Use natural selection theory to explain how the population changed over time. Writing Assignment Help. Use natural selection theory to explain how the population changed over time. Writing Assignment Help.

Full Question:

Read the story below. Pick one trait (body size, number of toes, or teeth) to focus on. Use natural selection theory to explain how the population changed over time. (9 pts) Keep in mind that new traits do not appear in response to new environments. You may refer to outside sources, but you may not quote other sources for this question — you must use your own words, more or less. **You may write one paragraph for this question.**

**Remember:** Natural selection does not “create” organisms “in order to” do anything. Organisms do not decide to change themselves. Individual organisms do not evolve. Changes that an organism acquires over their lifetime (more muscles, scars, stretching) do not get passed on to their offspring. If your account includes any of these elements, you will not get full credit.

The story: Fifty million years ago North American forests hostedpopulations of *Eohippus *(aka *Hyracotherium*). *Eohippus* were generally dog-sized, usually four-toed, and had teeth that were most suitable for eating tender leaves. One million years ago, the same region was a grassland. The descendents of *Eohippus*, known as *Equus*, still lived there, but they were very different. *Equus* were about cow-sized, mostly one-toed, and usually had tall teeth suitable for grinding grass.

Lecture 2.5 – anthropology and evolution: race

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yB6LTOoCa78 (Links to an external site.)

Lecture 3 – natural History

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtX2s-ZIpdk (Links to an external site.)

Lecture 4 – selection theory

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t4o3YzvILV4 (Links to an external site.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TiCXauwlxpM (Links to an external site.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2W8NW9kJGM (Links to an external site.)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_mWkbq5dPQ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

**If you used outside sources, insert your bibliography here.**

Use natural selection theory to explain how the population changed over time. Writing Assignment Help[supanova_question]

## Bussiness disaster Computer Science Assignment Help

Some strategies that can be used to test contingency plans are”:

- Desk Check Testing
- Structured walk-through Testing
- Simulation Testing
- Parallel testing Testing
- Full interruption Testing
- War gaming Testing

**Discuss three (2) advantages and two(2) disadvantages of each type of testing listed above. When is each type of testing appropriate? Are there situations that preclude the use of a particular type of testing? **

Discussion Response Format:

**Desk Check Testing**

*Disadvantages:*

Two (2) disadvantages of **Desk Check Testing** are A and B. A is considered a disadvantage because…….

Likewise, B is considered a disadvantage because……..

*Advantages:*

Two advantages of **Desk Check** **Testing** are C and D. C is considered an advantage because…….

Likewise, D is considered an advantage because……..

**Structured walk-through Testing**

*Disadvantages:*

Two (2) disadvantages of **Structured walk-through T****esting** are E and F. E is considered a disadvantage because…….

Likewise, F is considered a disadvantage because……..

Advantages

Two advantages of **Structured walk-through T****esting** advantages are G and H. G is considered a disadvantage because…….

Likewise, H is considered an advantage because……..

And so on

Simulation Testing

Parallel Testing

Full interruption Testing

War Gaming Testing

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## writer who is good in psychology only, sleep quantity to cognitive performance. need to add 1400 words to my assignment Humanities Assignment Help

I have completed 600 words. I need another 1400 words and APA references

� Please bid for this assignment only if you can adhere to the following:

• Stick to the given deadline, NO extension will be given.

• Be responsive, communicate with us regularly.

• Send us the assignment progressively on the 50% mark and when it has been completed.

• No copy and pasting work, DO NOT plagiarise. We use the Turnitin system to check for plagiarism, we do not recognise any other plagiarism checking tool.

**Criteria: 2000 words, at least APA 15 references. Attached some articles in the zip file for you to use, questions, lab report output.**

The lab report topic will be relating sleep quantity to cognitive performance.

There will be TWO IVs:

1) Sleep quantity over the last 7 days

2) Sleep quantity from the last 24 hours

The DV will be performance on a measure of cognitive performance. (Memory Span).

The results will simply be two correlations: one relating total quantity over the last 7 days with performance (to give us an indication of the effect of an accumulated sleep debt on performance), and the other relating only the quantity from the last 24 hours.

Students will need to come up with their own hypotheses, and specific wording of their hypotheses, Essentially we will predict **a significant positive correlation** between cognitive performance (as measured by the digit span task) and sleep quantity, over both the last 7 days as well as the last 24 hours.

The results collected from the onshore cohort at Murdoch Campus was significant for sleep over the last 7 days, but not for sleep from the last 24 hours. There are a number of uncontrolled variables that students can think about that contribute to the lack of relationship between sleep the night before and memory. Specifically :

The 4 uncontrolled variables which contributed to the lack of relationship between sleep the before and memory are discussed. They are often interrupted the sleep patterns. The morningness-eveningness referred to individual’s preferences to commence activities at particular time of the day.

– time of class (some AM, some PM)

– circadian “type” (see Morningness/Eveningness tute activity)

– compensatory behaviours e.g., caffeine intake

– health, emotions, daily stressors

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[supanova_question]

## Biological Anthropology questions Science Assignment Help

1. Explain what scientists have discovered regarding the major adaptions associated with each of the following transformational stages or “step” in our evolutionary history. (refer to online resources to complete this assignment)

Earliest Hominins (from the Late and Early Pliocene – +4.0 to 6 or 7 Mya ) probable hominins (like Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Ardipithecus ramidus)

Early hominins off the Australopithecus group (like Australopithecus afarensis, Kenyanthropus, Au. garhi, Au. afreicans, Au. sediba, Paranthropus robustus, Paranthropus boisei)

Earliest members of the genus Homo (like Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis)

Early hunting and gathering hominins (like Homo ergaster, Homo erectus)

Hunting and gathering hominins that controlled fire (like Homo heidelbergensis)

…..

(more questions in the pictures)

[supanova_question]

## Correlation and Bivariate Regression in Practice Mathematics Assignment Help

**To prepare for this Assignment:**

- Use the Course Guide and Assignment Help found in this week’s Learning Resources and search for a quantitative article related to correlation and bivariate regression.

**For this Assignment:**

Write a 2- to 3-page critique of the article you found. In your critique, include responses to the following:

- Why did the authors use correlation or bivariate regression?
- Do you think it’s the most appropriate choice? Why or why not?
- Did the authors display the data?
- Does the results table stand-alone (i.e., are you able to interpret the study from it?) Why or why not?

Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing.

I have attached links for some articles below.

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## homework wk4 Business Finance Assignment Help

### WEEK 4 HOMEWORK: TEXTBOOK (100 PTS)

If you need help submitting assignments, please click here for more information.

There are three (3) types of textbook based homework items located at the end of each chapter. These include Discussion Questions (DQ), Exercises (E), and Problems (P). Some homework items have been custom created.

**Complete the following from the textbook:**

Chapter 9: E1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P7, P16, P17, P19

## Exercises

**1** Go to the Federal Reserve website, __http://www.federalreserve.gov__. Go to “Economic Research and Data,” and access “Consumer Credit.” Find interest rates charged by commercial banks on new automobile loans, personal loans, and credit card plans.

- Compare the current or recent level of interest rates among the three types of loans.
- Compare trends in the cost of consumer credit provided by commercial banks over the past three years.

**2** Go to the Federal Reserve website, __http://www.federalreserve.gov__. Go to “Economic Research and Data,” and access “Consumer Credit.” Determine current interest rates charged by finance companies versus commercial banks on new automobile loans. Also compare the cost of new automobile loans between finance companies and commercial banks over the past three years.

**3** Assume that your partner and you are in the consumer lending business. A customer, talking with your partner, is discussing the possibility of obtaining a $10,000 loan for three months. The potential borrower seems distressed and says he needs the loan by tomorrow or several of his relatively new appliances will be repossessed by the manufacturers. You overhear your partner saying that that in order to process the loan within one day there will be a $1,000 processing fee so that $11,000 in principal will have to be repaid in order to have $10,000 to spend now. Furthermore, because the money is needed now and is for only three months the interest charge will be 6 percent per month. What would you do?

## Problems

**1** Find the future value one year from now of a $7,000 investment at a 3 percent annual compound interest rate. Also, calculate the future value if the investment is made for two years.

**2** Find the future value of $10,000 invested now after five years if the annual interest rate is 8 percent.

- What would be the future value if the interest rate is a simple interest rate?
- What would be the future value if the interest rate is a compound interest rate?

**3** Determine the future values if $5,000 is invested in each of the following situations:

- 5 percent for ten years
- 7 percent for seven years
- 9 percent for four years

**4** You are planning to invest $2,500 today for three years at a nominal interest rate of 9 percent with annual compounding.

- What would be the future value of your investment?
- Now assume that inflation is expected to be 3 percent per year over the same three-year period. What would be the investment’s future value in terms of purchasing power?
- What would be the investment’s future value in terms of purchasing power if inflation occurs at a 9 percent annual rate?

**5** Find the present value of $7,000 to be received one year from now, assuming a 3 percent annual discount interest rate. Also calculate the present value if the $7,000 is received after two years.

**6** Determine the present values if $5,000 is received in the future (i.e., at the end of each indicated time period) in each of the following situations:

- 5 percent for ten years
- 7 percent for seven years
- 9 percent for four years

**7** Determine the present value if $15,000 is to be received at the end of eight years and the discount rate is 9 percent. How would your answer change if you had to wait six years to receive the $15,000?

**8** Determine the future value at the end of two years of an investment of $3,000 made now and an additional $3,000 made one year from now if the compound annual interest rate is 4 percent.

**9** Assume you are planning to invest $5,000 each year for six years and will earn 10 percent per year. Determine the future value of this annuity if your first $5,000 is invested at the end of the first year.

**10** Determine the present value now of an investment of $3,000 made one year from now and an additional $3,000 made two years from now if the annual discount rate is 4 percent.

**11** What is the present value of a loan that calls for the payment of $500 per year for six years if the discount rate is 10 percent and the first payment will be made one year from now? How would your answer change if the $500 per year occurred for ten years?

**12** Determine the annual payment on a $500,000, 12 percent business loan from a commercial bank that is to be amortized over a five-year period.

**13** Determine the annual payment on a $15,000 loan that is to be amortized over a four-year period and carries a 10 percent interest rate. Also prepare a loan amortization schedule for this loan.

**14** You are considering borrowing $150,000 to purchase a new home.

- Calculate the monthly payment needed to amortize an 8 percent, fixed-rate, 30-year mortgage loan.
- Calculate the monthly amortization payment if the loan in (a) was for 15 years.

**15** Assume a bank loan requires an interest payment of $85 per year and a principal payment of $1,000 at the end of the loan’s eight-year life.

- At what amount could this loan be sold for to another bank if loans of similar quality carried an 8.5 percent interest rate? That is, what would be the present value of this loan?
- Now, if interest rates on other similar-quality loans are 10 percent, what would be the present value of this loan?
- What would be the present value of the loan if the interest rate is 8 percent on similar-quality loans?

**16** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions:

- What would be the future value of $15,555 invested now if it earns interest at 14.5 percent for seven years?
- What would be the future value of $19,378 invested now if the money remains deposited for eight years and the annual interest rate is 18 percent?

**17** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions:

- What is the present value of $359,000 that is to be received at the end of 23 years if the discount rate is 11 percent?
- How would your answer change in (a) if the $359,000 is to be received at the end of 20 years?

**18** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions:

- What would be the future value of $7,455 invested annually for nine years beginning one year from now if the annual interest rate is 19 percent?
- What would be the present value of a $9,532 annuity for which the first payment will be made beginning one year from now, payments will last for 27 years, and the annual interest rate is 13 percent?

**19** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions.

- What would be the future value of $19,378 invested now if the money remains deposited for eight years, the annual interest rate is 18 percent, and interest on the investment is compounded semi-annually?
- How would your answer for (a) change if quarterly compounding were used?

**20** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions.

- What is the present value of $359,000 that is to be received at the end of 23 years, the discount rate is 11 percent, and semi-annual discounting occurs?
- How would your answer for (a) change if monthly discounting were used?

**21** What would be the present value of a $9,532 annuity for which the first payment will be made beginning one year from now, payments will last for 27 years, the annual interest rate is 13 percent, quarterly discounting occurs, and $2,383 is invested at the end of each quarter?

**22** Answer the following questions.

- What is the annual percentage rate (APR) on a loan that charges interest of .75 percent per month?
- What is the effective annual rate (EAR) on the loan described in (a)?

**23** You have recently seen a credit card advertisement stating that the annual percentage rate is 12 percent. If the credit card requires monthly payments, what is the effective annual rate of interest on the loan?

**24** A credit card advertisement states that the annual percentage rate is 21 percent. If the credit card requires quarterly payments, what is the effective annual rate of interest on the loan?

**25** **Challenge Problem** [Note: A computer spreadsheet software program or a financial calculator that can handle uneven cash flow streams will be needed to solve the following problems.] The following cash flow streams are expected to result from three investment opportunities.

Year | Investment Stable | Investment Declining | Investment Growing |

1 | $20,000 | $35,000 | $10,000 |

2 | 20,000 | 30,000 | 15,000 |

3 | 20,000 | 20,000 | 20,000 |

4 | 20,000 | 5,000 | 30,000 |

5 | 20,000 | 0 | 50,000 |

- Find the present values at the end of time period zero for each of these three investments if the discount rate is 15 percent. Also, find the present values for each investment using 10 percent and 20 percent discount rates.
- Find the future values of these three investments at the end of year five if the compound interest rate is 12.5 percent. Also, find the future values for each investment using 2.5 percent and 22.5 percent compound rates.
- Find the present values of the three investments using a 15 percent annual discount rate but with quarterly discounting. Also, find the present values for both semi-annual and monthly discounting for a 15 percent stated annual rate.
- Find the future values of the three investments using a 12.5 percent annual compound rate but with quarterly compounding. Also find the future values for both semi-annual and monthly compounding for a 12.5 percent stated annual rate.
- Assume that the present value for each of the three investments is $75,000. What is the annual interest rate (%i) for each investment?
- Show how your answers would change in (e) if quarterly discounting takes place.
- Assume that the future value for each of the three investments is $150,000. What is the annual interest rate (%i) for each investment? [Note: (e) and (g) are independent of each other.]
- Show how your answers would change in (g) if quarterly compounding takes place.

__Problem 25: Click or Tap Here to Download Excel Homework Template__

homework wk4 Business Finance Assignment Help[supanova_question]

## computer science., make it great Writing Assignment Help

__ITS 405 Intermediate Networking Portfolio Requirement__

Your solution should draw on the content presented in the course. The outline below lists points/topics to cover. You are free to provide additional, related information.

Provide technical and justification reasons for each choice, citing resources as appropriate. Provide rough estimates of scheduling and manpower required for deploying your solution. You may summarize the schedule and manpower at the end of the document or include it separately for each section.

The Windows Server 2012 operating system should be used for all aspects of the solution.

Your solution should cover the following four numbered areas and associated bulleted items listed under each:

**Deployment and Server Editions**- How many total servers are needed? Which roles will be combined?
- Which edition of Windows Server will be used for each server (e.g., Standard, Data)?
- Should servers be virtualized using Hyper-V?
- Where will each of the servers be located (which of the two sites)?
- How will the servers be deployed?

**DNS**- DNS namespace design (e.g., domain name[s] chosen split DNS for internet/intranet, zones)
- How will DNS be handled for the second site?

**Active Directory**- Number of AD domains and names of those domains
- Will there be any Read-Only Domain Controllers?
- How will the second site factor into domain controller placement? How will AD sites be configured?

**File and Printer Sharing**- What shares might be needed? (Consider some of the reasoning supplied in the relevant course materials.)
- How will quotas/FSRM be configured? (Consider all aspects, such as thresholds, altering, file screens, and reporting.)
- Will a DFS namespace be implemented?

**Your submission will:**

- Be in written format, 6-8 pages in length (not counting diagrams).
- Include at least one diagram illustrating your chosen Active Directory design with DNS namespace hierarchy.
- Cite and discuss no fewer than three credible sources, other than course readings and media. The CSU-Global Library is a great place to find these sources.

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## WEBD121 Assignment 3 wk 3 2nd attempt Programming Assignment Help

General Instructions for your Website:

During Week 1 through Week 7 of this course, you will be building a personal website on a topic of your choice. Choose a topic about which you are both knowledgeable and enthusiastic, so that you will be able to easily write about the topic and share your knowledge of the topic through your website. During Week 1, you will create the home page of your website. Make sure that you write the content (the paragraphs of information about your topic) yourself. Do not copy content from other web pages. Your website should contain at least 4-6 paragraphs of information, arranged in a logical manner (using headings and sub-headings appropriately). During Week 2, you will add an external style sheet to your website. During Week 3 through Week 7, you will either add additional pages to your website or you will add new functionality to your home page, as directed in the instructions for each assignment.

You must write the code files by hand for all assignments in this class. A simple text editor, such as Notepad or Notepad++ will suffice (or TextEdit on the Mac). DO NOT use GUI editors, such as FrontPage, Dreamweaver, etc. You must write the code for your web pages yourself. If you are using a PC, it is strongly recommended that you download the free Notepad++ text editor (https://notepad-plus-plus.org/) because it contains extra features which assist with debugging, such as line numbering and color coding of different elements of syntax. Mac users should use the TextEdit text editor that comes with the Mac OS. However, if you are a Mac user, make sure you set TextEdit to use Plain Text by default. You can find instructions for this here: https://www.tekrevue.com/tip/textedit-plain-text-m…

Make sure all of your web pages comply with the HTML 5 standards and CSS standards. DO NOT use obsolete HTML elements and attributes from previous versions of HTML. By including the HTML 5 DOCTYPE declaration in your webpages, and validating all of your HTML files at https://validator.w3.org/#validate_by_upload, you can be sure that your code complies with HTML 5. Starting Week 2, your external style sheet (.css file) must pass validation at the W3C CSS Validation Service: https://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/#validate_by_upload. Make sure you use the “Validate by File Upload” option (and NOT the “Validate by Direct Input” option), on both of these validators since this is the way your instructor will check your pages when grading your assignments.

The home page of your website must be named “LastFirstHomePage.html” where “Last” is your last name and “First” is your first name. For example, if your name is John Smith, you would name your home page file SmithJohnHomePage.html Starting with Week 2, you will also have a CSS file linked into every HTML page on your website. Name your CSS file “LastFirstStyleSheet.css” where “Last” is your last name and “First” is your first name. Your website must only have 1 CSS file and that file should be linked into all HTML pages on your website. Additional HTML pages created for your website (During Week 3 through Week 5) should be hyperlinked together through a navigation menu that appears on all pages of your website. Naming conventions for each additional page on your website will be included in each assignment description that requires a new HTML page.

》》》》》》》》》》Specific Instructions for Assignment 3:《《《《《《《《

For this assignment, you will add a second page to your website and create a navigation menu that links the two pages together.

1) You will create an “about” page for your website. This will be a second HTML page. Since the basic structure of an HTML file is the same for all pages, you can reuse some of the code from your home page (created in Assignment 1). Create a new HTML file in your text editor and name the file “about.html”. It should contain all of the same basic code that is in the head section of your home page. The body section should contain additional content. Your “about” page should contain information about your website and/or information about you (the author of the website). You can move some of the content from your home page to your “about” page, if it would be more appropriate on this new page, or you can write new content for this new page (or a combination of some existing content and some new content). Save your new file and validate it using the HTML validator: https://validator.w3.org/#validate_by_upload. Debug and fix any errors identified by the validator until your file passes validation.

2) Make sure the external CSS style sheet you created in Assignment 2 is linked into both your home page and your new “about” page with the <link> tag in the head section of each file. Your website should only have 1 CSS file, and that same file should be linked into all HTML pages on your website.

3) Create a navigation menu for your website. Your navigation menu can be as simple as a list of links, or you can explore some more advanced ways of creating a navigation menu if you wish. Make sure your navigation menu appears on all pages of your website (i.e., your home page and your “about” page). In future weeks of this course, as you add more pages to your website, you will need to edit your navigation menu on each page of your website to add links to the new pages you add to your website. Hint: Sample code for a simple navigation menu can be found in the Week 3 module in the Lessons area. You can also find links there to more advanced examples, if you wish to experiment with them.

Validation Requirements:

Before submitting your web site:

Validate all HTML files at https://validator.w3.org/#validate_by_upload, using the “Validate by File Upload” option, and fix any errors that the validator identifies before submitting your web site for grading.Validate your CSS file at https://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/#validate_by_upload, using the “Validate by File Upload” option, and fix any errors that the validator identifies before submitting your web site for grading.

Note: It is critical that you debug and fix ALL errors identified by these two code validators before submitting your assignments. Contact your instructor for assistance if you are having difficulty debugging and fixing your errors because it is imperative that your code files pass validation.

Submission Instructions: Create a zip file containing all files related to your web page (.html files, .css file, image files, and/or multimedia files). Make sure you maintain the necessary directory structure in your zip file so that your webpages will view correctly when unzipped. In other words, if your images are in a sub-folder on your computer, in relation to the folder containing your .html file, then you need to maintain that same directory structure in your zip file, too. Submit only the zip file for grading.

Please use APA formatting and in text cititation

Please No Plagiarism

REQUIREMENTS

school WEBD121 school Web Development Fundamentals

》》》》》》》》Specific Instructions for Assignment 3:《《《《《《《《《

For this assignment, you will add a second page to your website and create a navigation menu that links the two pages together.

1) You will create an “about” page for your website. This will be a second HTML page. Since the basic structure of an HTML file is the same for all pages, you can reuse some of the code from your home page (created in Assignment 1). Create a new HTML file in your text editor and name the file “about.html”. It should contain all of the same basic code that is in the head section of your home page. The body section should contain additional content. Your “about” page should contain information about your website and/or information about you (the author of the website). You can move some of the content from your home page to your “about” page, if it would be more appropriate on this new page, or you can write new content for this new page (or a combination of some existing content and some new content). Save your new file and validate it using the HTML validator: https://validator.w3.org/#validate_by_upload. Debug and fix any errors identified by the validator until your file passes validation.

2) Make sure the external CSS style sheet you created in Assignment 2 is linked into both your home page and your new “about” page with the <link> tag in the head section of each file. Your website should only have 1 CSS file, and that same file should be linked into all HTML pages on your website.

3) Create a navigation menu for your website. Your navigation menu can be as simple as a list of links, or you can explore some more advanced ways of creating a navigation menu if you wish. Make sure your navigation menu appears on all pages of your website (i.e., your home page and your “about” page). In future weeks of this course, as you add more pages to your website, you will need to edit your navigation menu on each page of your website to add links to the new pages you add to your website. Hint: Sample code for a simple navigation menu can be found in the Week 3 module in the Lessons area. You can also find links there to more advanced examples, if you wish to experiment with them.

Validation Requirements:

Before submitting your web site:

Validate all HTML files at https://validator.w3.org/#validate_by_upload, using the “Validate by File Upload” option, and fix any errors that the validator identifies before submitting your web site for grading.Validate your CSS file at https://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/#validate_by_upload, using the “Validate by File Upload” option, and fix any errors that the validator identifies before submitting your web site for grading.

Note: It is critical that you debug and fix ALL errors identified by these two code validators before submitting your assignments. Contact your instructor for assistance if you are having difficulty debugging and fixing your errors because it is imperative that your code files pass validation.

Submission Instructions: Create a zip file containing all files related to your web page (.html files, .css file, image files, and/or multimedia files). Make sure you maintain the necessary directory structure in your zip file so that your webpages will view correctly when unzipped. In other words, if your images are in a sub-folder on your computer, in relation to the folder containing your .html file, then you need to maintain that same directory structure in your zip file, too. Submit only the zip file for grading.

Please use APA formatting and in text cititation

Please No Plagiarism

[supanova_question]

## Please finish this easy task Writing Assignment Help

We need to Write a research paper. But right now you only need find me three resouce from the Article which I have to send you by emailThis order should be one and half pages so you can write some refleciton about this article or give me an outline form of this research paper with those three resources. After this order I would like to invite you to finish this research paper if you want. Please be 100% originally cuz we use turnitin. (I would prefer Modest Propoal and tarff). Thx

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## Homework wk5 Business Finance Assignment Help

There are three (3) types of textbook based homework items located at the end of each chapter. These include Discussion Questions (DQ), Exercises (E), and Problems (P). Some homework items have been custom created.

**Complete the following from the textbook:**

Chapter 9: P6, P9, P10, P11, P12, P13, P15

## Problems

**1** Find the future value one year from now of a $7,000 investment at a 3 percent annual compound interest rate. Also, calculate the future value if the investment is made for two years.

**2** Find the future value of $10,000 invested now after five years if the annual interest rate is 8 percent.

- What would be the future value if the interest rate is a simple interest rate?
- What would be the future value if the interest rate is a compound interest rate?

**3** Determine the future values if $5,000 is invested in each of the following situations:

- 5 percent for ten years
- 7 percent for seven years
- 9 percent for four years

**4** You are planning to invest $2,500 today for three years at a nominal interest rate of 9 percent with annual compounding.

- What would be the future value of your investment?
- Now assume that inflation is expected to be 3 percent per year over the same three-year period. What would be the investment’s future value in terms of purchasing power?
- What would be the investment’s future value in terms of purchasing power if inflation occurs at a 9 percent annual rate?

**5** Find the present value of $7,000 to be received one year from now, assuming a 3 percent annual discount interest rate. Also calculate the present value if the $7,000 is received after two years.

**6** Determine the present values if $5,000 is received in the future (i.e., at the end of each indicated time period) in each of the following situations:

- 5 percent for ten years
- 7 percent for seven years
- 9 percent for four years

**7** Determine the present value if $15,000 is to be received at the end of eight years and the discount rate is 9 percent. How would your answer change if you had to wait six years to receive the $15,000?

**8** Determine the future value at the end of two years of an investment of $3,000 made now and an additional $3,000 made one year from now if the compound annual interest rate is 4 percent.

**9** Assume you are planning to invest $5,000 each year for six years and will earn 10 percent per year. Determine the future value of this annuity if your first $5,000 is invested at the end of the first year.

**10** Determine the present value now of an investment of $3,000 made one year from now and an additional $3,000 made two years from now if the annual discount rate is 4 percent.

**11** What is the present value of a loan that calls for the payment of $500 per year for six years if the discount rate is 10 percent and the first payment will be made one year from now? How would your answer change if the $500 per year occurred for ten years?

**12** Determine the annual payment on a $500,000, 12 percent business loan from a commercial bank that is to be amortized over a five-year period.

**13** Determine the annual payment on a $15,000 loan that is to be amortized over a four-year period and carries a 10 percent interest rate. Also prepare a loan amortization schedule for this loan.

**14** You are considering borrowing $150,000 to purchase a new home.

- Calculate the monthly payment needed to amortize an 8 percent, fixed-rate, 30-year mortgage loan.
- Calculate the monthly amortization payment if the loan in (a) was for 15 years.

**15** Assume a bank loan requires an interest payment of $85 per year and a principal payment of $1,000 at the end of the loan’s eight-year life.

- At what amount could this loan be sold for to another bank if loans of similar quality carried an 8.5 percent interest rate? That is, what would be the present value of this loan?
- Now, if interest rates on other similar-quality loans are 10 percent, what would be the present value of this loan?
- What would be the present value of the loan if the interest rate is 8 percent on similar-quality loans?

**16** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions:

- What would be the future value of $15,555 invested now if it earns interest at 14.5 percent for seven years?
- What would be the future value of $19,378 invested now if the money remains deposited for eight years and the annual interest rate is 18 percent?

**17** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions:

- What is the present value of $359,000 that is to be received at the end of 23 years if the discount rate is 11 percent?
- How would your answer change in (a) if the $359,000 is to be received at the end of 20 years?

**18** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions:

- What would be the future value of $7,455 invested annually for nine years beginning one year from now if the annual interest rate is 19 percent?
- What would be the present value of a $9,532 annuity for which the first payment will be made beginning one year from now, payments will last for 27 years, and the annual interest rate is 13 percent?

**19** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions.

- What would be the future value of $19,378 invested now if the money remains deposited for eight years, the annual interest rate is 18 percent, and interest on the investment is compounded semi-annually?
- How would your answer for (a) change if quarterly compounding were used?

**20** Use a financial calculator or computer software program to answer the following questions.

- What is the present value of $359,000 that is to be received at the end of 23 years, the discount rate is 11 percent, and semi-annual discounting occurs?
- How would your answer for (a) change if monthly discounting were used?

**21** What would be the present value of a $9,532 annuity for which the first payment will be made beginning one year from now, payments will last for 27 years, the annual interest rate is 13 percent, quarterly discounting occurs, and $2,383 is invested at the end of each quarter?

**22** Answer the following questions.

- What is the annual percentage rate (APR) on a loan that charges interest of .75 percent per month?
- What is the effective annual rate (EAR) on the loan described in (a)?

**23** You have recently seen a credit card advertisement stating that the annual percentage rate is 12 percent. If the credit card requires monthly payments, what is the effective annual rate of interest on the loan?

**24** A credit card advertisement states that the annual percentage rate is 21 percent. If the credit card requires quarterly payments, what is the effective annual rate of interest on the loan?

**25** **Challenge Problem** [Note: A computer spreadsheet software program or a financial calculator that can handle uneven cash flow streams will be needed to solve the following problems.] The following cash flow streams are expected to result from three investment opportunities.

Year | Investment Stable | Investment Declining | Investment Growing |

1 | $20,000 | $35,000 | $10,000 |

2 | 20,000 | 30,000 | 15,000 |

3 | 20,000 | 20,000 | 20,000 |

4 | 20,000 | 5,000 | 30,000 |

5 | 20,000 | 0 | 50,000 |

- Find the present values at the end of time period zero for each of these three investments if the discount rate is 15 percent. Also, find the present values for each investment using 10 percent and 20 percent discount rates.
- Find the future values of these three investments at the end of year five if the compound interest rate is 12.5 percent. Also, find the future values for each investment using 2.5 percent and 22.5 percent compound rates.
- Find the present values of the three investments using a 15 percent annual discount rate but with quarterly discounting. Also, find the present values for both semi-annual and monthly discounting for a 15 percent stated annual rate.
- Find the future values of the three investments using a 12.5 percent annual compound rate but with quarterly compounding. Also find the future values for both semi-annual and monthly compounding for a 12.5 percent stated annual rate.
- Assume that the present value for each of the three investments is $75,000. What is the annual interest rate (%i) for each investment?
- Show how your answers would change in (e) if quarterly discounting takes place.
- Assume that the future value for each of the three investments is $150,000. What is the annual interest rate (%i) for each investment? [Note: (e) and (g) are independent of each other.]
- Show how your answers would change in (g) if quarterly compounding takes place.

__Problem 25: Click or Tap Here to Download Excel Homework Template__

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