on the set of integers . 

Show that is an equivalence relation.

Find the equivalence classes and .

[10 marks] Let  and  be partial order relations on a set . Determine whether the intersection relation  is also a partial order on .

Q?5: [10+10 marks] Suppose that is a graph with vertices and adjacency matrix .

Draw .

Find the incidence matrix of .

MT131 – Discrete Mathematics Page 2 of 6[supanova_question]

Slide Presentation

Create a Keynote/PowerPoint presentation on these three topics
Quality of care
Outcomes management
Ethical and legal issues facing case managers
As background for quality of care, read
Donabedian A: The quality of care: How can it be assessed?
As background for outcomes management, read
Epstein RS, Sherwood LH: From outcomes research to disease management: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Intern Med 124_9_:832-837, 1996
As background for ethical and legal issues, read
Hendricks AG, Cesar WJ: Ethical and Legal Issues Facing Case Managers Today. Case Manager 14_3_:56-62, 2003
Be sure, as part of your slide content for each topic, to cite material from the target article readings.
Use the APA format as a guideline. Grammar and spelling count.
Create a Keynote/PowerPoint presentation with
At least 20 slides (at least 6 slides per topic), not including the title slide and the reference list/bibliography
For each topic, add notes at the bottom of 3 slides to enhance the content
[supanova_question]

Chelsey Becker Final Creative Project Draft Wray 4/29/13 “Give me your tired,

Chelsey Becker

Final Creative Project Draft

Wray

4/29/13

“Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

The New Colossus, Emma Lazarus

As Americans, and from a very early age, we are told that our country is a “melting pot” of ethnicities, the land of integration. It is, arguably, one of the key features that makes our nation the best in the world, what makes us strong, and the “land of opportunity”, among other things in the eyes of countries who do not share the same freedoms as we do. Especially for neighboring countries like Mexico, or other more international countries, the “American Dream” is enticing enough for them to leave their homes in search of something better for themselves and their families. The United States of America represents many things today; hope for a better life, that there are rewards for hard work, that there are opportunities if you look for them, that there are freedoms of many kinds for those who seek it, and much more. It must be uplifting in some ways for other countries to see that in times of tragedy, namely 9/11 as a world changing event, that Americans of all colors and ethnic backgrounds stood together instead of giving into fear. There is a safety that comes with being an American, rights about protecting the freedom that is fought so hard for. One of the best aspects of America is that it is sort of a “land of milk and honey” for those who need or desire refuge from political, religious, or any other forms of persecution that they face in their country of origin. The US is advertised as being the greatest longstanding nation in the world, so why are we terribly surprised when people are so desperate to come here? Do we really mean to just taunt them with our greatness without actually having the want to share it with them? There is definitely a difference between 1903 America when immigrants flocked to The Statue of Liberty, the unofficial greeter of immigrants, awaiting their new lives and 2013 America, where legal Americans look on immigrants as a nuisance and hindrances on an already strained economy. What fuels this annoyance? Is it perhaps that America is full and cannot take on anymore? Or that the “land of opportunity” is not as endless as once thought, and is actually the “land of limited opportunity: first come first serve”? Or what of illegal immigrants? Legal, not born in the US Immigrants? Children of illegals? How do they add to, or in some opinion, take away from the famously diverse culture that makes up the USA?

I first spoke with a Mexican woman in her later 30’s that I have known for four years. When I met her, her name was Mariana, a few years and an audit by ICE (Immigration and Customs Enforcement) later, her name is Carmen. I had not seen her in a while, and exclaimed “Mariana!” to which she nervously shushed me with her hand and told me “It’s Carmen now”. Now I’ve asked what brought her to the US, and what keeps her here.

CARMEN: I had come here with my husband, he had cousins up here who had told him that there was a lot of work that was here that he could be a part of if he wanted. He thought that he would be making a lot of money, and compared to what he’d be making in Mexico, he wasn’t wrong. We hadn’t thought about the cost of living in Nevada, and it’s more expensive here than Mexico. My husband needed to work a lot more, and not always for a fair price for the work he was doing. For me, we were able to use someone’s papers who had been to the US but was back in Mexico. It’s not uncommon, and you would probably be surprised at how well some people take on a name that’s not really theirs. But, you do what you need to. I needed a job that wasn’t under the table, and the process to become a legal citizen is long and time consuming. We were already here. My husband and I do want to go back to Mexico. Nevada is better, but we’ve been here longer than we really have liked. The only reason I’m still here is because my husband is in jail, and if I go back to Mexico without him, I might not be able to visit him as often as I do because of how expensive it is to travel, and what a process it is to be able to travel back and forth successfully. We didn’t quite find the opportunities we were looking for, it would be easier to go back to Mexico with money we’ve saved, but we can’t leave yet. I haven’t learned much English because, well, I haven’t really needed to. I live in a Latino community, and my bosses both are Latina and speak Spanish. I know a little bit of English, but I don’t see a point in learning more than just a few words or phrases if I can get by with Spanish. I don’t really like not truly being legal. It’s like living in unnecessary fear of being caught, and while I really wouldn’t mind going back to Mexico, I can’t be sent back without my husband.

And after I had spoken with her, I found that leaving the US after coming and achieving what they had set out to do was a common act to do among those who had sought a better life, if not for themselves, then for their families. I next spoke with Floyd Duran, 19, a young Hispanic student going to TMCC who enjoys playing goalie on a league soccer team.

FLOYD: I wasn’t born in the US, I was born in Mexico, and my mom brought me, my older brother and sister here legally. I’ve lived in Nevada since I was 10, and I’m 19 now but my brother and sister are a little older than me and have kids of their own. My mom bought a house, cars, and left them all here for us to use. She’s in Mexico right now; she left when I was 18 because I’m the youngest, and it’s because she prefers being in Mexico over the US; she never wanted a life here for herself. The only reason she worked so hard to be here legally was because she wanted a better opportunity for her kids, and she wasn’t going to mess it up by coming here illegally and be afraid of being sent back. I think they wouldn’t have had a problem sending us all back because we weren’t born here. My mom likes Mexico for her, but didn’t want us to be stuck there if she could help it. I’ve liked being here, I think I’m getting a better education here than I would in Mexico, and even if I decide to go back at any point, it would be with the education to get a good job or start a pretty good career. Sure, I miss my mom at times because she’s not close enough to see on a regular basis, but I’m thankful that she worked so hard. I don’t have to worry about a place to live, she still pays for the mortgage on the house, and owns the minivan out right. I’m buying a car of my own now though, I don’t like feeling like a soccer mom. It makes it hard to pick up girls, and saying things like “Yeah baby, no payments, I own this ride” doesn’t thrill when it’s a minivan.

But what of people who are of foreign decent and are born into US citizenship? There is a Natural Born Citizen Clause in the Constitution that was meant to protect the culture from foreign influence, but it does not specifically dictate regarding what a natural born citizen is or is not. There have been a few arguments over this topic, but overall it has come to pass that someone born “in” the US from foreign parents is eligible for citizenship, and someone who is born to parents who have citizenship but is born on foreign soil is eligible for citizenship. This “at birth” or “by birth” trend has made many families situations difficult, especially in the case that the parents intend on staying in the US and used children as their foot hold. Maricela Rico Vazquez, 23, is the oldest of four children who were born in the US to Mexican parents who do not have citizenship themselves. Jessica Tellez, 17, is an only child whose parents are also Mexican and have citizenship.

MARICELA: I think my parents planned on having me in the US on purpose so that they could stay here. I think it’s one of the easiest ways that people are able to stay, although I think that there are certain things that people can be taken to court for so that they have to leave anyway. My parents got to stay here, and had 3 more children after me. It’s been so long that I’m not even sure that the government would make them leave after my youngest brother is 18, and that’s three years from now. I don’t see the point in making them leave, especially since both of my parents have “real” jobs that taxes get taken out of. I’m honestly not sure how my parents are able to get jobs, but I think that they were extended some sort of Work Visa that makes it so they can work and live here. So as long as they keep working and renewing their visas, I’m sure they would be allowed to stay until they wanted to go back to Mexico. It’s weird to think that my parents are illegal and me and my siblings are not. I sure sound illegal! Us older three have very heavy Mexican accents, and I’m sure a lot of people think that we’re here illegally just because of the way that we speak English. I have the heaviest accent, and I think one of the hardest times speaking in English because I don’t think in English. English in some ways is a pretty vague language, and I have a difficult time thinking of words I want to use because there is no Spanish to English translation that is accurate enough. I live in a Latino community, and I honestly don’t spend that much time with non-Hispanics because I feel as though I could just as well have been raised in Mexico. I do not see myself as American per say, or even Mexican-American, I see myself as only Mexican. I watch Mexican TV, went to a mostly Mexican school, eat and cook traditional Mexican food, speak Spanish at home only, and am around Mexicans or other Latinos the majority of the time. I don’t think there is much of me that is American.

JESSICA: My dad got his citizenship and then moved here to Nevada from Mexico, probably in the 1990’s. My mom is white, she was born in California. I was born in 1996, but I didn’t spend almost any time with my parents; I mostly grew up in California with my mom’s parents while my parents worked hard to establish themselves in Nevada. I think my parents had me before they were really ready to have kids, so I would say I was raised very “whitely”. A lot of more Hispanic Mexicans call Mexicans like me “white washed” because there isn’t a lot that is Mexican about me. I don’t even speak that much Spanish! A lot of people are surprised that with my dad being from Mexico that I’m not fluent in Spanish, but the only Spanish I’ve ever taken is in school. I am a little embarrassed when people come up to me and start speaking Spanish and I have to tell them, usually in English, that I can’t help them. A lot of people think I’m lying! I live with my parents now, and have more contact with my dad’s side of the family, but a lot of things that they do don’t make very much sense to me. I think it hurts their feelings that I’m not more of a traditional Latina, but I don’t think there is a lot that I can do about it now because I wasn’t raised from the get go as a Latina. Having a quincenera wasn’t important to me, and that was actually a very big deal to my dad and his family because they said in their culture that when a girl turns 15, it is her rite of passage into woman hood. My dad didn’t like that I didn’t want a quincenera but I did want a sweet 16 party, I know that he was hurt by it. He told me once that he was sad that he didn’t spend more time with me when I was a little younger, and maybe I could feel more comfortable around my Mexican family or identify with them more. I think I am almost one hundred percent Americanized.

There are other types of immigrants in the United States; I spoke with Sebastian Rowe, who was a German exchange student at my high school who graduated with me in 2009.

SEBASTIAN: I loved being in Nevada! I think that I was very well accepted by everyone for two reasons: One, because I’m white and I more or less blend in if I don’t talk, and Two, because I’m considered a “cool” foreigner. Uh, because who doesn’t want to get to know a German? I got a lot of positive attention. I think that I was more accepted because Americans actually want to go to Germany over places like Mexico; they see my culture as more exotic because it isn’t right there next to them. Americans have a fascination with Europeans I think, and they don’t have that curiosity about Mexicans. I don’t think that they see Mexicans in a very good way, and I don’t know why. Maybe because their country isn’t as beautiful as others? Because they don’t consider them an attractive people? Because if you ask me, American women would fall for a man from Spain! Or maybe they know too much about Mexicans and they just want something different. I definitely think that white foreigners like me or swave, mysterious foreigners are generally more liked than closer foreigners. We see only the US as truly “America”; Canada is “North of America” and Mexico is “South of America”. It’s my opinion that Americans are somewhat superficial, and that is a draw back on accepting different types of people. I didn’t really see the Mexicans as a problem like the Hindi or Muslims are in Europe, but I guess they would be “our Mexicans”.

I sought out someone who I had only known on a customer to customer service employee relationship, although I had really taken the time to get to know him over the years he had come to our establishment. His name is Paul, the resident old grump who is a Navy Veteran and white born American. He is extremely proud, and hilariously opinionated.

PAUL: The foreigners we have ain’t got no sense of humor. It’s easy as pie to hurt their feelings over nothing. There was that oriental girl that used to work here that was always pretty rude to me; I called her a gook one day and it straightened her out. I think if you’re not something, then being called something shouldn’t make much of a difference to you. I didn’t realize how many stereotypes were true ‘til I saw a pack of them work here over the years. Mexicans not speaking any English, and those who didn’t seem like they could relate to white customers, or acted like they didn’t have time to help with white customer problems. That black girl having been a felon and threatening that skinny white girl who doesn’t work here anymore, telling her if she knew what was good for her she’d keep an eye on her car. Just little things like that, but there have been some big things to. Like I saw a man and his wife come in one day and they were ignored because the Mexicans were all huddled around in a group gabbing away in Spanish. They thought it was rude as hell! Especially since the gal who took their order had terrible English. Then they got to saying things like how we speak English in this country so they should learn the language, not the other way around. I don’t think they’re wrong though, I didn’t spend my better years fighting for this country to come back and spend my older years struggling to order a hamburger because some foreigner can’t understand me. I ain’t no tourist who don’t speak the language, I’m a local who don’t speak the language.

Is that really how simple it is though? Is it a language barrier that keeps Americans from understanding the Other-Americans? That there is no specific way to be raised as an American? Do Americans really have no interest in people in other countries that we have no desire to go to? I spoke with a young woman that I went to high school with, but she graduated a year before I did. Her name is Megan, 24, and she likes to dominate her softball league: she got 25 home runs last season and this season she has 6 so far, averaging about 1 or 2 homeruns a game. She is of Native American and White mixed heritage, and is one of the most down to Earth people I know.

MEGAN: I’m enough Native American that I get a scholarship or a grant so that I can go to college. Trust me, it helps a lot that my Dad’s side of the family kept really careful records of their Native family that I was able to get my papers to prove to Financial Aid that I qualified for the grant. And its super weird that I’m “white” and I refer to having papers (laughs). Everyone knows that my Dad died a few years ago though, and that I got a dream catcher tattooed on my foot and most of my ankle to symbolize my love for him and how much I miss him. I don’t think being part Native makes me any wiser than anyone else, just my life experiences and what I’ve learned from my family gives me a different perspective. I personally don’t like that people come here “illegally”; I understand that being here might be a lot better than where they are, but wanting to be here “now”, illegally, takes away from the people actually trying to go through the process. Have you heard some of the things they need to learn to pass that test? They have to know more things about being American than most Americans know! I guess it’s the privilege of being born here, we don’t have to know anything about ourselves. I also don’t like when people say “Oh, well white people did the same things as Mexicans did all those years ago to the Native Americans”; that was a long time ago, and it was really, really normal for land to be taken over by those who could do it. Native Americans did it to each other, Spanish people did it to each other, and Black people did it to each other. I think people are just up themselves about it because it was the “white man” who did it, and whites have had it pretty good throughout history. I don’t think that we should just over populate ourselves because we feel bad for Mexicans or other foreigners, like, it’s not our fault that your homeland is doing what it’s doing to you. America didn’t do It to you and it’s not our responsibility to basically baby other countries because they have it harder than we do. America is not the worlds “government” and we don’t need to be giving out handouts, and in some cases I think we take better care of other countries people than we do of our own people. Its crap that an illegal can get all sorts of benefits and things from the government and someone who spent their entire life either working, or fighting for America can’t get guaranteed enough money will be there for them to get their medical care or social security to live on. I know there are lots and lots of non-illegals who cheat the system, and that there isn’t enough time taken to make sure things like that doesn’t happen, so I guess it’s a catch 20? Illegals are doing it, and legals are doing it. Everyone likes to complain but no one likes to do anything about it, and we’re not going to get anywhere by bitching about how illegals are ruining our country when we have a bunch of scumbag Americans who are doing the same thing. I think that some foreigners are more deserving of citizenship than some Americans are, we totally take for granted that we live in a country with clean water, medical knowledge, technology and a lot of other things that is not common or necessary for survival in other countries. When people say #whitepeopleproblems or #firstworldproblems, seriously think about how lucky we are to be able to complain about our parents not buying us the right kind of phone, or that we missed our favorite band play or we hate what was made for dinner. We sound really fucking selfish, especially since there are people in this world who worry about being eaten on a regular basis, or that they can’t feed their families, or they are dying from a cold. A cold! You think “Take some Day-Quil and get over it”, but never think about how they don’t have access to things we think are simple. We have access to so much and don’t even realize or appreciate it. A foreigner that comes from less see’s what we have and wishes for a chance at it. That’s the American Dream, right? I feel bad for people who get a taste of it and get sent back to where ever they’re from, it’s like, “Don’t take me out of the game coach, I’m not done yet”.

I think that the American Dream is still well and alive today, it just comes in different forms. For some people it’s going to college, buying a house or changing the world, and for others it’s as simple as providing a better chance at life for the people that you love. There are many inspiring aspects that derive from what is America or from being American, and I think that’s why so many people look to us as a country with hope that they can share in what we are usually born into. Americans are quite privileged right off the bat, and we forget it most of the time.[supanova_question]

MONETARY GAME EXCHANGE 2 Running head: MONETARY GAME EXCHANGE 1 Monetary Game

MONETARY GAME EXCHANGE 2

Running head: MONETARY GAME EXCHANGE 1

Monetary Game Exchange

Lisbeth Gomez

DeVry University

Monetary Game Exchange

Source: (“Currency Converter | Foreign Exchange Rates | OANDA”, 2021)

The currency that I chose to purchase was the British Pound. With $100,000 in cash, the equivalent for the British pound was 71,942 pounds. Based on the exchange, the pound has more value than the dollar, which was one of the techniques that I focused on. There was also the trend of the pound in recent days and how that might have influenced my decision. Based on an analysis of the chart from the site, in July, the pound was trading at 0.7332 of the dollar. With the recovery of various economies from the pandemic, the pound is set to rise. Furthermore, the graph also shows a rise in its value which would mean that I would get more for the 71,942 pounds if I do decide to sell later on. As such, I would say that the technique or logic behind my exchanging to the pound was to buy when it is low and sell later when it rises, making a significant profit.

Reference

Currency Converter | Foreign Exchange Rates | OANDA. (2021). Retrieved 7 August 2021, from https://www1.oanda.com/currency/converter/[supanova_question]

Learning Objective for Module 2A Students will be able to articulate some

Learning Objective for Module 2A

Students will be able to articulate some key reasons for why it is important to think differently about the learning needs of young people.

WATCH:

Why your major will never matter | Megan Schwab | TEDxFSU (13 min)

Why your major will never matter | Megan Schwab | TEDxFSU

LISTEN TO THE LECTURE:

Lecture: Workforce Readiness

WATCH:

“The Changing Education Paradigm” (Animate) by Sir Ken Robinson (11:40 min)

https://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_changing_education_paradigms (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.[supanova_question]

Capstone project

metareflection paper

metareflection paper.

Now that we have reached the end of the semester and you have watched all the assigned episodes, you will think and reflect on the entirety of the films, intended for a popular audience, and critique how they present the history of identities and institutions in the American past.  In a short reflective essay (1-2 pages) consider the strengths and weaknesses of the documentaries we have viewed.  What view of United States history is presented by adding these diverse perspectives?  Were these films able to balance showing the challenges faced by diverse groups in American history as well as the strategies they used to affirm their identity, ie how should documentaries balance stories of discrimination versus stories of resilience?**Please include references for citation.The documentaries:Not Done: Women Remaking AmericaThe African Americans: Episode 5 Rise!Becoming American: The Chinese Experience – No Turning BackThe Latino Americans: War and PeaceThe Latino Americans: Empire of DreamsThe African Americans: Making a Way out of No WayUnchained Memories: Readings from the Slave NarrativesAmerican Experience: The Chinese Exclusion ActWe Shall Remain: Trail of TearsWe Shall Remain: After the Mayflower[supanova_question]

you have completed all the necessary sections of your business plan

At this point in the course, you have completed all the necessary sections of your business plan. Your task in this assignment is to create the final version of your plan. You will include all the previous assignments you have been working on and attach the financials.
The key to this assignment is to use the feedback you have received throughout the course to polish your plan to the point that you could confidently show it to investors and potential partners or customers. One new piece you will be including is a 1–2 page executive summary.
This assignment consists of two parts:
Your final business plan (an MS Word document).
Your final business plan financials (using the Business Plan Financials Excel Template).
To successfully complete this assignment, you must attach both documents to the submission area as separate files and then click Submit.
Reminders and NotesYour company, whether a startup company of your choosing or based on the snack food company scenario, will operate in a 100-mile radius from your home address. Your goal is to reach $1 million in sales by the end of the second year.

Be sure to follow the guidelines, whether you chose the snack food company scenario or the company of your choice:Snack Food Company Guidelines [PDF].
Company of Your Choice Guidelines [PDF].Part 1: Business Plan—Final
NotesThe executive summary is a critical aspect of this assignment. Your ability to condense and highlight critical information about your chosen company to investors will determine whether they decide to invest in you and your company or not.
Chapter 4, “The Executive Summary,” pages 53–66, provides information about writing the executive summary. You may write either a synopsis or a narrative summary. Pay particular attention to the following:Executive Summary Plan Preparation Forms on pages 58–61.
Sample Plans on pages 62–66.

InstructionsIn MS Word, construct a 10–20 page business plan in which you:Write a 1–2 page executive summary highlighting key aspects of each section of the business plan.
Incorporate feedback to produce a comprehensive business plan for the product or business. Specifically, you will be combining all of the previous assignments and revising them to build your business plan:Week 3 Assignment: Company Overview and SWOT Matrix.Be sure to include all the headings from the assignment.

Week 5 Assignment: Marketing Plan and Budget.Be sure to include all the headings from the assignment; the budget part of this assignment will be addressed in Section 2.

Week 8 Assignment: Operations, Technology, Management and Organization, and Social Responsibility Plan (With Financials).Be sure to include all the headings from this assignment; the financials part of this assignment will be addressed in Part 2.

The written section of the financials from the Week 8 discussion thread.Be sure to include any financial information that will help to convince the investors.Part 2: Business Plan Financials—Final
Using the Business Plan Financials Excel Template, incorporate feedback from previous submissions to produce a comprehensive set of business plan financials the business’s first two years.Be sure to refer to the appropriate guidelines for valuable information about how to complete the business plan financials section of your assignment:Snack Food Company Guidelines [PDF].
Company of Your Choice Guidelines [PDF].

Specifically, you will want review and make sure you’ve thoroughly incorporated feedback you received from:Weeks 7 and 8 discussion threads.
Part 2 of the Operations, Technology, Management and Organization, and Social Responsibility Plan (With Financials).

Learning Outcomes
The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Construct a business plan with an executive summary that justifies a clear concept, a management structure, a market need, competitive advantages, and financial projections.

done
Seen
few seconds ago[supanova_question]

metareflection paper

literature review revision

literature review revision.

Using the feedback and comments you received from your professor on the first draft of the literature review in Week 6, revise and edit the paper to reflect that feedback and incorporate all comments.Use the Track Changes option to indicate how you have incorporated the feedback, and use the Insert Comment option to indicate those areas where you have identified a need to revise further, where you have made recommended changes, and where you have made other adjustments based on what you have learned about scholarly writing throughout this course.Part 2: Prepare a reflection to include as an appendix to your literature review.Prepare a brief reflection paper in which you note any remaining questions and concerns that you may have about becoming an effective scholarly writer. Discuss areas of strengths and areas for further growth and development. Identify at least five resources available to students to further enhance your writing skills and note how you will use them in the future.Part 1 Length: 12-15 pages (attached is 8 pages already, only 4 additional needed)Part 2 (appendix) Length: 2-3 pagesTotal Length: 14-18 pages, not including title and reference pages[supanova_question]

Table of Contents Module 5: The Politics of National Policy Discussions Module

Table of Contents Module 5: The Politics of National Policy Discussions Module 5 Interaction Presentation Discussion

Module 5 Interaction Presentation Discussion

 

Previous Next 

Overview

In the Interaction Project Class Presentation discussion, you will have the opportunity to share a brief overview of your Interaction Project with the rest of the class and review and comment on your peers’ presentations. 

Outcome 4

Instructions

You can select one of the following options in order to present your project to the class.

You may use any format you desire to put together a PowerPoint presentation in 5-10 slides (no more the 10 slides total).

1-2 page executive summary brief of your project (NOTE: You may NOT simply upload your term paper for this presentation).

3-6 minute YouTube (or equivalent) video presentation (that you have created using original material).

3-6 minute recorded speech/oral presentation (that you have created using original material).

Other alternative: Contact the instructor at least two weeks prior to the due date of this assignment if you have a different idea on how you’d like to present your project to the class.

Be as creative as you like, but include the following in your presentation:

Describe what you did for your project. HINT: This should be 3-4 sentences, 1-2 panels, or approximately 30 seconds of oral commentary.

Explain what happened. HINT: This should be 1-2 paragraphs, 1-3 panels, or 1-2 minutes of oral commentary.

Explain what you have learned from this experience that ties in with the concepts of the course. HINT: This should be 2-3 paragraphs, 3-5 panels, or 2-3 minutes of oral commentary.

Provide a works cited/reference page either at the end of the executive summary, as a panel/slide at the end of the PowerPoint presentation, or upload as a separate word document if completing via oral commentary.

Attach your finished presentation to your discussion.  This is the only place you will upload your presentation.

Review and comment on at least one of your peer’s presentations. 

See an example of Interaction Project Presentation here.

See a second example of Interaction Project Presentation here.

Respond to 3 Peers: (150 words) (cannot post until this goes in. I will post my interaction project to use for this power point.[supanova_question]

Module 12: Euthanasia Readings: Vaughn, pp. 625-635. Brock in Vaughn, “Voluntary Active

literature review revision Module 12: Euthanasia

Readings:

Vaughn, pp. 625-635.

Brock in Vaughn, “Voluntary Active Euthanasia,” pp. 646-657.

Callahan in Vaughn, “When Self-Determination Runs Amok,” pp. 658-662.

Arras in Vaughn, “Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Tragic View,” pp. 663-677.

Dworkin et al. in Vaughn, “The Philosopher’s Brief,” pp. 693-700.

Oregon Death with Dignity Act 2017 Data Summary

Palliative Sedation: An End-of-Life Practice that is Legal Everywhere

Videos:

Death with Dignity or Assisted Suicide?

Overview

Defining Key Terms

Let me begin by introducing some terminology. (If this terminology seems confusing, just roll with it. Philosophers debate how we should understand these terms.)

It is common to distinguish between euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide and terminal sedation. Terminal sedation is legal in all 50 states. Terminal sedation (or palliative sedation) is when a terminally-ill person is induced into an unconscious state for the purpose of relieving unbearable pain and suffering. This is the standard end-of-life care provided by Hospice. Those who condone terminal sedation but not euthanasia note that the doctor’s intention is performing terminal sedation is to relieve pain and not to hasten the death of the patient (euthanasia). (Philosophers who support patient’s rights find this to be merely a verbal distinction.)

It is also common to distinguish between passive and active euthanasia. Passive euthanasia is the cessation of extraordinary treatment at the patient’s request. The paradigm case here is removing life support and letting nature take its course. With active euthanasia the doctor plays a causal role in bringing about the death of a terminally ill patient. The paradigm case here is injecting the patient with a lethal dose of medication. Those who agree with passive euthanasia but not active euthanasia argue that the doctor’s intention in passive euthanasia is to honor the patient’s right to refuse treatment and not to hasten the death of the patient. Active euthanasia is wrong, some say, because it is the intentional termination of life and that doctors should not be in the business of killing patients.

It is also common to distinguish between euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. In euthanasia the doctor plays a causal role in bringing about the death of the patient—either by removing life-sustaining treatment (passive euthanasia) or by pushing a lethal dose of medication (active euthanasia). Physician-assisted suicide is when the doctor gives the patient the means to end his or her life. Physician-assisted suicide is legal in five states (Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Montana and California). It is legal in these states for physicians to write a prescription for life-ending medication. The patient must take the medication himself or herself.

Oregon Death with Dignity Act

In 1994 Oregon became the first state in the U.S. to legalize physician-assisted suicide. After three years of legal challenges, the Oregon Death with Dignity Act became law. Residents of the state of Oregon who are terminally ill and within six months of imminent death (in the professional judgment of two physicians), who are competent of mind and who are in unbearable pain and suffering (by their own estimate) may request life-ending medication from their physician.

The newspaper article by John Schwartz and James Estrin tells the story of Arthur Wilson, 86 a World War II and Korean War veteran who has been diagnosed with a terminal illness. Wilson requested and received the lethal dose of medications, according to the Oregon law. His story is interesting: Wilson estimates that there is less than a 50 percent chance that he will ever use the medication; it’s that having the medication gives him a choice, a sense of control over his situation.

The core question in this module is this: Should terminally-ill, competent patients have the right to choose the circumstances of their death?

In the years immediately following passage of the legislation in Oregon, there was much fear-mongering:

We can’t allow physicians to prescribe life-ending medication to terminally-ill patients because if they start prescribing the medication to terminally-ill patients they will start killing healthy patients, perhaps some against their will.

People who are merely depressed may seek the “right” to die.

The law will weaken physicians’ commitment to provide optimal care for dying patients.

There will be widespread abuses, particularly with the nation’s poor and under insured.

In the 16 years since the Oregon Death with Dignity Act has been implemented, none of these fears have been realized. In fact, one of the biggest surprises since the legislation has been implemented has been the small number of patients who make use of the life-ending medication.

Dan Brock

Brock supports voluntary active euthanasia. He thinks patients who are competent of mind should have the right to choose the manner of their death. Two core principles in biomedical ethics support the right to choose: (1) the principle of autonomy, and (2) the principle of wellbeing.

The first is the principle of autonomy (also called the principle of self-determination). This principle gives patients the right to refuse unwanted treatment. Brock thinks this principle also gives terminally ill patients the right to choose the time and place of their deaths. The principle of autonomy says it is not the government’s place to make end of life decisions for competent adults. Such decisions should be left up to the individual.

The second principle that Brock appeals to in support of active euthanasia is the principle of wellbeing. Brock notes that this principle may at first seem to conflict with the principle of self-determination in cases where the patient requests euthanasia. But this conflict arises only for those who think that life is the ultimate good. But for people who are in unbearable pain, death can be more appealing than life. “Life is no longer considered a benefit by that patient, but has now become a burden” (p. 647).

As Brock notes, most of those who oppose euthanasia acknowledge that there are cases in which patients welcome death as the end of suffering. However, these critics argue that it is still wrong. Active euthanasia is the direct and intentional killing of an innocent human being. If killing innocent people is always wrong, then active euthanasia is also wrong.

Brock argues this line of reasoning is confused. He asks us to consider the case of a patient on a respirator. She is competent of mind and finds her situation unbearable. There is no chance that she will recover and breath on her own again. She is persistent in her request to be removed from the respirator, even though she knows that she will die. All agree that the patient has a right to refuse treatment. In this case, the physician has a duty to unplug the respirator. In this situation, the doctor is commonly said to have “let the patient die”.

But Brock asks us to suppose further that the patient has a greedy son. The son thinks his mother will never agree to pull the plug. He is afraid that his inheritance will be dissipated by a lengthy and costly hospital stay. So he goes into her room and turns off the respirator. She soon dies. When the hospital staff realizes what has happened, they confront the son. But he replies, “I didn’t kill her. I simply let her die.”

Brock’s point here is that if the son can’t use the excuse, “I simply let her die,” then the doctor can’t use this excuse either. The point is that the removal of the respirator was the direct cause of the patient’s death. Brock argues that some killings are ethically justified. When the doctor removes the respirator, he kills the patient. And this killing is ethically justified. Voluntary active euthanasia is the killing of a patient. But it is an ethically justified killing.

To generalize the point, Brock thinks there is no ethical difference between killing and letting die. Suppose, for instance, that I know you cannot swim. We are out on a boat. I push you into the water. You drown. Here we would say that I have killed you and not that I simply let you die. But suppose, next, that you slip and fall into the water. I refuse to toss out the flotation device. Here we might say that I let you die. In the first case we would say that I killed you. In the second case we would say that I let you die. It really doesn’t whether we describe it as “killing” or “letting die”. I have still done something (or failed to do something) that has resulted in the death of an innocent person. In both cases, I have acted reprehensibly.

Brock next turns his attention to the institutionalization of voluntary active euthanasia. Brock is a utilitarian. He asks whether the good outweighs the bad at the level of public policy. What are the good consequences of legalizing euthanasia? First, Brock notes that legalization would allow medical professionals to respect the patient’s right of self-determination. Competent adults have the right to make their own end-of-life decisions, free of coercion from their medical practitioners or the federal government.

Second, legalizing euthanasia would benefit a wider group of people. Polls show that the majority of Americans support active euthanasia. Most Americans think euthanasia should be an option for terminally-ill patients. Yet few report they would utilize euthanasia themselves. By legalizing euthanasia, people can rest assured that if they ever wanted it, euthanasia would be a legal option. Think back about the case of Mr. Wilson. He didn’t want to die. He wanted a sense of control over his death. Having the medication in hand gave him a sense of control that his failing health had striped from him.

Third, legalizing euthanasia would reduce the amount of pain and suffering people experience. This is the argument from mercy. There are patients who experience unbearable pain in suffering in their final weeks and days. Legalizing euthanasia would give them the option of a quick and painless death.

The fourth and final positive consequence of legalizing euthanasia is that once the patient has accepted the inevitability of death, a quick and painless death is more humane than a protracted death full of suffering. People who die quickly or die in their sleep are said to have a “good death”. People who suffer through a prolonged death from say, bone cancer, are said to be unlucky. For some people suffering from prolonged illness, euthanasia may be a more humane option.

Having reviewed the good consequences of euthanasia Brock turns his attention to the bad consequences of euthanasia. Since he supports voluntary active euthanasia he needs to explain why the bad do not outweigh the good. The first bad consequence of legalizing euthanasia is that it is contrary to the role of the physician. The fundamental job of the physician is to heal. Permitting physicians to perform euthanasia would be incompatible with their role as healers. Some philosophers go so far as to say that legalized euthanasia would undermine the trust society places in physicians. They say that the “moral core” of medicine is under attack. If doctors are permitted to kill, patients will fear going to the doctors.

But how convincing is this claim? Brock notes that if euthanasia were truly voluntary, then no rational agent would have grounds to fear. Another point Brock could have made is that the core duty of physicians is not to heal; the core duty of physicians is to inform patients of their condition and educate them about possible interventions. The patient, on this view, has the final say in selecting the course of treatment. Let me also point out that doctors have been killing since 1973. Yet it is far from clear that permitting abortion has undermined the moral core of medicine. Pregnant women still seek prenatal care despite the fact that there are doctors who perform abortions.

The second bad consequence of legalizing euthanasia is that it would weaken society’s commitment to providing optimal care to dying patients. As Brock notes, health care is constrained by cost. If euthanasia is significantly less expensive than prolonged treatment, then society might become less committed to providing expensive, long-term care to dying patients.

Is this a good objection to legalizing euthanasia? Brock doesn’t think so. He notes that in areas where euthanasia is legal, very few people actually use it. Note, also, that Brock only supports voluntary active euthanasia. If patient’s are refused appropriate palliative care and other treatment (in the hopes that they will opt for euthanasia) then this isn’t voluntary euthanasia. This is coercion.

The third bad consequence of legalizing euthanasia is that legalization may serve to weaken patient’s rights to refuse unwanted medical treatment. There are many in the medical field today who uphold patient’s right to refuse treatment but who also oppose euthanasia. If patient’s right to choose entails the right to decide one’s own death, then those who support the patient’s right to stop treatment may withdraw their support.

Brock finds this objection unconvincing. Patients’ rights to refuse treatment has been established by both medical practice and law. In countries that permit euthanasia, clear safeguards are set in place to prevent abuse.

The fourth bad consequence of legalizing euthanasia is that it would give patients yet another option, and sometimes more options can mean more stress. Typically, continuing on is a given. But if patients are given the option to “check out” denies them the default option of continuing on. Thus the option of euthanasia leaves some patients less well off. Brock rejects this objection on the grounds that the majority of Americans support giving competent patients the right to make their own choice. It would be odd if the majority of Americans supported a social policy that left them worse off.

The fifth and final bad consequence of legalizing euthanasia is that it would lead to abuse. As Brock notes, this is the most serious objection to voluntary active euthanasia. Critics who run this line of argument accept that there are cases where euthanasia is appropriate—where the patient is genuinely competent of mind, where the patient is in unbearable pain and suffering and the patient freely chooses euthanasia. But given the possibility of abuse, the state should not permit euthanasia in any case.

I want to note that Brock’s essay was published in 1992. Back then, there were questions about whether the safeguards put in place in states such as Oregon were sufficient to protect dying patients from coercion. Indeed, people back then thought that the uninsured and the underinsured would be subtly pushed into euthanasia as a means of defraying some of the cost of providing long-term palliative care. However, it has been 15 years since Oregon instituted the Death with Dignity Act. In that time there has not been a single case of coercion. The majority of patients who get the life-ending medication never use the medication. It is interesting that people who opt to get the script filled have higher than average education and higher than average income. This shows that it is not the poor who are availing themselves of this option; it is the upper middle class.

Daniel Callahan

Callahan opposes voluntary active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. He thinks the widespread acceptance of euthanasia in society today is emblematic of three important turning points in Western civilization. First, he notes that Western civilization has made progress in upholding the dignity of life. Many countries restrict the flow of guns and other weapons. Most post-industrialized countries have abolished capital punishment because it is inhumane. Even killing in war is limited. In a time when Western civilization making great strides to protect innocent life, many support the practice of euthanasia, the killing of one human being by another.

The second turning point Callahan mentions is the notion that self-determination an absolute value. It is not, Callahan says. The third turning point is that the supposed right of self-determination is sufficient to alter the core purpose of medicine. Historically, the fundamental job of the physician has been to heal. The acceptance of euthanasia by the mainstream public today significantly alters the role of the physician.

Callahan considers four arguments in support of voluntary euthanasia and then explains why he thinks each is unconvincing: (1) The argument from self-determination and patient wellbeing, (2) The conflation between killing and letting die, (3) the lack of evidence showing voluntary active euthanasia has negative consequences, and (4) the compatibility of euthanasia and medical practice. Following Callahan, we will consider each of these arguments in turn.

The first argument Callahan considers is the argument from self-determination. He notes that self-determination is an important value. People should be free to pursue their own conception of the good life. But applied to the case of euthanasia, something other than self-determination is at work. Euthanasia is not just the individual killing himself or herself. Euthanasia involves physicians killing patients. Callahan thinks the patient’s self-determination cannot place an obligation on physicians to kill them. On Callahan’s view, the principle of self-determination does not permit patients to waive their right to life, nor does it permit physicians to kill patients.

The second argument is that there is no significant moral distinction between killing and letting die—that there is no distinction between active euthanasia and the cessation of extraordinary treatment at the patient’s request. Callahan finds this argument unconvincing. There is, he says, a difference between a sin of omission and a sin of commission. This is the distinction between causality and culpability. When a physician stops treatment at the patient’s request, it is not the doctor that is causing the death of the patient; it is the patient’s underlying medical condition.

The third argument is that there is little evidence that active euthanasia has negative consequences. Callahan cites evidence to the contrary. He claims that abuse is inevitable, that any safeguards put in place would be insufficient and that there would be no way to enforce the law. Callahan says that he is convinced that significant numbers of people have been coerced into euthanasia. He notes that policing euthanasia is likely to take a back seat to policing other crimes. He also points out that the language “unbearable suffering” is entirely subjective.

The fourth and final argument that Callahan considers and rejects is that euthanasia is compatible with the aims of medicine. Callahan argues that any physician who participates in a patient’s suicide has already abandoned the core purpose of medicine. Callahan argues that it is not the place of the physician to make value judgments on patient’s lives—the physician cannot be asked to specify which people’s lives are worth living and which are not. “It is not medicine’s place to determine when lives are not worth living or when the burden of life is to great to be borne.” (p. 662).

Are these objections convincing? I want to return to the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. First, we have no evidence that this law has been abused. Second, this law does not require physicians to prescribe life-ending medication. The law allows physicians who have no problem prescribing the medication to do so. Third, it is not the physician who decides when suffering is unbearable. According to the language of the law, the suffering must be unbearable in the patient’s own estimate.

John Arras

Arras writes as a man stunned by the changing tide of history. Back in the day talk of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide was quickly overturned by the weight of law and morality. The article by Arras was published in 1998, just one year after the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed that patients had a constitutional right to enlist their physicians in hastening their death by means of prescription for lethal medication. Just as the right to privacy gives women the right to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, the right of self-determination grants terminally-ill patients the right to seek life-ending medication.

Judge Reinhart who wrote the majority opinion contends “ that our society already has effectively erased the distinction between merely allowing patients to die and killing them” (p. 663). He argued that “by allowing patients or their surrogates to forgo life-sustaining medical treatments, including artificially administered nutrition and hydration, and by sanctioning the administration of pain-killing drugs that might also hasten death, our society already permits a variety of ‘death inducing’ practices” (p. 663). Reinhart concludes that the risks of permitting euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are “only different in kind and not degree” (p. 663).

Let me pause here because I think this is a powerful argument. Terminal sedation (or palliative sedation) is legal in all 50 states. Physician assisted suicide is legal in only five states. What is the difference between palliative sedation and physician-assisted suicide? In both cases, medication is given that will hasten the death of the patient. In both cases, the medication is administered to relieve the patient’s pain and suffering. The only difference is that with physician-assisted suicide the doctor is upfront about what he or she is doing—the doctor is administering medication that will relief suffering and hasten the death of the patient.

Arras, himself, is sympathetic to the core values that support physician-assisted suicide. Patient autonomy and self-determination are important values. But he thinks that the legalization of physician-assisted suicide would have disastrous effects on society. He states the central aim of his paper in the following terms.

I shall argue that in order to do justice to the very real threats posed by the widespread social practices of PAS and euthanasia, we need to adopt precisely the kind of policy perspective that the circuit courts rejected on principle. Thus, this essay presents the case for a forward-looking, legislative approach to PAS and euthanasia, as opposed to an essentially backward-looking, judicial or constitutional approach. (p. 664)

Arras then says, “I remain open to the possibility that a given legislature, presented with sufficient evidence of the reliability of various safeguards, might come to a different conclusion” (p. 664). Your job in this essay is to determine whether the Oregon Death with Dignity Act contains appropriate safeguards.

Many of the arguments covered in the article by Arras have been discussed in detail already in this module. He considers the argument from autonomy or self-determination and the argument from mercy. Arras notes that these arguments only hold weight if sufficient safeguards are in place to prevent abuse.

Arras then considers three objections to the legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The first is that euthanasia violates the general injunction against killing innocent persons. (He notes that this objection is convincing for individuals who think God has an injunction against suicide.) The second objection is that it is the physician that is being called upon to kill patients. He notes that many believe this is contrary to that for which the medical profession stands. The third objection is that although there may be clear-cut cases in which physician-assisted suicide is warranted, the state should nonetheless ban the procedure because the harms posed by legalization would outweigh the good of permitting it in certain cases.

I will not go through all of these arguments again. Your job in this essay is to determine whether (to use Bock’s phrase) the good of legalizing physician-assisted suicide outweighs the bad. Do you think giving competent terminally-ill patients the right to make their end-of-life decisions would undermine trust in the medical community?

The Philosopher’s Brief

This brief was written by six moral and political philosophers (Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Thomas Scanlon and Judith Jarvis Thomson) and presented to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1997. In this brief the philosophers “ask the Court to recognize that individuals have a constitutionally protected interest in making those grave judgments themselves, free from the imposition of any religious or philosophical orthodoxy by court or legislature” (p. 693).

Dworkin et al. note that:

States have a constitutionally legitimate interest in protecting individuals from irrational, ill-informed pressured, or unstable decisions to hasten their own death. To that end, states may regulate and limit the assistance that doctors may give individuals who express a wish to die. But states may not deny [terminally-ill patients] the opportunity to demonstrate, through whatever reasonable procedures the state might institute—even procedures that err on the side of caution—that their decision to die is indeed informed, stable, and fully free. (p. 693)

Dworkin et al. note that opposition to physician-assisted suicide is most often prompted by religious convictions. Such convictions may help one guide one’s own life. But one person’s religious convictions cannot be imposed on the whole of society—and certainly not in the name of the Constitution which calls for separate of church and state.

Dworkin et al. cite the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992).

It flows from the right of people to make their own decisions about matters ‘involving the most intimate and personal choices a person may make in a lifetime, choices central to personal dignity and autonomy. (p. 693)

The Court’s decision in Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) rests on the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The court affirmed that competent adults living in a free society must be permitted to make their own decisions for themselves without coercion from others—decisions about religious faith, political and moral allegiance, marriage and procreation. This freedom encompasses “the right to exercise some control over the time and manner of one’s death” (p. 700).

Review Questions

[1] State the central features of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act.

[2] It has been 16 years since the Death with Dignity Act was implemented. Conduct Internet research and list any negative consequences of the implementation of this legislation. Have any of the fear-mongering concerns come true? Is it fair to describe such concerns as “fear-mongering”?

[3] The following terms are not well defined in your textbook: active euthanasia, passive euthanasia, voluntary euthanasia, non-voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia, and physician-assisted suicide. Conduct an Internet search and define these terms.

[4] Brock lists five “good consequences” of permitting euthanasia. These may be considered arguments in support of euthanasia. They are the following: (1) the argument from self-determination, (2) the argument from reassurance, (3) argument from relief of unbearable pain and suffering, (4) the argument from mercy, and (5) the argument from the principle of humaneness. Carefully explain each of these arguments.

[5] Brock lists five “bad consequences of permitting euthanasia. Again, these may be considered arguments against permitting euthanasia. They are the following: (1) Allowing physicians to prescribe life-ending medications would undermine the very core of the practice of medicine, (2) permitting euthanasia would weaken society’s commitment to provide optimal care for patients, (3) permitting euthanasia might erode society’s support for the right of patient’s to refuse treatment, (4) allowing patients to choose may overwhelm them—additional options may make patients “worse off”, and (5) permitting euthanasia might weaken laws against homicide. Carefully explain each of these arguments.

[6] Take each argument against euthanasia. On what grounds does Brock criticize these arguments? Do you think Brock’s criticism is sound or do you think any of these arguments retain merit?

[7] Arras considers (and rejects) the argument from self-determination and the argument from mercy. On what grounds does Arras reject these arguments? Do you find his critique convincing?

[8] Arras considers three objections to PAS and euthanasia: (1) the practice is inherently immoral, (2) it’s wrong to ask physicians to kill, and (3) the practice will expand to non-terminal patients and other such abuses. Evaluate these objections in light of the 2012 Report by the Oregon Health Department. Have any of these negative consequences actually happened?

[9] Objection (2) focuses on the role of the physician in medicine. Proponents of euthanasia tend to view the physician as informing patients of their options; detractors of euthanasia tend to view the physician’s role as a healer. Which view do you find more persuasive?

Discussion Question

Describe the relevant features of the case of Author Wilson. From the description in the article, Mr. Wilson appears competent of mind. He is terminally ill. The sense of being in control (self-determination) is important to him. Should patients like Mr. Williams be permitted to choose how they die? Should physicians who support the practice of physician-assisted suicide being permitted to prescribe such medicine? Answer within the context of the arguments advanced by Brock and Arras. Has the implementation of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act fundamentally altered the role of the physician in the state of Oregon? If a measure similar to the Oregon Death with Dignity Act were up for voter referendum in the state of Florida, would you vote for it? Why or why not?

(Minimum Word Count: 500 Words)

In Oregon, Choosing Death Over Suffering

By John Schwartz and James Estrin

Arthur W. Wilson sits in his study, breathing oxygen through a nose clip and pausing frequently for the coughs that rack his body.

”I’m not suicidal,” he said. ”I’m sane.”

Mr. Wilson, 86, has been living with the profound pain of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for years. Now he wants to end his life — not today, not tomorrow, but when he chooses — under the provisions of Oregon’s Death With Dignity law.

”When the time comes,” he said, ”I’m going to swallow that bottle of Lethe and say goodbye.”

He is no stranger to death, having fought in World War II and in Korea. And he craves being in control. His house is snaked through with a clear plastic tubing system that he devised to carry his oxygen from room to room without having to drag a tank around behind him.

He does not seem, in other words, to be the depressed, languishing patient many might expect to see applying for the Oregon program.

The state’s law allows adults with terminal diseases who are likely to die within six months to obtain lethal doses of drugs from their doctors. In the six years since it went into effect, surprises have been common, including the small number of people who have sought lethal drugs under the law and the even smaller number of people who have actually used them. In surveys and conversations with counselors, many patients say that what they want most is a choice about how their lives will end, a finger on the remote control, as it were.

Last week, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld Oregon’s law, ruling that Attorney General John Ashcroft had overstepped his authority in trying to punish doctors who prescribed suicide drugs under the law.

And while there is still strong opposition around the country to laws like Oregon’s, support within the state has grown over the years. Oregon voters passed the law in two separate referendums. Even some former opponents say the widespread abuses predicted by some have not emerged. And studies are helping researchers and policymakers understand how it really works in practice.

Perhaps the most surprising thing to emerge from Oregon is how rarely the law has actually been used.

”We estimate that one out of a hundred individuals who begin the process of asking about assisted suicide will carry it out,” said Ann Jackson, executive director of the Oregon Hospice Association.

Since 1997, 171 patients with terminal illnesses have legally taken their own lives using lethal medication, compared with 53,544 Oregonians with the same diseases who died from other causes during that time, according to figures released by the Oregon Department of Health Services in March.

More than 100 people begin the process of requesting the drugs in a typical year. Doctors wrote 67 prescriptions for the drugs in 2003, up from 24 in 1998. Forty-two patients died under the law in 2003 compared with 16 in 1998.

Many patients say they want to have the option to end their lives if the pain becomes unbearable or if they are sliding into incompetence while still thinking clearly.

”I’d say it’s less than 50-50 that I’d ever do this thing,” said Don James, a retired school administrator with advanced prostate cancer who has not yet received his pills.

A Desire to Be in Control

A second surprise has been the kind of people who use the law. They are not so much depressed as determined, said Linda Ganzini, a professor of psychiatry at Oregon Health Sciences University. She led a recent survey of 35 doctors who had received requests for suicide drugs. The doctors described the patients as ”feisty” and ”unwavering.”

A third lesson is that for most of those who seek assisted suicide, the greatest concern appears not to be fear of pain but fear of losing autonomy, which is cited by 87 percent of the people who have taken their lives with the drugs. Only 22 percent of the patients listed fear of inadequate pain control as an end-of-life concern, perhaps a sign that pain management has improved over the years.

And though opponents of the law argued that patients would feel pressured by families and even insurers to end their lives early out of financial concerns, so far concerns of being a burden to family have been cited by 36 percent of patients, and financial concerns by just 2 percent. The surveys show that the standard version of health care for terminally ill patients might not be what these patients are looking for, Dr. Ganzini said. The standard version of care says, in effect, ”we’re going to take care of you,” she said. But ”for them, the real problem is other people taking care of you.”

Ms. Jackson said the surveys were changing the hospice association’s practices.

In 1994, the group opposed the Death With Dignity law. Now the hospices work directly with programs like Compassion in Dying, a group that is involved in 75 percent of Oregon’s assisted suicides. Thanks to the surveys of patients seeking assisted suicide, Ms. Jackson said, her organization learned that half the people who rejected hospice care did so because ”they thought that hospice was condescending or arrogant.”

Now the hospices fit their treatments to patients who seek assisted suicide and emphasize that their wishes will be respected, she said.

Opponents of the Oregon law like Dr. Kenneth Stevens, chairman of the department of radiation oncology at the Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, say it violates the fundamental tenet of medicine. Dr. Stevens argues that doctors should not assist in suicides because to do so is incompatible with the doctor’s role as healer.

”I went into medicine to help people,” he said. ”I didn’t go into medicine to give people a prescription for them to die.”

Dr. Stevens heads an organization, Physicians for Compassionate Care, that opposes assisted suicide and the Oregon law. Members of his group, he said, tend to be ”people of faith,” who believe that assisted suicide violates their religious principles. But they base their opposition to the law on moral and ethical grounds, arguing that it leads down a slippery slope toward euthanasia and patient abuses.

He recalled the struggle of his wife, who died of cancer in 1982. In the weeks before she died, he said, her doctor offered her an ”extra-large prescription” for painkillers.

”As I helped her into the car, she said, ‘He wants me to kill myself,”’ Dr. Stevens recalled. ”It just devastated her that her doctor, her trusted doctor, subtly suggested that.”

Others who initially opposed the law, like the hospice group, say they have learned to live with it. Michael Bailey, for example, took out a loan in 1994 to fight the Death With Dignity act. His daughter has Down syndrome, and he said that at the time he could see a straight line between voluntary assisted suicide and forced euthanasia for the handicapped.

Now Mr. Bailey says he has not seen any abuses. ”I don’t see that there’s ever been a scandal,” he said, ”and the numbers are not huge.” Still, he does not support the law. ”If it was up to me, I’d say no, but I don’t think there’s any great human rights crisis here,” he said.

Support for the law crosses ideological lines, said Nicholas van Aelstyn, a lawyer in San Francisco who works with Compassion in Dying. Some commentators have characterized the movement as a liberal cause, but ”to most of the people exercising it, it’s a libertarian issue,” he said. ”Many of our clients are die-hard Republicans who don’t want government interfering in their lives.”

That certainly describes Mr. Wilson, who calls himself a ”staunch conservative” and says Mr. Ashcroft is ”dead wrong” about the Oregon law.

The support for the law in Oregon, Mr. James said, reflects the pioneer spirit that flows from the wagon trains that brought the early settlers. ”They were pretty well-educated, family-oriented people willing to hack a new life out of this wilderness,” he said. ”Pretty independent folks.”

Those who drafted the Death With Dignity Act say they did not try to come up with a political document that would warm the heart of Jack Kevorkian, or that would permit euthanasia, which is repugnant to a significant portion of the population. Instead, they say, they carefully drew up a law that they believed would gain support of everyone except the most determined opponents, and that was loaded with safeguards against abuse.

Doctors have long made lethal doses of drugs available to patients inclined to end their struggle against disease, said Eli Stutsman, president of the board of the Death With Dignity National Center.

”We took something that was already happening, and we wrote a law around it,” he said.

Opponents had argued that Oregon would become a magnet for people seeking suicide, so the law’s provisions were restricted to the state’s residents.

The law also sets a high barrier to getting the life-ending medications, giving patients the chance to change their mind up to the last moment. A patient must make two oral requests for the drugs and one written request after a 15-day waiting period. Two doctors must determine that the patient has less than six months to live, a doctor must decide that the patient is capable of making independent decisions about health care and the doctor has to describe to the patient alternatives like hospice care.

The law also requires that the drugs be self-administered by the patient, rather than given by a doctor or family member, to avoid involuntary euthanasia. The death certificate, under the law, must state the cause of death as the underlying disease, not suicide.

That provision pleases Mr. James.

”I don’t like the word ‘suicide,”’ he said, because ”if I’m really on a path, the natural path” toward death, and ”just hastening it a little bit, I don’t call that suicide.”

Mr. Wilson’s family supports him in his wishes, although his wife, Viola, says she is against the general idea.

”This is his thing, not mine,” she said. ”It’s not the way I’d go.”

Her views flow from her religious beliefs, she said.

”I’m inclined to think that I have a purpose in life until I go,” she said. ”God has a plan for me, and I’m here until he says it’s time to go.”

She said she liked her husband’s idea of having family members gather in a kind of living wake, however.

”That would be fine,” she said. ”You should celebrate the life instead of worry about the death.”

A Last Goodbye

Although the idea of an end-of-life celebration strikes some people as unseemly or exhibitionist for a most private act, many patients say it is natural to want to bring family together for a last goodbye. Most patients call for such a gathering, although relatively few take the poison in the presence of their families.

Barbara Coombs Lee, the president of Compassion in Dying Federation, said she saw the suicides not as ”an impulse to self destruction,” but as ”an impulse to self preservation — preservation of the self I cherish.”

That point of view clearly grates on Dr. Stevens. Although he said he did not want to ”put people down or label people,” he added, ”the ‘P’ word is not ‘pain.’ The ‘P’ word is ‘pride.”’ He explained, ”Rather than being death with dignity, it’s death with vanity.”

But Dr. Marcia Angell, a former executive editor of The New England Journal of Medicine and a supporter of doctor-assisted suicide, said: ”He can call it vanity. Somebody else might call it admirable independence.”

If anything, Dr. Angell said, the Oregon law may be too restrictive and may not reach everyone who could benefit from it.

”I am concerned that so few people are requesting it,” she said. ”It seems to me that more would do it. The purpose of a law is to be used, not to sit there on the books.”

Mr. Stutsman, one of the law’s authors, said it helped people who never end up holding a cup of barbiturate solution in their hands.

”They get the comfort of knowing that the Oregon Death With Dignity Act is there if they need it,” he said. Although no state has passed its own version of the act, ”Oregon is leading the national debate,” he said.

Compassion in Dying claims that the Oregon law prevents violent suicides and the pain such deaths cause families. The patients say, however, that to some extent, the 10-year furor over the law is academic; it is not so hard to die, and people do it around the world without the benefit of laws like that passed by the Oregon Legislature.

Mr. James, for example, said, ”If it gets too bad, I might just stop eating,” and refers jokingly to his ”Ashcroft kit,” a sturdy plastic bag and a roll of duct tape that he could use to asphyxiate himself. But, he added, that would be illegal, and ”I just think that’s bad karma to do it that way.”

Other patients say they know a good death from a bad death, and know which kind they prefer. Lovelle Svart, a retired newspaper librarian, said she recently witnessed a horrifying auto accident on the highway.

”Not that way.” she recalled saying to herself. ”Not the way I want to go.”[supanova_question]

ESSAY Instructions Critically evaluate your lesson sequence in the light of having

ESSAY Instructions

Critically evaluate your lesson sequence in the light of having taught the lessons.

What aspects do you believe were particularly strong in your planning, and why? 

To what extent were your aims and objectives achieved?

What aspects of your planning were you dissatisfied with, and why?

What changes would you make to your lesson sequence in order to address these issues?

Random Notes

the feedback stage is the most important aspect of this script and that teachers need to approach it with the aim of stretching the pupil cognitively and linguistically by following-up and avoiding a simple immediate evaluation.

Away from whole-class teaching, small groups and individual sessions are both often advocated for ELLs, because it is perceived that they allow for greater pupil participation and involvement. Working in small groups can better offer pupils the opportunties of peer teaching, jigsaw learning, group investigation and project work with an emphasis on cooperation in learning, which is important for ELLs’ socio- cultural development (Slavin 1986). Small groups or individual teaching can also offer the chance for one-to-one exchanges with a teacher which is useful because of the potential for negotiation for meaning (Chaudron 1988, in Mohan, Leung and Davison 2001).

Personalising learning and teaching means taking a highly structured and responsive approach to each child’s and young person’s learning, in order that all are able to progress, achieve and participate. It means strengthening the link between learning and teaching by engaging pupils [. . .] as partners in learning [. . .] attention is paid to learners’ knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes. Learning is connected to what they already know (including from outside the classroom).

Bloom’s Taxonomy:

At the heart of Bloom’s taxonomy framework is the ability to create achievable learning goals that teachers and students understand, and build a definitive plan to meet them. Instructors are encouraged to view learning objectives in behavioral terms, such that they can see what students are capable of as a direct result of the instruction they have received at each level, without the need for class-wide generalizations.

At the end of the learning process, the goal with Bloom’s taxonomy is that a student has honed a new skill, level of knowledge, and/or developed a different attitude towards the subject.

Critical Reflection Essay

Title:

Planning Junior School Chinese as a Second Language Lessons for Lower Level Foreign Students

Introduction

Initially I had a plan to write this reflection on Mathematics planning whereby I was given the task of planning for a Year 3 group at an International School in Beijing. But then, I was later set the task of working with students who have been falling behind in their Mandarin Chinese course. The group is made up of five international students of different nationalities. They were in Year 3 (British National Curriculum) and were assigned to receive Chinese language support taught by interns from a language university in Beijing. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, their teaching was interrupted and I began working with the students. I found the students to have lost interest in the Chinese language, they were essentially demotivated to improve their language skills. This was due to many reasons such as instability due to a rotation of teachers throughout the year; lack of support from parents, low intrinsic motivation, and some learning support needs. Therefore, the aim of working with the students over the subsequent two terms, was to raise the morale of the group, create extrinsic motivation for learning, and assist them to get to the end of the school year feeling more enthused about the Chinese language and in turn improve their focus and willingness to participate and learn. This reflection explores the overall lesson plan, its layout, aims and objectives, differentiation techniques, outcomes, and implications for future sequences of similar intentions. The lesson plans assessed are over a two-week period due to many school events or holidays affecting the instructions.

Chapter 1. Design & Layout / Lesson Plan Overview

The greatest thing that could have happened to education is technology and the overwhelming amounts of resources we have available at our fingertips. Though I had acquired the class for teaching Chinese as a second language, I had also the benefit of working with an intern who had returned after being away due to COVID-19. I created the template for the lesson plan and made it available for editing by both of us on Microsoft Sharepoint (a collaborative online team software). Via this mode we were both able to edit and update the lesson plan when necessary without the need of meeting or talking on the phone. Teacher “S” shown in the appendix one and two was responsible for creating the Wednesday character lessons. The lesson plan was created with two teachers in mind and the understanding that this plan, (a first of its kind being done for the Chinese language department of the school) would be accessed by managers, supervisors, and other future trainees.

For obvious reasons the subject, teachers’ names, dates, and year group are clearly written at the top of the form for the reader to see (Besvinick, 1960). The aims, objectives are laid out with special notes for those students who may require added support. This is particularly helpful should another qualified teacher be required to substitute the lesson due to my absence; they would be able to recognise and understand the ideal learning outcomes for the lesson as well as any special provisions needed to support students with additional needs. The lessons are presented using a grid and planned weekly. On the left the days of the week with subheadings (discussed subsequently) and the features of each sequence: LQ, Starter, Main, Activity, Plenary, and Reflection.

Previously, there was no systemised curriculum used by the school for Chinese as a Second Language Learners (CSL). The main aim of working with this group of students is to improve their morale and attitudes towards the Chinese language. Therefore, I planned to have the students follow a weekly timetable which would add variety to their language learning, in turn giving them something interesting to look forward to daily. Mondays and Tuesdays were the designated ‘Input’ days. These days would focus solely on the vocabulary and/or grammar objectives of the week. Character recognition is also a concern for the students and their teachers which often caused anxiety among the children. This led to the implementation of ‘Character Recognition’ Wednesdays whereby the students would focus on the formation, cultural significance, and/or historical phases of Chinese characters of said week. Thursdays were a shorter lesson 40 mins long instead of the usual 50 mins which includes 10 minutes of transition to and from their home room or other lessons. Games have been proven to be a great extrinsic motivator for students in the classroom, thus Thursdays are the dedicated games days which used ESL inspired or other games translated to Mandarin. Finally, Fridays are the ‘Tech Days’ where the students get to work independently or in groups to work on activities using their electronic devices such as iPads or Laptops. All planning and instruction was done using a child centered approach, meaning that all activities were planned with the students, their abilities and needs in mind.

Chapter 2. Critical Evaluation Teaching Approach, Differentiation, Assessments

Achieving the first stated objective: morale, intrinsic motivation,

Aims: Develop and maintain positive attitudes towards Chinese language learning. Encourage a positive working environment through the strengthening of relationships with peers and teachers.

Activities content: Holistic approach: Games online and offline, Culture, History reading, writing,

Positive attitudes: Activities, differentiation, questioning

Collaborative planning

Assessments: feedback through marking online and book, verbal.

Behaviour/Relationship:

Gave the students control over their learning, discussed their whys in learning the language, talked about what they wanted to gain from it, discussed expectations – mine and theirs,

Expectations at the beginning of the lesson for behaviour.

Seating – disruptive student with a vacant seat next to him for support teacher. Layout of classroom,

Achieved- yes, how do you know? How would others view this achievement? How did you make gains visible

Size; feedback; peer feedback and support; skills soft

Strengths

Building Student Morale

Classroom Management

As mentioned before, upon being assigned this class it was soon established that student morale was a crucial hinderance to learning of the group. This was evident through low levels of participation, classroom management difficulties, dwindling student teacher rapport, and low quality of work produced. With this information to consider, I had less than half an academic year’s worth of time to work with the students, so raising their morale was the main focus which would prepare them for the new academic year.

Classroom management was my first area to tackle. I believed that the students needed to know that someone cares about their feelings and is working with them – thus creating a partnership for learning. Therefore, in one of our earlier lessons we had a discussion about the Chinese language, their learning, their reasons for learning the language and their expectations in the classroom (these discussions took place monthly). In turn, I spoke about what I intended to focus their teaching on and laid out the expectations for the behaviour in the classroom. In line with the preventative approach to classroom management model the students were empowered to create their own classroom rules. I asked them about their opinions in regards to acceptable classroom behaviour and consequences should the rules be broken. In line with the school’s policy, the students agreed that getting house points is a positive incentive for good behaviour as they would be adding value to their designated teams. It was then my job to create a system that was valuable to the students, attainable and not easy but challenging enough to keep them motivated. The agreement involved all students having five stars at the beginning of the week. Each star represented one of the school’s values (respect, responsibility, etc.) and each point of a star (five per star) represented a teaching day of the week. Should one of the students break a classroom rule, they would lose one of the ‘points’ from their stars related to the value broken. The student would then have to work hard to regain the point of their star by the end of the week to ensure they would be awarded a house point. This had positive implications overall on the classroom behaviour of the students due to the fact that the school had already established a healthy value point system which I was able to incorporate in the classroom. Students were reminded daily at the beginning and end of the lessons of their stars and we would speak about expectations moving forward. Eventually, students became guardians of the classroom rules and they would notify the classroom teachers of any inappropriate conduct by their peers. While this system arguably encouraged healthy competition amongst students, some students did get embarrassed or upset when they lost stars or did not have enough to gain house points. The students however, would be supportively corrected, thus leading to them being motivated to try better the following week. The students respected the rules because they were involved in their creation and the rewards emplace. This system became part of most informal planning and feedback for the students.

Lesson Content

The subject for the lesson sequences presented is time. The students were to learn and understand how to tell the time using Mandarin.

In line with the child centered approach, students’ interests and needs were at the forefront of all decisions made. Based on discussions with their primary teacher, they were unable to keep abreast with the classroom content due to its pace and level of complexity. When considering the levels of the students overall, they were of an upper beginner level with limited vocabulary both in Chinese character recognition, writing, listening and speaking. HSK level? They needed a well-rounded approach to their instruction which incorporated all of the above facets while maintaining the overall goal of raising their morale. I would always try to include a starter in my lesson before we began. This could last five to ten minutes and is a mode to give the students an opportunity to relax before the main lesson begins. These were especially important in helping me achieve my aims of engaging the students. The activities would be different each day, but relevant to the topic of the week. On Tech Days the starter would be using an ICT medium (See Appendix 2.0 Friday Starter). Some activities would be used either as a mode of revision of a previously learned topic or as a way to function as a clue for whatever the topic will be that day.

Questioning is another way used to not only assess students’ understanding, but to keep them engaged in the lesson. The ways in which questions have been used in the classroom have been extensively analysed (Cameron, Moon and Bygate 1996). Questions to which the teacher knows the answer, known as display questions, are an integral part of many classrooms, as Mehan (1979) pointed out, and a number of writers feel that it is not wise to view such questions as negatively as the profession now does (Cazden and Beck 2003; Lyster 2007). Questions that require a limited response are, in reality, an excellent way of developing a ‘common knowledge’ in the classroom (Cazden and Beck 2003). Lyster (2007) posits that teachers should provide scaffolding by asking a mixture of display and referential questions (those questions to which there is more than one acceptable answer). 650 C. Wardman – COPIED quote needs rewriting.

Learning questions (marked ‘LQ’ in the appendices) were a useful tool for introducing the lesson’s topic. The LQ would function as a means for helping the student to think about the topic at hand. Think about what they know or do not know. They would be given an opportunity to think about the LQ or discuss with their peers. The LQ would be presented on the PowerPoint slide which most lessons are presented. This would not be written in Chinese as the students’ level was not high enough for them to understand and it would be time consuming trying to learn and translate. Questions may sometimes be closed e.g. “Do you remember how to tell the time?” They may also be open-ended – “What’s your daily schedule?” (See Appendix 1.0- 2.1 for examples). Both styles are useful and can be expounded upon based on the answers given by the students.

Differentiation

Flexible Paced Learning

Since COVID-19 began, the need for flexible learning in education became not only helpful, but imperative. We saw the shift from traditional classroom learning to online, giving students more responsibility for their own learning. Flexible learning offers children choice from a variety of factors (Huang et al., 2020). In keeping with my aim of creating a child-centred environment, though my lessons were planned with completion times in mind (note times written in each block per activity), I made sure to be flexible in the lesson. Tasks could be extended or shortened based on student interest. However, with me being flexible with the times, this allowed students to take responsibility for their own learning (Lewis & Spencer, 1986; Goode, 2007). While this can benefit the students in terms of their engagement and active learning, this can sometimes cause changes to be made to the lesson planning and shifting or reorganization of lessons is always a possibility (appendice 1.1 Reflection).

Collaborative Learning

Group work played a big role in the classroom and though the ‘group’ was small (five students) I would often split the children into pairs for activities on games day or tech day when more independent work was required (starter activity in appendix 2.1). Working in a small group, it was quite easy to split the students up based on ability, but the students also had the opportunity to work with everyone in the room more frequently. This encouraged relationship building and the students were not only becoming responsible for their own learning but their classmates’ also. They became more invested in the lessons when working in teams and Chinese language became less intimidating to the students because they did not feel alone in their struggles. They helped each other.

Quizlet’s programme would allow teachers to control the groups and choose who the children would work with to complete the activity. I would give them time to work individually also.

Other Notes

Differentiation

Flexible-pace learning: tasks are completed in a set amount of time, which normally accommodates the slower-paced learners.

Collaborative learning: groupwork (Forming mixed-ability groups)

Progressive tasks: separate work or exercises to different students based on their abilities.

Digital resources: using interactive tools and digital applications

Verbal support: teacher-pupil interaction, and an ability in the educator to engage students in both simple and complex dialogue according to their learning needs.

Chapter 3. Conclusion

Conclusion

Overview of Lesson Sequence

Context:

Junior School Year 3 class of 5 students. Two with Learning Support needs. Foreign Nationals in an International School in Beijing, China.

Subject: Chinese as a Second Language

Teaching Approaches:, Differentiation, Group work.

Assessment Strategies:

Appendices

Appendix 1.0 Week one of lesson plans, Dates 3rd – 7th May 2021

Appendix 1.0 Week one of lesson plans, Dates 3rd – 7th May 2021

Appendix 1.1 Week one of lesson plans.

Appendix 1.1 Week one of lesson plans.

Appendix 2.0 Week two of lesson plans.

Appendix 2.0 Week two of lesson plans.

Appendix 2.1 Week two of lesson plans.

Appendix 2.1 Week two of lesson plans.

Bibliography

Besvinick, S. L. (1960) ‘An Effective Daily Lesson Plan’, Clearing house (Menasha, Wis.), 34(7), pp. 431–433.

Huang, Ronghuai & Tlili, Ahmed & Yang, Junfeng & Chang, Ting-Wen & Wang, Huanhuan & Zhuang, Rongxia & Liu, Dejian. (2020). Handbook on Facilitating Flexible Learning During Educational Disruption: The Chinese Experience in Maintaining Undisrupted Learning in COVID-19 Outbreak.

Estella Williams Chizhik & Alexander Williams Chizhik (2018) Using Activity Theory to Examine How Teachers’ Lesson Plans Meet Students’ Learning Needs, The Teacher Educator, 53:1, 67-85, DOI: 10.1080/08878730.2017.1296913[supanova_question]

Humanities Question

For this short essay, identify and discuss the specific scenes relating to Joseph’s ability to interpret dreams, and describe how they are staged (performed and directed) and how they differ (or don’t) from the Biblical text. 1000 words/3 pages, double-spaced. 12-pt. type.
Links: https://gloria.tv/post/7t2yPDiQtBtSAJqQoMVqFb94r
file:///C:/Users/deysi/Downloads/Joseph 1.pdf
file:///C:/Users/deysi/Downloads/Joseph 2.pdf

done
Seen
few seconds ago[supanova_question]

Module 4: Promoting Positive Youth Development Learning Objective: Students will demonstrate the

Module 4: Promoting Positive Youth Development

Learning Objective:

Students will demonstrate the ability to identify and describe theories related to positive youth development practices in out of school time.

What Do We Mean by Positive Youth Development?

As defined by the National Collaboration for Youth Members in March 1998,

The Youth Development Approach “is a process which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through a coordinated, progressive series of activities and experiences which help them to become socially, morally, emotionally, physically and cognitively competent. Positive youth development addresses the broader developmental needs of youth, in contrast to deficit-based models which focus solely on youth problems.”

WATCH a quick overview of what PYD practices look like in afterschool programs:

QSA Section 6: Youth Development Practices

What Research Says About How We Can

Promote Positive Youth Development for All Youth

In a nutshell, key research tells us that if we want to make a positive difference for youth, we have to figure out how to engage them in learning. Many theories help us define the multi-dimensional elements of engagement and the key developmental factors that serve as motivators for learning among youth. Below are some of these key theories:

READINGS/LECTURES:

READ: A good overview of the importance of youth development approaches:

Hall, G., Yohalem, N., Tolman, J., & Wilson, A. (2003). How afterschool programs can most effectively promote positive youth development as a support to academic achievement. A report by the Boston After-School for All Partnership. Boston, MA: National Institute on Out-of-School Time. Retrieved from: http://niost.org/pdf/WCW3.pdf. (Pages 8-21 only)

Expectancy-Value Theory

READ:

Eccles, J. (2009). Who am I and what am I going to do with my life? Personal and collective identities as motivators of action. Educational Psychologist, 44(2), 78-89. Retrieved from: http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/garp/articles/eccles09a.pdf

Optional Reading:

Grogan, K., Henrich, C. & Malikina, M.M. (2014). Student engagement in after-school programs, academic skills, and social competence among elementary school students. Child Development Research, vol. 2014, Article ID 498506, 9 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/498506 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/498506/

LISTEN:

Lecture on Amplifying Youth Engagement in OST-Part 1 (Expectancy-Value Theory starts at 3:26)

Building Initiative

READ:

Larson, R. W. (2000). Towards a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55,170-183. Retrieved from:http://www.yclc.ca/PDFfiles/towardapositive.pdf

LISTEN:

Lecture on Amplifying Youth Engagement in OST-Part 2

(Building Initiative)[supanova_question]

literature review revision

Business pitch

Business pitch.

Keeping your pitch deck as short and succinct as possible is critical. Remember, your goal isn’t to provide investors with all the information they need to make an investment decision. Its primary purpose is to tell a story, build excitement, and help get that all-important request for additional information and a follow-up meeting.  Your Kaltura presentation is not to exceed eight minutes in length. Going over the eight minute time frame will cause a 25% decrease in the grade for this assignment regardless of the amount of time longer then the eight minutes so practice. You are required to be visible in the video at all times as you are presenting to decision makers so be professional and prepare well.Some items to consider discussing include:Slide 1: Vision and value propositionSlide 2: The problemSlide 3: Target market and opportunitySlide 4: The solutionSlide 5: Revenue model or business modelSlide 6: Traction and validation/roadmapSlide 7: Marketing and sales strategySlide 8: TeamSlide 9: FinancialsSlide 10: CompetitionSlide 11: Investment and use of fundsThis is meant to be a presentation not a paper. Make slides [supanova_question]

Module 11 Discussion – Reflection Module 11 Discussion – Reflection Discussion Topic

Module 11 Discussion – Reflection

Module 11 Discussion – Reflection

Discussion Topic

Top of Form

Aactivity Time:

2 hours; Additional Time for Study, Research, and Reflection: 1 hour

Directions:

Initial Post

Describe how you achieved each course competency including at least one example of new knowledge gained related to that competency.

Describe how this new knowledge will impact your nursing practice.

Course Competencies

Explain principles of care for clients with oncological disorders.

Identify components of safe and effective nursing care for clients experiencing fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

Describe strategies for safe, effective multidimensional nursing care for clients with acid-base imbalances.

Select appropriate nursing interventions for clients with upper gastrointestinal disorders.

Select appropriate nursing interventions for clients with lower gastrointestinal disorders.

Evaluate responses to nursing interventions for clients with endocrine disorders.

Reply Posts

You are required to give a minimum of two responses (by Friday at noon) and follow the criteria listed below:

Review how your classmates achieved each course competency and transferable skill.

Identify new knowledge others gained you had not considered.

Describe how this new knowledge could impact your nursing practice.

Please make your initial post by midweek, and respond to at least two other students’ posts by the end of the week. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.

Bottom of Form[supanova_question]

Business pitch

Research at least two of the states that have legalized marijuana and discuss the pros and cons that have been

Research at least two of the states that have legalized marijuana and discuss the pros and cons that have been.

Research at least two of the states that have legalized marijuana and discuss the pros and cons that have been realized at this point.  Discuss the issues surrounding the growers, the stores selling the product and the issues that law enforcement is dealing with due to criminal and/or civil penalties.This paper should be approximately 2 pages in length using apa[supanova_question]

Module: Red Cross Disaster Preparedness Planning Reflection https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knhHzvESQ_M&ab_channel=TEDxTalks https://alt-5b06b62e5266a.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-7402435-dt-content-rid-83269376_2/courses/20218-COUN-493—Y01/-CriticalIncidentStressManagement-DescriptionofWhatitIs.html?one_hash=405F9F34BDB3D35334658CE745F1A5EB&f_hash=AFE0A2C4482CA36D44323A6D14455AFA https://www.crisistextline.org/become-a-volunteer/ https://learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet02-xythos.content.blackboardcdn.com/5b06b62e5266a/15953058?X-Blackboard-Expiration=1631091600000&X-Blackboard-Signature=rmZEIF5mVfKp2D82AWUBt8tvvI6xuuzmgb7sv9Z8Eo&X-Blackboard-Client-Id=100565&response-cache-control=privatemax-age21600&response-content-disposition=inlinefilenameUTF-8Red20Cross20Eligibility-Criteria-for-Disaster-Mental-Health-Volunteers.pdf&response-content-type=applicationpdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210908T030000Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=21600&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAZH6WM4PL5SJBSTP620210908us-east-1s3aws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=b4b06b95d1a97acdef2cd1916596bd17f5090afaadba8b39aba29ef0f3f0c92c Take

Module: Red Cross Disaster Preparedness Planning Reflection

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knhHzvESQ_M&ab_channel=TEDxTalks

https://alt-5b06b62e5266a.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-7402435-dt-content-rid-83269376_2/courses/20218-COUN-493—Y01/-CriticalIncidentStressManagement-DescriptionofWhatitIs.html?one_hash=405F9F34BDB3D35334658CE745F1A5EB&f_hash=AFE0A2C4482CA36D44323A6D14455AFA

https://www.crisistextline.org/become-a-volunteer/

https://learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet02-xythos.content.blackboardcdn.com/5b06b62e5266a/15953058?X-Blackboard-Expiration=1631091600000&X-Blackboard-Signature=rmZEIF5mVfKp2D82AWUBt8tvvI6xuuzmgb7sv9Z8Eo&X-Blackboard-Client-Id=100565&response-cache-control=privatemax-age21600&response-content-disposition=inlinefilenameUTF-8Red20Cross20Eligibility-Criteria-for-Disaster-Mental-Health-Volunteers.pdf&response-content-type=applicationpdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210908T030000Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=21600&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAZH6WM4PL5SJBSTP620210908us-east-1s3aws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=b4b06b95d1a97acdef2cd1916596bd17f5090afaadba8b39aba29ef0f3f0c92c

Take the quiz on the Red Cross site. Also, look at the links on the page under “Be Red Cross Ready.”  Consider the place where you currently spend the most time (campus or home) and write a paragraph about how ready you are according to the Red Cross recommendations.  If you are not prepared, discuss what you can do to get prepared- be specific about your community.  If you are prepared, share what you know about your community’s disaster preparedness plan.[supanova_question]

Module 05 Assignment Worksheet Student Name: For each of the three scenarios

Research at least two of the states that have legalized marijuana and discuss the pros and cons that have been Module 05 Assignment Worksheet

Student Name:

For each of the three scenarios in this assignment, provide the following information:

Name of your state’s early intervention system and its website:

Scenario #1:

Scenario #2:

Scenario #3:

Step-by-step process for referral:

Scenario #1:

Scenario #2:

Scenario #3:

How long the process will take:

Scenario #1:

Scenario #2:

Scenario #3:

Who is involved in the process:

Scenario #1:

Scenario #2:

Scenario #3:

As an educator, what you would do if the child was not eligible for services:

Scenario #1:

Scenario #2:

Scenario #3:

List your research sources in the References section below. Be sure to format them according to APA guidelines.

References[supanova_question]

Module 7 Assignment: IR Plan and Action This is phase one of

Module 7 Assignment: IR Plan and Action

This is phase one of a multifaceted attack. In this assignment you will learn during this exercise to actively respond to the scenario as if it were an actual attack and to interact with other functional areas that would also be impacted by the security incident. You will be provided with an IR plan, and you will leverage the plan to successfully navigate the incident and answer questions pertaining to the scenario and how it interacts with the IR plan.

OZCO Data Breach of International Operational Data from within North America

You work in cybersecurity for OZCO, a Fortune 500 biomedical company.

One Saturday morning another OZCO logs into the VPN utilizing their personal PC from home located in Wilmington, Delaware. The employee logs in utilizing their ADMIN rights into the HRIS Oracle database, which is a system that houses some of the most sensitive data in the company and provides a critical hub located in Canada that supports international operations from central locations around the world covering Japan, Mexico, Germany, Europe, and North Korea.

The employee notices a suspicious IP that was generated from a Nmap scan that they recently ran. The IP is identified as 81.169.181.179. 

Several popups begin automatically opening on the employee’s laptop, and the system starts running slow.

The day before, the employee responded to an email that stated their Amazon Prime account was about to expire and they needed to renew their subscription via a link. The employee unknowingly was redirected to a mock Amazon site that resembled the actual Amazon site where the site downloaded malicious software onto their system creating a backdoor into the laptop.

The employee uses single sign-on for access to all OZCO systems.

The employee’s home PC has been infected with a key logger and a zero-day hack. Now the attacker has the employee’s login information as well as logins for several ADMIN accounts. The attacker logs onto OZCO’s HRIS Oracle’s database and downloads international, operational, and sensitive data as well as North American customer PII. This action stops some critical services for all users.

The employee quickly disconnects the system from the network and unplugs the system losing all power. Canada, Japan, Mexico, Germany, Europe, and North Korea incident handlers from within OZCO are notified.

Understand the Incident’s Background

What is the nature of the problem, as it has been observed so far? (2 or more of these points should be discussed)

What groups or organizations were affected by the incident? Are they aware of the incident?

Define Communication Parameters

Which individuals are aware of the incident? What are their names and group or company affiliations?

Based on the IR plan who is designated as the primary incident response coordinator? (will accept any of the three)

What is the functional impact category for this incident? What is the informational impact for this incident?

Based on the IR Plan who is authorized to contact customers and how will the message be drafted?

Based on the IR plan what is the containment strategy for “stolen credentials” to reduce impact?

Based on the IR plan, what two members are contacted when a level 1 escalation is identified?

Based on the IR plan, during a critical informational impact incident who will be contacted to work with legal to determine notification requirements.

Based on the IR plan what is their stance on public relations media handling?

Based on the IR plan, how should compromised systems be handled? Were the proper steps taken to contain the incident?

Assess the Incident’s Scope

Based on the scenario, what are some likely IT infrastructure components (servers, websites, networks, etc.) that are directly affected by the incident?

Based on the IR plan, what breach notification procedures are used for covered entities? Are we aware of compliance or legal obligations tied to the incident? (e.g., PCI, breach notification laws, etc.)

Does the affected IT infrastructure pose any risk to other organizations?

Is the location of the suspicious IP?

Based on the scenario, some of your international counter parts are looking to you for guidance. What are some steps you would recommend they take?

Base on the IR plan, to preserve evidence and facilitate the investigation what did the employee do that was not recommended in the IR plan?

Based on the IR plan what are some strategies for investigation of this scenario?

If logs or scans were reviewed, what suspicious entries were found? What additional suspicious events or state information, was observed?

Prepare for Next Incident Response Steps

Based on the IR plan, what are the next steps for responding to this incident? (Who will do what and when?)[supanova_question]

Module V Assignment Course Textbook: Getze, T. E., (2013). Health Economics in

Module V Assignment

Course Textbook: Getze, T. E., (2013). Health Economics in Financing (5th ed.). Wiley ISBN-10: 1118545346, ebook ISBN-13: 9781118545348, ISBN-10: 1118184904, Print: ISBN-13: 9781118184905

1. Analyze different countries GDP (developed to lower developed countries) and find a correlation with GDP and Healthcare within those countries.  Why is this the case?

2. To increase GDP of a country the government invest in productivity.  How does government invest in healthcare and how does that relate to increased GDP

3. When you look at business cycles of countries they naturally flow in a wavy motion that has times of growth and slowdowns.  In growth times unemployment is low and is often referred to as full employment and in recessionary times unemployment is high.  Does this trend also follow in the healthcare field?  Why? Or Why not?

4. Back in the 70’s the government experimented with putting price controls on healthcare.  Price controls are price floors and price ceilings.  One of the things the government tried to do was to place price ceilings on nurses salaries.  Explain the outcome of a price ceiling and what the impact on the nursing labor market.[supanova_question]

Module VII Q & A Course Textbook: Getze, T. E., (2013). Health

Module VII Q & A

Course Textbook: Getze, T. E., (2013). Health Economics in Financing (5th ed.). Wiley ISBN-10: 1118545346, ebook ISBN-13: 9781118545348, ISBN-10: 1118184904, Print: ISBN-13: 9781118184905

1. What are the positive externalities of flu shots?  Since the market fails to produce enough people with flu shots, how does government help with obtaining the optimal amount of flu shots.

2. What are the negative externalities of smoking.  What has the government done to handle some of these externalities (name at least 2).

3.  If Healthcare was to become a public good, explain the concepts of free riders and moral hazard.

4. If a way to increase productivity is to have healthy workers and healthy workers can increase GDP and the standard of living within a country, how can government help in providing better healthcare in a LDC or developing country?

5. What types of healthcare goods are internationally traded? In your line of healthcare work, have you seen any impact on Trumps trade tariffs on products or services? Give examples.  If you re not currently in healthcare field look up healthcare products that have been impacted by the Trump Tariffs.[supanova_question]

Module XI: Brain Functioning Topic 2: The Nervous System The nervous system

Module XI: Brain Functioning

Topic 2: The Nervous System

The nervous system has three main functions: sensory input, integration of data and motor output. Sensory input is when the body gathers information or data, by way of neurons, glia and synapses. The nervous system is composed of excitable nerve cells (neurons) and synapses that form between the neurons and connect them to centers throughout the body or to other neurons. These neurons operate on excitation or inhibition, and although nerve cells can vary in size and location, their communication with one another determines their function. These nerves conduct impulses from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. The data is then processed by way of integration of data, which occurs only in the brain. After the brain has processed the information, impulses are then conducted from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands, which is called motor output. Glia cells are found within tissues and are not excitable but help with myelination, ionic regulation and extracellular fluid.

The nervous system is comprised of two major parts, or subdivisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the body’s “control center”. The CNS has various centers located within it that carry out the sensory, motor and integration of data. These centers can be subdivided to Lower Centers (including the spinal cord and brain stem) and Higher centers communicating with the brain via effectors. The PNS is a vast network of spinal and cranial nerves that are linked to the brain and the spinal cord. It contains sensory receptors which help in processing changes in the internal and external environment. This information is sent to the CNS via afferent sensory nerves. The PNS is then subdivided into the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. The autonomic has involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles. The somatic has voluntary control of skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscle. The two systems function together, by way of nerves from the PNS entering and becoming part of the CNS, and vice versa. The nervous system consists of many nerve cells, also known as neurons, as seen below.

The Nerve Cell

All sensations, movements, thoughts, memories, and feelings are the result of signals that pass through neurons. Neurons consist of three parts. The cell body contains the nucleus, where most of the molecules that the neuron needs to survive and function are manufactured. Dendrites extend out from the cell body like the branches of a tree and receive messages from other nerve cells. Signals then pass from the dendrites through the cell body and may travel away from the cell body down an axon to another neuron, a muscle cell, or cells in some other organ. The neuron is usually surrounded by many support cells. Some types of cells, oligodendroglial cells, wrap around the axon to form an insulating sheath. Myelin is a substance that forms the myelin sheath associated with nerve cells. This sheath is a layer of phospholipids and provides insulation for the axon and helps nerve signals travel faster and farther. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis are a result in a lack of this myelin sheath, with the resultant effect being that the conductivity of signals is much slower severely decreasing the effectiveness of the nervous system in sufferers.  Axons may be very short, such as those that carry signals from one cell in the cortex to another cell less than a hair’s width away. Or axons may be very long, such as those that carry messages from the brain all the way down the spinal cord.

Classification of Neurons

Interneurons – Neurons lying entirely within the CNS
Afferent Neurons – Also known as sensory neurones, these are specialised to send impulses towards the CNS away from the peripheral system
Efferent Neurons – These nerve cells carry signals from the CNS to the cells in the peripheral system

Synapse

A synapse is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell.

Synapses are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells, and synapses are the means by which they do so. At a synapse, the plasma membrane of the signal-passing neuron (the presynaptic neuron) comes into close apposition with the membrane of the target (postsynaptic) cell. Both the presynaptic and postsynaptic sites contain extensive arrays of molecular machinary that link the two membranes together and carry out the signaling process. In many synapses, the presynaptic part is located on an axon, but some presynaptic sites are located on a dendrite or soma. Astrocytes also exchange information with the synaptic neurons, responding to synaptic activity and, in turn, regulating neurotransmission.

There are two fundamentally different types of synapses:

In a chemical synapse, electrical activity in the presynaptic neuron is converted (via the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels) into the release of a chemical called a neurotransmitter that binds to receptors located in the postsynaptic cell, usually embedded in the plasma membrane. The neurotransmitter may initiate an electrical response or a secondary messenger pathway that may either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron. Because of the complexity of receptor signal transduction, chemical synapses can have complex effects on the postsynaptic cell.

In an electrical synapse, the presynaptic and postsynaptic cell membranes are connected by special channels called gap junctions that are capable of passing electric current, causing voltage changes in the presynaptic cell to induce voltage changes in the postsynaptic cell. The main advantage of an electrical synapse is the rapid transfer of signals from one cell to the next.

Synaptic communication is distinct from ephaptic couppling, in which communication between neurons occurs via indirect electric fields.

Somatic Nervous System

Efferent fibers are divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic fibers are responsible for the voluntary movement of our body, i.e. movement that you consciously thought about doing.

The Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system incorporates all the impulses that are done involuntarily, and are usually associated with essential functions such as breathing, heartbeat etc. However this type of system can further be broken down into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems which keep one another in check in a form of negative feedback such as the release of insulin and glucagon in sugar control of the blood. 

All of the actions executed by the autonomic nervous system are unconsciously done.

These informational pulses executed in our nervous system allow us to do our daily functions. The processing of this information is done in the CNS, the brain, a highly developed mass of nerve cells.

The Relationship Between Neurotransmitters and Mental Illness

Neurotransmitters have been studied quite a bit in relation to psychology and human behavior. What we have found is that several neurotransmitters play a role in the way we behave, learn, the way we feel, and sleep. And, some play a role in mental illnesses. The following are those neurotransmitters which play a significant role in our mental health.

Acetylcholine – involved in voluntary  movement, learning, memory, and sleep

§ Too much acetylcholine is associated with depression, and too little in the hippocampus has been associated with dementia.

Dopamine – correlated with movement,  attention, and learning

§ Too  much dopamine has been associated with schizophrenia, and too little is associated with some forms of depression as well as the muscular rigidity      and tremors found in Parkinson’s disease.

Norepinephrine – associated with eating, alertness

§ Too little norepinephrine has been associated with depression, while an excess has been associated with schizophrenia.

Epinephrine  – involved in energy, and glucose metabolism

§ Too  little epinephrine has been associated with depression.

Serotonin – plays a role in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behavior

§ Too  little serotonin is associated with depression and some anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder. Some antidepressant medications increase the availability of serotonin at the receptor sites.

GABA  (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid) – inhibits excitation and anxiety

§ Too little GABA is associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders. Some antianxiety medication increases GABA at the receptor sites.

Endorphins – involved in pain relief and feelings of pleasure and contentedness[supanova_question]

N4455 Nursing Leadership and Management Module 4 Assignment 1: Organizational Analysis –

N4455 Nursing Leadership and Management

Module 4 Assignment 1: Organizational Analysis – The Nurse Leader

Name:

Date:

Overview: Organizational Analysis – The Nurse Leader

The major assignment for this course is analysis of your organization. In this assignment, you will analyze your nurse leader’s characteristics and behaviors regarding others in managing, leading, and communicating. By respectfully, but critically, critiquing these attributes of the nurse leader you have been “shadowing,” you can identify the attributes that you consider most and least effective, and most and least similar to the way you see yourself managing, leading, and communicating.

Complete this document to record your analysis of your nurse leader.

Objectives

Explain how organizations function.

Compare and contrast characteristics of leadership and management.

Apply trends, issues, theories, and evidence as guidelines for management decisions.

Evaluate effectiveness of communication patterns using specific management situations

Expected elements of scholarly writing:

Ensure correct grammar and spelling

Assignment should be submitted as an APA Paper, including title page and references.

Title page is required for this Assignment and the UTACON version is expected format.

1-inch margins.

Please provide all references used to support your opinions and clarify positions in the paper. The reference list begins on a separate page from the content.

Headings are expected and must be connected to the assignment criteria following APA style. An introduction is expected providing a brief look at what is planned within the body of the paper. However, no heading is used over the introduction in APA format. A Summary is used and should have a heading over it.

For all other style questions refer to the American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) Washington, DC: Author.

Rubric

Use this rubric to guide your work on the Week 4 Organizational Analysis-The Nurse Leader.

Tasks

Target

Acceptable

Unacceptable

Use correct grammar, punctuation, and American Psychological Association (APA) format in writing professional papers.

(max 10 points)

(9-10 points)

APA format and style are correct and clear. Areas of focus include syntax, appearance, organization, and grammatical correctness. References and literature citations are correct. (0-2 errors)

(5-8 points)

APA format and style are mostly correct. Areas of focus include syntax, appearance, organization, and grammatical correctness. References and literature citations are correct. (3-5 errors)

(0-4 points)

APA format and style are minimally correct. Areas of focus include syntax, appearance, organization, and grammatical correctness. References and literature are cited but contain mistakes. (>5)

Nurse Manager

(max 30 points)

(21-30 points)

Specific, well-organized description of credentials, position, responsibilities, experience, etc.

(11-20 points)

General description of credentials, position, and responsibilities or experience

(0-10 Points)

Important information unclear or missing

Specific references to professional organizations, journals, other professional development

List of professional organizations or journals

Little or no reference to professional development

Nurse Leader

(max 30 points)

(21-30 points)

Clear identification and description of leadership style with references cited

(11-20 points)

General description of leadership style

(0-10 points)

Vague or missing description of leadership style

At least three specific examples of how nurse leader handles responsibilities with detailed evaluation of effectiveness of each

At least two examples of how manager handles responsibilities with evaluation of effectiveness

Poorly-worded or missing examples of how manager handles responsibilities or no evaluation of effectiveness

At least two specific examples of leadership skills with detailed critique of effectiveness of each

At least one example of leadership skills with critique of effectiveness

Poorly-worded or missing example of leadership skills or no critique of effectiveness

Communication

(max 30 points)

(21-30 points)

At least three specific examples of identified types of communication

(11-20 points)

At least two examples of identified types of communication

(0-10 points)

One or no examples of identified types of communication

Well-written evaluation of effectiveness of communication for each example

General evaluation of effectiveness of communication

Statement of effectiveness of communication or no mention of effectiveness

Specific, pertinent recommendations for better communication in each example

General recommendations for better communication

Minimal or missing recommendations for better communication

Nurse Manager

Include your nurse facilitator’s credentials, position, scope of responsibilities, length of time as a manager, etc. Describe his or her participation in professional organizations, which professional journals he or she typically reads, and other pertinent information related to ongoing professional development.

Nurse Leader

Describe the leadership style of the nurse manager with supportive references cited. Provide specific examples of how he or she handles responsibilities and indicate whether you believe the responsibilities were handled effectively or ineffectively. Provide at least two specific examples of leadership skills in practice, and critique the effectiveness/ineffectiveness for the identified situation. (Examples may include situations related to use of power, conflict management, managing personnel, crisis management, effective delegation, team building, etc.)

Communication

Provide specific examples of communications interactions upward, downward, as well as peer communication. How effective or ineffective is the manager in various roles, and what recommendations do you have that would help him or her to be a more effective communicator?

©2020 University of Texas at Arlington Page 1 of 3[supanova_question]

Title page Nurse Manager I have known Melinda for about 5 years.

Title page

Nurse Manager

I have known Melinda for about 5 years. I met her at the hospital when I was a new grad and she was a great leader to many new grads. However, she quit her hospital job and started working for a home health agency as a DON. Melinda graduated nursing school in the Philippines and has been a nurse for over 15 years. She started working in Medical Surgical unit and transferred to ICU for a few years then back to Medical Surgical unit again. She has many years of experience as a nurse. Melinda had also been a DON for a home health agency since 2010. In 2018 she started doing home health as a full-time job. I joined her in 2018 and started loving home health. I am the main RN who admits patients and discharges them. Melinda is the leader of the home health and her skills and positivity is respected by everyone. I decided to shadow her as a leader and she has taught me many leadership and management skills that I will be using in the future. Melinda is also a consultant for many other home health and she gets them ready for Joint Commission surveys. She is excellent at what she is doing and everyone at the agency look up to her if they need any form of assistance.

Nurse Leader

The leadership style that Melinda uses often is called transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is known as the most effective form of leadership (Cherry,2020). Melinda is passionate about her job and motivates all her staff to achieve better. Melinda goes above and beyond to prepare her staff for any surveys from joint commission or health department. She often goes through each chart of the patients to assure that all the orders and care plans are followed. She also schedules weekly meetings to answer any questions and to inform her staff of any changes in the policy and procedure. Melinda always makes sures that there is no conflict in between staff and that everyone respects each other and helps each other when needed.

Melidna is always available to answer any questions that the nurses have. She will go above and beyond to help you achieve your goals and making sure that you comprehend all the new upcoming information that home health receives from health department. Melinda works very well in stressful situations. One of Melinda’s best leadership skills is positivity and a good listener. She always takes the time to listen to her staff and provide assistance. During surveys she is always positive and ready to answer any questions that the surveys have. Home Health go through surveys every 3 years and Melinda always assures that her staff are ready for surveys by providing weekly meetings with the office staff and the nurses.

Communication

I believe that Melinda has been the most effective communicator leader in my nursing career. Melinda does weekly meetings with her staff to make sure that everyone follows all the updated policies and procedures. Melinda also communicates with nurses and patients every week. She will follow up with all the patients to assure that they are happy with their nurse,CNA, or physical therapy. If a patient is not happy with his or her physical therapy she communicates with the office staff as well as with the therapist to figure out what the problem is and why the patient is not happy with her sessions. She will hire a new physical therapist just to make her patients are pleased with the care that they receive.

When communicating with her staff Melinda is very respectful and patient in answering all the questions. She is a good listener and always available to help. If a nurse is unable to visit a patient, she will contact the patient and she will visit the patient herself if needed. She does like to communicate with the patients and let them know the expected date and time of the nurse or other caregivers.

She is excellent in finding solutions to any problems and she believes in teamwork. She will ask our opinion and advice in case of any challenge. Overall Melinda is a great listener and has successful leadership skills.

Reference

Cherry, K. (2020, August 3). What are prominent leadership styles and frameworks you should

know? Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/leadership-styles-2795312.

©2020 University of Texas at Arlington Page 1 of 3[supanova_question]

Research at least two of the states that have legalized marijuana and discuss the pros and cons that have been

Please look at the photo posted for instructions and pick one movie to write a I have also sent Essay

Please look at the photo posted for instructions and pick one movie to write a I have also sent Essay.

Please look at the photo posted for instructions and pick one movie to write a I have also sent the pdf of the textbook. Please browse the textbook and pick any 2 themes you could use. please let me know if you have any questions.

My suggestion: Memoirs of a Geisha – can write upon culture in Japan vs US. refer to “cultural relativism” and another example from the book.[supanova_question]

Overview Company leaders need to keep a watchful eye on the economy

Overview

Company leaders need to keep a watchful eye on the economy and how micro- and macro-environments affect their business. Successful leaders are always a step ahead. They stay there by leading with data-driven decisions that allow their companies to anticipate and respond to challenges. In this module, you’ve learned how information is key in making decisions and solving problems; however, research and analytical skills are also needed to extract value from data. Information-gathering should align with research objectives. Qualitative and quantitative data alongside relevant and credible primary and secondary sources are fundamental ingredients for informing good judgement.

Prompt

In a report by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. economy contracted at an annual rate of 4.8% in the first quarter of this year. For this assignment, you will take on the role of an HR manager at an air transportation supply company. The company is currently struggling with a significant loss of revenue and considering operational costs. You have been asked to analyze employee performance over the last year and make sense of the data.

Using a summary (provided below) of the company’s employee salaries, bonuses, and performance data, address the following rubric criteria:

Interpretation: Discuss your interpretation of the data.

What questions emerge from your analysis of the data?

What story can they tell about the company’s employees?

Analysis: Explain how the provided data helps you understand your employees and how the company is using its financial resources. Identify potential gaps or issues in the data.

What is the quantitative and qualitative data telling you? Are there any underlying issues or perspectives?

What is the data not telling you?

What additional primary and secondary sources would help the company make a decision?

Conclusion and related outcomes: Describe how you have used data to determine a strategy. Use evidence to support your explanations.

What would your strategy be if you were asked to recommend a 10% reduction in the budget?

How would you synthesize and defend your decision process?

This resource will assist you as you complete your paper.

Air Transportation Supplier HR Performance Data Spreadsheet. This summary table of your company’s HR performance data will inform your work on this assignment.

Guidelines for Submission

Complete the Making Decisions and Overcoming Bias Using Research worksheet in your Soomo webtext, download your completed work, and submit it in Brightspace for instructor feedback. You should write using a professional voice, and any sources should be cited according to APA style. Your assignment must be between 400 and 800 words in length.

Module Two Assignment Rubric

Criteria

Exemplary (100%)

Proficient (85%)

Needs Improvement (55%)

Not Evident (0%)

Value

Interpretation

Exceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative manner

Discusses interpretation of the data; describes questions that emerge from data analysis; explains what data tells about the company’s employees

Shows progress toward proficiency, but with errors or omissions; areas for improvement may include interpretation of the data, description of questions that emerge from data analysis, or what data tells about the company’s employees

Does not attempt criterion

25

Analysis

Exceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative manner

Explains how the data provided helps understand employees and how the company is using its financial resources; identifies potential gaps or issues in the data

Shows progress toward proficiency, but with errors or omissions; areas for improvement may include more details about how the data provided helps understand employees and how the company is using its financial resources

Does not attempt criterion

25

Conclusion and Related Outcomes

Exceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative manner

Describes how data can be used to determine a strategy

Shows progress toward proficiency, but with errors or omissions; areas for improvement may include more details about how data can be used to determine a strategy

Does not attempt criterion

30

Articulation of Response

Exceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative manner

Clearly conveys meaning with correct grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, demonstrating an understanding of audience and purpose

Shows progress toward proficiency, but with errors in grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, negatively impacting readability

Submission has critical errors in grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, preventing understanding of ideas

10

Citations and Attributions

Uses citations for ideas requiring attribution, with few or no minor errors

Uses citations for ideas requiring attribution, with consistent minor errors

Uses citations for ideas requiring attribution, with major errors

Does not use citations for ideas requiring attribution

10

Total:

100%[supanova_question]

Module 5: Social Emotional Learning WATCH: What is SEL? https://youtu.be/DqNn9qWoO1M READ: Partnership

Please look at the photo posted for instructions and pick one movie to write a I have also sent Essay Module 5: Social Emotional Learning

WATCH:

What is SEL? https://youtu.be/DqNn9qWoO1M

READ:

Partnership for Children and Youth (May 2016). Finding common ground: Connecting social-emotional learning during and beyond the school day. https://www.partnerforchildren.org/resources/2017/11/1/finding-common-ground

Optional:

Beyond the Bell at American Institutes for Research (2015). Research to practice in the afterschool and expanded learning field: Supporting social and emotional development through quality afterschool programs. Retrieved from: http://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/Social-and-Emotional-Development-Afterschool-Programs.pdf

USING S.A.F.E. FEATURES TO TEACH SEL

READ:

Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2011). Afterschool programs that follow evidence-based practices to promote social and emotional development are effective. Expanding and Opportunities, 24. http://www.expandinglearning.org/docs/Durlak&Weissberg_Final.pdf

Optional:

Granger, R., (2008). After-school programs and academics: Implications for policy and practices. Social Policy Report, 22, 1-19. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED521698.pdf

REVIEW LECTURE SLIDES: The Importance of S.A.F.E. Features[supanova_question]

Module Introduction In this module you will meet with your chosen family

Module Introduction

In this module you will meet with your chosen family and implement the planned family education. 

 Module Objectives 

At the end of this module students will be able to:

Conduct a teaching plan with the chosen family. (SLO 2 & 5)

 

  Module Activities 

Below is an outline of the items for which you will be responsible throughout the module.

 READ

DUE: Early in the week

Read the following early in the week to help you respond to the discussion questions and to complete your assignment(s).

Required Textbook Readings

Read chapter 12 in Stanhope & Lancaster (all MOs)

 DISCUSS

DUE: Day 7 (All MOs)

Respond to the discussion prompts and questions by the due dates outlined in the assignment. 

In two-three paragraphs explain your teaching plan, describe how the teaching was implemented, and the outcome of the education.

Discuss if you were able to successfully form a collaborative partnership between the community sites (local agencies/resources) and the family. Was the family receptive to your suggestions to reach their goals? 

 

 

 

 

Module 6: Implementation of Family Education

 

 Discussion – Implementation of Family Education

In two-three paragraphs explain your teaching plan, describe how the teaching was implemented, and the outcome of the education.[supanova_question]

Module 5 Learning Activity Question 13.5 What capital components are typically included

Module 5 Learning Activity

Question

13.5 What capital components are typically included when estimating a firm’s corporate cost of capital?

Problem

13.4 Richmond Clinic has obtained the following estimates for its costs of debt and equity at various capital structures:

What is the firm’s optimal capital structure? (Hint: Calculate its corporate cost of capital at each structure. Also, note that data on component costs at alternative capital structures are not reliable in real-world situations.)

Problem

14.2 Better Health, Inc., is evaluating two investment projects, each of which requires an up-front expenditure of $1.5 million. The projects are expected to produce the following net cash inflows:

a. What is each project’s IRR?

b. What is each project’s NPV if the cost of capital is 10 percent? 5 percent? 15 percent?[supanova_question]

BA 2010 Online Management Strategy Assessment Chapters 12-15 Directions: Download the Module

BA 2010 Online

Management Strategy Assessment

Chapters 12-15

Directions:

Download the Module 5 Exercises Template in the Module Assignments Area.

Type your name in the cover sheet.

Type the date submitted (example: August 1, 2017).

For each heading (example: Leadership Behaviors) there is a sentence in the Module 5 Exercises Template to prompt you. Type directly over that sentence to follow the formatting.

Your paper should follow APA format, and should be in your own words. Any content you take from a source must be inside quotation marks and must be cited in-text (author, date).

In APA formatting, you are not permitted to use “I.” Instead, you must be an independent researcher. Say, “the organization” or “the salesperson,” not “I would.”

You should list the references you used to develop your paper.

Link to APA resources: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html

The Management Strategy Assessment questions begin on the following page.

Student Exercises:

Complete the following question(s) and type your answers into the Module 5 Exercises Template in the Module Assignments Area.

Leadership Behaviors

Research a leader that you believe uses either directive leadership, supportive leadership, participative leadership, or achievement-oriented leadership. Describe the leader, and explain why you think the leader uses either directive leadership, supportive leadership, participative leadership, or achievement-oriented leadership by describing the leader’s history of behavior and decision-making.

How responsive is this leader in promoting organizational diversity? Give examples.

Has this leader created a team environment?

Reveal how you might lead the organization differently if you were in charge. What style of leadership would you adopt? Why?

Use course concepts and reputable external academic sources to write your paper answering the preceding questions. This paper will be 3-4 pages (does NOT include the cover or reference page) of substantive content written according to APA guidelines. Ensure all external sources are properly cited (to include the textbook) in the paper and on the reference page.

BA 2010 Principles of Management 3[supanova_question]

Nursing Leadership and Management Module 4 Assignment 1: Organizational Analysis – The

Nursing Leadership and Management

Module 4 Assignment 1: Organizational Analysis – The Nurse Leader

Name:

Date:

Overview: Organizational Analysis – The Nurse Leader

The major assignment for this course is analysis of your organization. In this assignment, you will analyze your nurse leader’s characteristics and behaviors regarding others in managing, leading, and communicating. By respectfully, but critically, critiquing these attributes of the nurse leader you have been “shadowing,” you can identify the attributes that you consider most and least effective, and most and least similar to the way you see yourself managing, leading, and communicating.

Complete this document to record your analysis of your nurse leader.

Objectives

Explain how organizations function.

Compare and contrast characteristics of leadership and management.

Apply trends, issues, theories, and evidence as guidelines for management decisions.

Evaluate effectiveness of communication patterns using specific management situations

Expected elements of scholarly writing:

Ensure correct grammar and spelling

Assignment should be submitted as an APA Paper, including title page and references.

Title page is required for this Assignment and the UTACON version is expected format.

1-inch margins.

Please provide all references used to support your opinions and clarify positions in the paper. The reference list begins on a separate page from the content.

Headings are expected and must be connected to the assignment criteria following APA style. An introduction is expected providing a brief look at what is planned within the body of the paper. However, no heading is used over the introduction in APA format. A Summary is used and should have a heading over it.

For all other style questions refer to the American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) Washington, DC: Author.

Rubric

Use this rubric to guide your work on the Week 4 Organizational Analysis-The Nurse Leader.

Tasks

Target

Acceptable

Unacceptable

Use correct grammar, punctuation, and American Psychological Association (APA) format in writing professional papers.

(max 10 points)

(9-10 points)

APA format and style are correct and clear. Areas of focus include syntax, appearance, organization, and grammatical correctness. References and literature citations are correct. (0-2 errors)

(5-8 points)

APA format and style are mostly correct. Areas of focus include syntax, appearance, organization, and grammatical correctness. References and literature citations are correct. (3-5 errors)

(0-4 points)

APA format and style are minimally correct. Areas of focus include syntax, appearance, organization, and grammatical correctness. References and literature are cited but contain mistakes. (>5)

Nurse Manager

(max 30 points)

(21-30 points)

Specific, well-organized description of credentials, position, responsibilities, experience, etc.

(11-20 points)

General description of credentials, position, and responsibilities or experience

(0-10 Points)

Important information unclear or missing

Specific references to professional organizations, journals, other professional development

List of professional organizations or journals

Little or no reference to professional development

Nurse Leader

(max 30 points)

(21-30 points)

Clear identification and description of leadership style with references cited

(11-20 points)

General description of leadership style

(0-10 points)

Vague or missing description of leadership style

At least three specific examples of how nurse leader handles responsibilities with detailed evaluation of effectiveness of each

At least two examples of how manager handles responsibilities with evaluation of effectiveness

Poorly-worded or missing examples of how manager handles responsibilities or no evaluation of effectiveness

At least two specific examples of leadership skills with detailed critique of effectiveness of each

At least one example of leadership skills with critique of effectiveness

Poorly-worded or missing example of leadership skills or no critique of effectiveness

Communication

(max 30 points)

(21-30 points)

At least three specific examples of identified types of communication

(11-20 points)

At least two examples of identified types of communication

(0-10 points)

One or no examples of identified types of communication

Well-written evaluation of effectiveness of communication for each example

General evaluation of effectiveness of communication

Statement of effectiveness of communication or no mention of effectiveness

Specific, pertinent recommendations for better communication in each example

General recommendations for better communication

Minimal or missing recommendations for better communication

Nurse Manager

Include your nurse facilitator’s credentials, position, scope of responsibilities, length of time as a manager, etc. Describe his or her participation in professional organizations, which professional journals he or she typically reads, and other pertinent information related to ongoing professional development.

Nurse Leader

Describe the leadership style of the nurse manager with supportive references cited. Provide specific examples of how he or she handles responsibilities and indicate whether you believe the responsibilities were handled effectively or ineffectively. Provide at least two specific examples of leadership skills in practice, and critique the effectiveness/ineffectiveness for the identified situation. (Examples may include situations related to use of power, conflict management, managing personnel, crisis management, effective delegation, team building, etc.)

Communication

Provide specific examples of communications interactions upward, downward, as well as peer communication. How effective or ineffective is the manager in various roles, and what recommendations do you have that would help him or her to be a more effective communicator?

©2020 University of Texas at Arlington Page 1 of 3[supanova_question]

BA 2010 Module Exercises 1 BA 2010 Principles of Management Module 5

BA 2010 Module Exercises 1

BA 2010 Principles of Management

Module 5 Management Strategy Assessment

Student First and Last Name

Date Submitted

Student Exercises

Leadership Behaviors

Address this topic here in 3-4 pages, using key chapter concepts and terms.

References

Sample electronic reference to use in completing this assignment [delete this example before you submit your assignment.]

Apple. (2017). Home. Retrieved on August 9, 2017, from https://www.apple.com/[supanova_question]

Please look at the photo posted for instructions and pick one movie to write a I have also sent Essay

Requirements for the research paper: Your topic is “The history of PCs and Microsoft Office.” Create a Word Document

Requirements for the research paper: Your topic is “The history of PCs and Microsoft Office.” Create a Word Document.

Requirements for the research paper:

Your topic is “The history of PCs and Microsoft Office.”

Create a Word Document that is at least TEN PAGES long.

Detailed Research Paper Requirements

A Title Page with: (Title Page does not count as a page)
The paper topic
Your name, the course, and the date
The professor’s name
A Table of Contents with: – (Table of Contents does not count as a page)
Headings and their page numbers
A Research Paper with:
An Introduction
A well-organized Body is separated into Sections and Subsections
An ending with a Conclusion/Summary
A Reference or Bibliography
An appendix (if needed)
Additional Requirements
Additional requirements that count towards your final grade:

1-inch margins ONLY
12 point font
Double spaced lines
Single spaced references/bibliography
Paragraphs at least 5 to 7 sentences long
Number all pages except the Title Page
Include images
Include an Excel chart[supanova_question]

Review your classmates’ memos and respond to at least three of them.

Review your classmates’ memos and respond to at least three of them. 

CLASSMATE 1

Call for Proposals

The first Call for Proposal that caught my attention because it covers case studies of countries that succeeded with Primary Health Care. The second Call for Proposal that captured my attention covers CCACA* Program to address the 1.5°C challenge. This challenge helps countries to speed up measures to decrease the pollutants that incorporates climate and clean air action. The third and final Call for Proposal that piqued my interest covers Electrified Powerplants for NASA. More specifically NASA intends for the demonstrations to help rapidly mature and transition integrated EAP* technologies and associated technology vision systems for introduction into the global fleet by 2035 (Polek, 2021)

 

Where to Find These Articles

Alliance-RFP-PHC-Book.pdf (who.int)Links to an external site.

Calls for proposals | Climate & Clean Air Coalition (ccacoalition.org)Links to an external site.

USTDA Calls for Aviation Project Proposals for Southeast Asia – USTDALinks to an external site.

 

Definitions for Asterisked Acronyms

CCACA= Climate and Clean Air Coalition’s Action

EAP= Electrified Aircraft Propulsion

 

References

Polek, G. (2021, February 26). NASA Calls for Proposals for Electrified Powerplants. Retrieved from AINonline: https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/aerospace/2021-02-26/nasa-calls-proposals-electrified-powerplants

CLASSMATE 2

Call for Proposals

 Three CFPs that caught my attention were the Geothermal Collegiate Competition, Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act (WIIN) Grants, and Food Waste Reduction Projects 2021. The Geothermal Collegiate Competition encourages students to develop new ways to utilize geothermal as a form of renewable energy, but also raises awareness on geothermal energy to increase support. Next, WIIN Grants addreses the United States drinking water infrastructure to promote health and protection for the environment. The WIIN Grants can be broken down into three categories, Assistance for Small and Disadvantaged Communities, Reducing Lead in Drinking Water, and Lead Testing in School and Child Care Program Drinking Water. Lastly, Food Waste Reduction Projects 2021 focuses on reducing food waste produced by food businesses, retailers/wholesalers, or suppliers in rural areas. In doing so this grant also will stimulate the economy by creating jobs and encoraging further development in the industry.

 

Links

https://www.herox.com/GeothermalCollegiateCompetitionSpring2021Links to an external site.

https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/drinking-water-grantsLinks to an external site.

https://www2.fundsforngos.org/latest-funds-for-ngos/call-for-proposals-food-waste-reduction-projects-2021-ireland/Links to an external site.

CLASSMATE 3

The potential idea I have for a Call for Proposal (CFP) would be for a beach cleanup in my local area.  There are very few grants in Hong Kong, so this would be a concept rather than an actual proposal.  The problem is a nearby natural beach that is not maintained by any government body, which means it lacks waste collection.  Furthermore, Hong Kong’s very busy waters mean there is plenty of garbage that comes to shore.  The following are three CFP’s that could fit this project.

1.  America’s Seed Fund offers up to $2 Million dollars in technological innovation.  A proposal to develop a beach cleanup drone that can work autonomously.

https://seedfund.nsf.gov/apply/get-started/Links to an external site.

2.  The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has plenty of grants available.   Here help can be given to develop the infrastructure required for waste removal.

https://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice/environmental-justice-small-grants-program#PastGranteesLinks to an external site.

3.  Again the EPA can help with water testing and beach signage to ensure the water is safe for the public.

https://sam.gov/fal/fd133b4121cf41ccbfb5ba88a3ac9971/viewLinks to an external site.[supanova_question]

HUM3610 Short Essay Rubric Mastery Level Criteria Excellent Solid Good Unsatisfactory Development

Requirements for the research paper: Your topic is “The history of PCs and Microsoft Office.” Create a Word Document HUM3610 Short Essay Rubric

Mastery Level

Criteria

Excellent

Solid

Good

Unsatisfactory

Development of Ideas/ Comprehension of Course Material

20 points maximum

18-20

Essay demonstrates strong evidence of critical thinking, application, analysis, and evaluation of art. Includes relevant and original information, incisive explanations, and examples to support insightful ideas. Essay strongly relates to and cites course materials to support ideas. Demonstrates sensitive understanding.

16-17

Essay demonstrates solid evidence of critical thinking, application, analysis, and evaluation of art. Includes relevant information, strong explanations, and examples to support worthwhile ideas. Essay relates to and cites course materials to support ideas. Demonstrates careful understanding.

14-15

Essay demonstrates good evidence of critical thinking, application, and analysis of art. Evaluation of art was attempted. Essay includes some relevant information, explanations, and examples to support good ideas. Essay often relates to and cites course materials to support ideas. Demonstrates satisfactory understanding.

0-13

Essay demonstrates little or poor evidence of critical thinking, application, analysis, and evaluation of art. Essay might include some relevant information, explanations, and examples to support ideas. Essay might relate to and cite course materials. Essay demonstrates poor understanding of course materials.

Writing Mechanics and APA formatting

5 points maximum

5

Writing and APA formatting polished, little to no errors. Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Tone is academic.

4

Writing and APA formatting well done, few errors. Typically uses correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Tone is academic.

3

Writing and APA formatting good work, some errors. Some further work for spelling, grammar, and punctuation would be beneficial. Tone good overall.

0-2

Writing and APA require more proofreading. Numerous errors for spelling, grammar, or punctuation. Tone could be more academic.

Total: x/25[supanova_question]

Grammar Question

Judge the medical case studied in class during Week 8 in the Discussion Board. In the video, philosophers applied the three major ethical principles you learned in this class: Kant’s Categorical Imperative, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Ethics. In a five paragraph essay, apply ONE ethical theory to decide the moral course of action in the medical case of the premature twins studied in class. Apply the ethical theory in each paragraph to support your arguments throughout the entire essay. Not using the ethical theory results in an automatic zero. Using more than one ethical theory results in an automatic zero.

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Module 6 Discussion Buddhist-Christian Dialogue Watch the attached document: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LIvkxYs85vc and write

Module 6 Discussion

Buddhist-Christian Dialogue

Watch the attached document: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LIvkxYs85vc and write a one page precis paper summary and personal reflection that includes at least 5 quotations/citations of what Paul Knitter discussed in the video.

Submission Instructions:

Your initial post should be a one page precis paper, formatted and cited according to the requirements described in the syllabus for a Precis paper.

Module 6 Discussion: Watch the video of Dr. Paul Knitter “Without Buddha I Could Not be a Christian” and write a one page precis paper with at least 5 quotations to show what you learned from the lecture.[supanova_question]

BA 2010 Module Exercises 3 BA 2010 Principles of Management Module 6

BA 2010 Module Exercises 3

BA 2010 Principles of Management

Module 6 Management Strategy Assessment

Student First and Last Name

Date Submitted

Student Exercises

Performance Measures

Address this topic here in 10-15 sentences, using key chapter concepts and terms.

Market Controls

Address this topic here in 7-10 sentences, using key chapter concepts and terms.

Organizing for Innovation

Address this topic here in 10-15 sentences, using key chapter concepts and terms.

Technological Leadership

Address this topic here in 7-10 sentences, using key chapter concepts and terms.

References

Sample electronic reference to use in completing this assignment [delete this example before you submit your assignment.]

Apple. (2017). Home. Retrieved on August 9, 2017, from https://www.apple.com/[supanova_question]

BA 2010 Online Management Strategy Assessment Chapters 16-18 Directions: Download the Module

BA 2010 Online

Management Strategy Assessment

Chapters 16-18

Directions:

Download the Module 6 Exercises Template in the Module Assignments Area.

Type your name in the cover sheet.

Type the date submitted (example: August 1, 2017).

For each heading (example: Performance Measures) there is a sentence in the Module 6 Exercises Template to prompt you. Type directly over that sentence to follow the formatting.

Your paper should follow APA format, and should be in your own words. Any content you take from a source must be inside quotation marks and must be cited in-text (author, date).

In APA formatting, you are not permitted to use “I.” Instead, you must be an independent researcher. Say, “the organization” or “the salesperson,” not “I would.”

You should list the references you used to develop your paper.

Link to APA resources: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html

The Management Strategy Assessment questions begin on the following page.

Student Exercises:

Complete the following question(s) and type your answers into the Module 6 Exercises Template in the Module Assignments Area.

Performance Measures

Suppose a company at which executives were rewarded for meeting performance targets based only on profits and stock price switches to a balanced scorecard that adds measures for customer satisfaction, employee engagement, employee diversity, and ethical conduct to performance targets/control system. How would you expect executives’ performance to change in response to the new control system? How would you expect the company’s performance to change? Use chapter concepts and terms to defend your position. Answer in 10-15 sentences. For each website you visit to find information, if you use that information be sure to put it in your own words and include that website as a reference in APA format.

Market Controls

Google offers Google Apps, such as Gmail, Google Calendar, and Docs & Spreadsheets as collaboration tools for employees. Describe how the company could use market controls to determine whether Google employees use these software programs or competing software (e.g., Word and Excel). Use chapter concepts and terms to defend your position. Answer in 7-10 sentences. For each website you visit to find information, if you use that information be sure to put it in your own words and include that website as a reference in APA format.

Organizing for Innovation

Research a company that you believe is an innovator. Evaluate that company based on the following (a) how the organization solves problems, (b) its openness to external knowledge outside of the organization, (c) how it shares knowledge within its organization, and (d) how it experiments continuously. Use chapter concepts and terms to defend your position. Answer in 10-15 sentences. For each website you visit to find information, if you use that information be sure to put it in your own words and include that website as a reference in APA format.

Technological Leadership

Why would a company choose to follow rather than lead technological innovations? Is the potential advantage of technological leadership greater when innovations are occurring rapidly, or is it better in this case to follow? Give an example of a company that failed because it did not adopt new technologies. Use chapter concepts and terms to defend your position. Answer in 7-10 sentences. For each website you visit to find information, if you use that information be sure to put it in your own words and include that website as a reference in APA format.

BA 2010 Principles of Management 3[supanova_question]

Module 6 Assignment Buddhism Instructions: Read the textbook on PART 4: Buddhism,

Module 6 Assignment

Buddhism

Instructions:
Read the textbook on PART 4: Buddhism, chapter 13 (p. 191-201) & chapter 14 (p. 202-217). Type, upload, and have ready to discuss in class, a one page PRECIS PAPER for chapter 13 and a one page précis for chapter 14, each summarizing what you believe to be most important things you learned in each chapter. Remember to use quotations and page citations. 

Buddhism-Insider-1.pdf download

 Buddhism-Outsider.pdf  download  

Module 6 Assignment: Read PART 4: Buddhism, only chapter 13 (p. 191-201) & chapter 14 (p. 202-217). Type, upload, and have ready to discuss in class a one page précis for chapter 13 and a one page précis for chapter 14, each summarizing what you believe to be most important three things you learned in each chapter. Remember to use quotations and page citations.[supanova_question]

Book link: https://b-ok.lat/book/5535261/ed13f0?regionChanged=&redirect=11104354 Module 5: Written Assignment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MtATCPCC8b8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiszC33puc0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNn6H4SEgQc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BuJpDXkMz8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1UpH5-5JJ4

Book link: https://b-ok.lat/book/5535261/ed13f0?regionChanged=&redirect=11104354

Module 5: Written Assignment

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MtATCPCC8b8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiszC33puc0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNn6H4SEgQc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BuJpDXkMz8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1UpH5-5JJ4

After reviewing the videos listed above, select three artists that made the biggest impression on you.  What was it about each of these artists that either drew you to their work or maybe left you feeling not pleased, aesthetically?  When viewing an artwork, we usually are just experiencing the finished product that is the result of a long process.  How did hearing about and seeing the process of creating the artwork change your opinion?  

Your post should be at least three paragraphs (at least five sentences each).  One paragraph for each artist that you have selected.

Module 7: Written Assignment

Renaissance means “rebirth,” implying a revival of classical culture. How did artists of the Renaissance revive classical art and ideals? How did they move beyond the example of Greek and Roman art?  Give at least two specific examples from both the Classical Era and the Renaissance.  Make sure to state the titles of the artworks as well as the artists.

Your post should be at least two paragraphs (at least five sentences per paragraph).

Module 8: Written Assignment

Impressionist artworks were influenced by both photography and Japanese prints. Select one work by each of the following artists: Claude Monet, Mary Cassatt and Edgar Degas.  For each work describe how the artist’s composition has similarities to photography and Japanese prints.

Your post should be at least three paragraphs (at least five sentences); one paragraph per artwork.

Module 10: Written Assignment

Consider the following statement by Matisse:

“These drawings sum up, in my opinion, observations that I have made for many years about the character of drawing, a character that does not depend on forms being copied exactly as they are in nature, or on the patient assembling of exact details, but on the profound feeling of the artist before the objects that he has chosen, on which his attention is focused, and whose spirit he has

penetrated . . . Exactitude is not truth.”

What is your response to this statement? Do you agree or disagree with Matisse? Give an example of an artwork that supports your opinion and discuss it in relation to Matisse’s statement.

Your post should be at least two paragraphs (at least five sentences per paragraph)[supanova_question]

– A wall 4 meters high and 6 meters deep is composed of 2 centimeters of rigid foam [k=0.026 W/(m.K)],

2cm of plaster [0.22 W/(m.K)], 18cm of bricks [k=0.72 W/(m.K)] and a last layer of 2cm of
plaster, which faces an outer part kept at – 4oC. The brick layer was built using 3cm of plaster to fix a brick on top of another, whose individual height is 30cm. The rigid foam is the
part facing the interior of an environment, which is kept at 22oC. Between the foam and the bricks there is a
2cm thick layer of plaster. After the brick layer there is the last layer, which is also 2 cm
plaster, exposed to the external environment. The indoor and outdoor environments have transfer coefficients
of heat by convection of 10 [W/(m2.K)] and 20 [W/(m2.K)], respectively. Assuming a transfer of
one-dimensional heat and ignoring the radiation, determine the rate of heat transfer through the wall.

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Please read the one page article, “Five Case Studies in Forensic Toxicology.

Please read the one page article, “Five Case Studies in Forensic Toxicology. (Links to an external site.)”

What do you think about the cases presented?

Where could you see a problem for a criminal investigator?

What could be a problem if the case went to trial in either a civil or criminal court room.

Are you aware of another case example? If so, please discuss it in your response.[supanova_question]

Requirements for the research paper: Your topic is “The history of PCs and Microsoft Office.” Create a Word Document